Publications by authors named "Remko S Kuipers"

36 Publications

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis manifested by ventricular fibrillation in a patient with low grade ovarian carcinoma: case report and literature review.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Apr 21;5(4):ytab120. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of cardiology, Heart Centre OLVG, Oosterparkstraat 9, 1091 AC Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a rare form of endocarditis notably described in patients with advanced malignancy and auto-immune diseases. It is characterized by the formation of sterile, fibrin-containing vegetations on cardiac endothelium, in the absence of positive blood cultures. It is predominantly located on the mitral- and aortic valve (AV). Vegetations in NBTE are prone to embolize. Trousseau syndrome (TS) is defined as unexplained thrombotic events that precede the diagnosis of malignancy.

Case Summary: A 49-year-old pre-menopausal woman with a history of visual disturbances, recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with concurrent pulmonary emboli (PE), and uterine myomas with dysfunctional uterine bleeding was resuscitated for ventricular fibrillation. While echocardiography revealed vegetations on the AV, blood cultures remained negative. Additional work-up for the aetiology of sterile vegetations revealed a low-grade ovarian carcinoma. Cardiac analysis showed evidence of myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary atherosclerosis as a cause for ventricular fibrillation.

Discussion: Unexplained thrombotic events (venous, arterial, or both) warrant further investigation, e.g., with regard to TS. NBTE is a potential source of thromboembolism in TS and a rare ante-mortem finding, which prompts additional investigation of the underlying cause. In our patient, a triad of (suspected) (i) arterial/systemic embolization (i.e. visual disturbances, splenic infarction, coronary embolism), (ii) peripheral thrombophlebitis/hypercoagulability (i.e. DVT and PE), and (iii) malignancy (i.e. gynaecological abnormalities) raised suspicion of NBTE in the setting of TS. Early diagnosis and treatment of NBTE is of importance due to the high incidence of embolization, with possible fatal outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytab120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183660PMC
April 2021

[Thromboembolisms due to recreational use of nitrous oxide].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2021 04 26;165. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

OLVG, Amsterdam: Afd. Hartcentrum.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasingly used as a recreational drug, and is presumed relatively safe and innocent. The risks for neurological complications are often known, however the risks of serious thromboembolic events are not. We describe three cases of acute thromboembolic events resulting in serious cardiovascular complications after N2O abuse: one case of myocardial infarction that resulted in a reduced ejection fraction, one case of peripheral arterial occlusion that led to limb amputation and one case of pulmonary embolism that resulted in hemodynamic instability requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and surgical removal. All patients were young adults with a low cardiovascular risk profile. N2O inactivates vitamin B12, leading to vitamin B12 deficiency and subsequent to hyperhomocysteinemia, which is associated with the formation of fibrinolysis-resistant blood thrombi. In conclusion, we contest the safety and innocence of recreational N2O (ab)use. Our three cases illustrate that, next to previously described neurological complications, the use of nitrous oxide is associated with thromboembolic cardiovascular complications, presumably mediated by hyperhomocysteinemia.
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April 2021

Cardiovascular complications of bacteraemia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 7;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Heart Center, department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The incidence of bacteraemia has risen due to a worldwide increase in immunocompromised patients and antibiotic resistance. We describe three patients who experienced severe, including cardiovascular, complications of pneumococcal bacteraemia. Cardiovascular complications related to pneumococci may run a fulminant course. However, some of these life-threatening complications (eg, endocarditis and aortitis) may long remain unnoticed or be misdiagnosed and therefore delay correct treatment. We review the literature with regards to the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of these rare but possibly lethal and hence important cardiovascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-240341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8030674PMC
April 2021

Case report of a 'snake thrombus' in the right heart: a rare finding on echocardiography.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Dec 13;4(6):1-6. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology, OLVG Amsterdam, Oosterpark 9, 1091 AC Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background : A right heart thrombus originating from an inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVCT) is a rare entity. In accordance with venous thromboembolism (VTE), IVCT can be categorized as primary or secondary. Secondary ICVT can be the result of a predisposing hypercoagulable state and/or from external compression on the inferior vena cava (IVC) such as in case of malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), amongst others, has been described in the context of secondary IVCT.

Case Summary : An 80-year-old man was presented in our emergency department with complaints of dyspnoea and oedema. Echocardiography revealed a large snake-like thrombus in the IVC extending into the right atrium. Subsequent computed tomography resulted in a diagnosis of an RCC. The patient was considered to be in too poor clinical condition for surgical removal. In the next days, his condition deteriorated, after which palliative care was initiated and the patient deceased at day 12 of admission.

Conclusion : A right heart thrombus is a rare finding during echocardiography. This case demonstrates an incidental finding of a 'snake thrombus' in the IVC and right heart secondary to RCC. This case illustrates the importance and additional value of echocardiography in the setting of suspected right-sided heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891233PMC
December 2020

Case report of an acute myocardial infarction after high-dose recreational nitrous oxide use: a consequence of hyperhomocysteinaemia?

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Feb 12;5(2):ytaa557. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Oosterpark 9, 1091 AC Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Nitrous oxide (NO, laughing gas) is increasingly used as a recreational drug and is presumed relatively safe and innocent. It is often being used in combination with other substances, such as cannabis.

Case Summary: A young adult attended the emergency room because of chest pain after recreational use of very high-dose nitrous oxide in combination with cannabis. Electrocardiography demonstrated ST-elevation in the anterior leads. Coronary angiography showed thrombus in the proximal and thrombotic occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery for which primary percutaneous coronary intervention was attempted. Thrombus aspiration was unsuccessful and the patient was further treated with a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in addition to dual platelet therapy. Blood results showed low vitamin B12 and folic acid status with concomitant hyperhomocysteinaemia, a known cause of hypercoagulation. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed a moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Three months later, an improvement in LVEF and no recurrent angina or symptoms of heart failure were noticed.

Discussion: We report a case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to very high-dose nitrous oxide abuse in combination with cannabis and possible hypoxia. We propose that severe hyperhomocysteinaemia secondary to nitrous oxide-induced vitamin B12 deficiency together with the vasoconstrictive effects of cannabis might pose a seriously increased risk for intracoronary, among others, thrombus formation. In conclusion, we contest the safety and innocence of recreational nitrous oxide (ab)use, notably in the context of other factors increasing the risk of coagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873791PMC
February 2021

Transulnar coronary intervention complicated by compartment syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 9;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We describe a case of a compartment syndrome after transulnar coronary intervention. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of such a complication after a transulnar approach described in the literature. Compartment syndrome is a very rare but possibly devastating complication of coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions. We retrospectively observed an incidence rate of 0.007% after 13,948 coronary angiographies or 0.013% after 7532 interventions performed through the wrist in our centre in the last 5 years. Rapid recognition and treatment of this rare complication may prevent long-term morbidity and are thus of utmost importance. General measures should be taken to reduce this incidence of this serious complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-237339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875296PMC
February 2021

A Perforated Mitral Valve Aneurysm: A Rare but Serious Complication of Aortic Valve Endocarditis Resulting From a Regurgitant Jet Lesion.

Cureus 2020 Nov 23;12(11):e11644. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, NLD.

Infective endocarditis has high morbidity and mortality rates. The aortic valve is most often affected in native valve endocarditis. Complications of aortic valve endocarditis range from local abscess and fistula formation, systemic complications secondary to thromboembolism and septic embolization, to congestive heart failure resulting from conduction system involvement and valve damage. A rare complication of aortic valve endocarditis is the occurrence of a 'jet lesion' on the mitral valve. Such a lesion, caused by an impinging regurgitant jet stream from a damaged aortic valve, can become directly and indirectly inoculated and evolve into a local infected aneurysm which might eventually rupture causing acute severe congestive heart failure and/or peripheral thromboembolism. We present the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with aortic valve endocarditis complicated by a perforated mitral valve aneurysm, congestive heart failure, and peripheral thromboembolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755663PMC
November 2020

Rupturing Abdominal Aneurysm Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Cureus 2020 Jul 20;12(7):e9296. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Heart Center, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, NLD.

A 61-year-old male presented to the emergency ward with pain in his upper abdomen. Due to an abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) and elevated cardiac enzymes the cardiologist was consulted to exclude cardiac pathology. The consulting cardiologist advised to exclude an abdominal diagnosis before treating the condition as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Before noninvasive imaging had been performed, the clinical situation deteriorated and an emergency laparotomy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm. Despite immediate revascularization multiple organ failure ensued and the patient died a few days later. This case illustrates that the suspicion of ACS should never delay the investigation of other life-threatening disorders. Contrarily angina, ECG abnormalities, and myocardial ischemia are all well known to concur with major vascular, intra-abdominal, intra-cranial, and pulmonary pathology; hence these other life-threatening conditions should always be considered and preferably be ruled out prior to further investigation and treatment of ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437096PMC
July 2020

From arterial ageing to cardiovascular disease.

Lancet 2017 04;389(10080):1676-1678

Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30763-8DOI Listing
April 2017

Short comment on "A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus", by Yoona Kim, Jennifer Keogh, Peter Clifton.

Metabolism 2016 Jan 12;65(1):e3-4. Epub 2015 Sep 12.

Natura Foundation, Edisonstraat 66, 3281 NC, Numansdorp, Netherlands; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2015.09.006DOI Listing
January 2016

A fish is not a fish: patterns in fatty acid composition of aquatic food may have had implications for hominin evolution.

J Hum Evol 2014 Dec 26;77:107-16. Epub 2014 Jul 26.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

From c. 2 Ma (millions of years ago) onwards, hominin brain size and cognition increased in an unprecedented fashion. The exploitation of high-quality food resources, notably from aquatic ecosystems, may have been a facilitator or driver of this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to contribute to the ongoing debate on the possible role of aquatic resources in hominin evolution by providing a more detailed nutritional context. So far, the debate has focused on the relative importance of terrestrial versus aquatic resources while no distinction has been made between different types of aquatic resources. Here we show that Indian Ocean reef fish and eastern African lake fish yield on average similarly high amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA). Hence a shift from exploiting tropical marine to freshwater ecosystems (or vice versa) would entail no material difference in dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) availability. However, a shift to marine ecosystems would likely mean a major increase in access to brain-selective micronutrients such as iodine. Fatty fish from marine temperate/cold waters yield twice as much DHA and four times as much EPA as tropical fish, demonstrating that a latitudinal shift in exploitation of African coastal ecosystems could constitute a significant difference in LC-PUFA availability with possible implications for brain development and functioning. We conclude that exploitation of aquatic food resources could have facilitated the initial moderate hominin brain increase as observed in fossils dated to c. 2 Ma, but not the exceptional brain increase in later stages of hominin evolution. We propose that the significant expansion in hominin brain size and cognition later on may have been aided by strong directional selecting forces such as runaway sexual selection of intelligence, and nutritionally supported by exploitation of high-quality food resources in stable and productive aquatic ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.04.004DOI Listing
December 2014

Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol: a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation.

J Nutr Biochem 2014 Mar 2;25(3):304-12. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is a widely used coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor. Fatty acid status was determined by measurement of fatty acids in serum cholesterol esters and erythrocytes. Data reflecting the influence of fatty acid intakes on serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained from documented intervention studies. We found that 14:0, 16:0 and saturated fatty acid (SFA) status correlates positively with total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, while their intakes were unrelated. Linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and PUFA intake exhibited negative relations with the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. These data suggest that a high SFA status, not a high SFA intake, is associated with increased CAD risk, while both high linoleic acid status and PUFA status are associated with reduced CAD risk. Consequently, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is a questionable risk marker since meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show that partial dietary replacement of SFA for linoleic acid, the dominating dietary PUFA, does not change CAD risk. We conclude that many lifestyle factors, not SFA intake alone, determine SFA status, and suggest that interaction with many other lifestyle factors determines whether SFA status has a relevant contributing effect in low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein changes and CAD risk. The present outcome may teach us to consider the health effects of the entire diet together with many nondietary lifestyle factors, opposite to the reductionist approach of studying the effects of single nutrients, SFA and PUFA included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.11.004DOI Listing
March 2014

Interrelationships between maternal DHA in erythrocytes, milk and adipose tissue. Is 1 wt% DHA the optimal human milk content? Data from four Tanzanian tribes differing in lifetime stable intakes of fish.

Br J Nutr 2014 Mar 31;111(5):854-66. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Groningen University Hospital, Room Y 3.181, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Little is known about the interrelationships between maternal and infant erythrocyte-DHA, milk-DHA and maternal adipose tissue (AT)-DHA contents. We studied these relationships in four tribes in Tanzania (Maasai, Pare, Sengerema and Ukerewe) differing in their lifetime intakes of fish. Cross-sectional samples were collected at delivery and after 3 d and 3 months of exclusive breast-feeding. We found that intra-uterine biomagnification is a sign of low maternal DHA status, that genuine biomagnification occurs during lactation, that lactating mothers with low DHA status cannot augment their infants' DHA status, and that lactating mothers lose DHA independent of their DHA status. A maternal erythrocyte-DHA content of 8 wt% was found to correspond with a mature milk-DHA content of 1·0 wt% and with subcutaneous and abdominal (omentum) AT-DHA contents of about 0·39 and 0·52 wt%, respectively. Consequently, 1 wt% DHA might be a target for Western human milk and infant formula that has milk arachidonic acid, EPA and linoleic acid contents of 0·55, 0·22 and 9·32 wt%, respectively. With increasing DHA status, the erythrocyte-DHA content reaches a plateau of about 9 wt%, and it plateaus more readily than milk-DHA and AT-DHA contents. Compared with the average Tanzanian-Ukerewe woman, the average US woman has four times lower AT-DHA content (0·4 v. 0·1 wt%) and five times lower mature milk-DHA output (301 v. 60 mg/d), which contrasts with her estimated 1·8-2·6 times lower mobilisable AT-DHA content (19 v. 35-50 g).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513003255DOI Listing
March 2014

DHA status is positively related to motor development in breastfed African and Dutch infants.

Nutr Neurosci 2014 Apr 26;17(3):97-103. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Objectives: Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (AA) acids are important for neurodevelopment. We investigated the relation between erythrocyte (RBC) DHA and AA contents and neurological development, by assessment of General Movements (GMs), in populations with substantial differences in fish intakes.

Methods: We included 3-month-old breastfed infants of three Tanzanian tribes: Maasai (low fish, n = 5), Pare (intermediate fish, n = 32), and Sengerema (high fish, n = 60); and a Dutch population (low-intermediate, fish, n = 15). GMs were assessed by motor optimality score (MOS) and the number of observed movement patterns (OMP; an MOS sub-score). RBC-DHA and AA contents were determined by capillary gas chromatography.

Results: We found no between-population differences in MOS. OMP of Sengerema infants (high fish) was higher than OMP of Dutch infants (low-intermediate fish). MOS related to age. OMP related positively to infant age (P < 0.001) and RBC-DHA (P = 0.015), and was unrelated to ethnicity and RBC-AA.

Discussion: The positive relation between RBC-DHA and the number of observed movement patterns of 3-month old infants might reflect the connection of DHA with motor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1476830513Y.0000000070DOI Listing
April 2014

A multidisciplinary reconstruction of Palaeolithic nutrition that holds promise for the prevention and treatment of diseases of civilisation.

Nutr Res Rev 2012 Jun;25(1):96-129

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Evolutionary medicine acknowledges that many chronic degenerative diseases result from conflicts between our rapidly changing environment, our dietary habits included, and our genome, which has remained virtually unchanged since the Palaeolithic era. Reconstruction of the diet before the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions is therefore indicated, but hampered by the ongoing debate on our ancestors' ecological niche. Arguments and their counterarguments regarding evolutionary medicine are updated and the evidence for the long-reigning hypothesis of human evolution on the arid savanna is weighed against the hypothesis that man evolved in the proximity of water. Evidence from various disciplines is discussed, including the study of palaeo-environments, comparative anatomy, biogeochemistry, archaeology, anthropology, (patho)physiology and epidemiology. Although our ancestors had much lower life expectancies, the current evidence does neither support the misconception that during the Palaeolithic there were no elderly nor that they had poor health. Rather than rejecting the possibility of 'healthy ageing', the default assumption should be that healthy ageing posed an evolutionary advantage for human survival. There is ample evidence that our ancestors lived in a land-water ecosystem and extracted a substantial part of their diets from both terrestrial and aquatic resources. Rather than rejecting this possibility by lack of evidence, the default assumption should be that hominins, living in coastal ecosystems with catchable aquatic resources, consumed these resources. Finally, the composition and merits of so-called 'Palaeolithic diets', based on different hominin niche-reconstructions, are evaluated. The benefits of these diets illustrate that it is time to incorporate this knowledge into dietary recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954422412000017DOI Listing
June 2012

Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa.

Eur J Nutr 2013 Apr 10;52(3):1115-25. Epub 2012 Aug 10.

Laboratory Medicine, Room Y 3.181, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome.

Methods: We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D₂ + 25(OH)D₃] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA) and Hadzabe (HA) with traditional life styles and low fish intakes, and people from Same (SA; intermediate fish), Sengerema (SE; high fish), and Ukerewe (UK; high fish). Samples derived from non-pregnant adults (MA, HA, SE), pregnant women (MA, SA, SE), mother-infant couples at delivery (UK), infants at delivery and their lactating mothers at 3 days (MA, SA, SE), and lactating mothers at 3 months postpartum (SA, SE). Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (RBC-DHA) was determined as a proxy for fish intake.

Results: The mean ± SD 25(OH)D of non-pregnant adults and cord serum were 106.8 ± 28.4 and 79.9 ± 26.4 nmol/L, respectively. Pregnancy, delivery, ethnicity (which we used as a proxy for sunlight exposure), RBC-DHA, and age were the determinants of 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D increased slightly with age. RBC-DHA was positively related to 25(OH)D, notably 25(OH)D₂. Pregnant MA (147.7 vs. 118.3) and SE (141.9 vs. 89.0) had higher 25(OH)D than non-pregnant counterparts (MA, SE). Infant 25(OH)D at delivery in Ukerewe was about 65 % of maternal 25(OH)D.

Conclusions: Our ancient 25(OH)D amounted to about 115 nmol/L and sunlight exposure, rather than fish intake, was the principal determinant. The fetoplacental unit was exposed to high 25(OH)D, possibly by maternal vitamin D mobilization from adipose tissue, reduced insulin sensitivity, trapping by vitamin D-binding protein, diminished deactivation, or some combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-012-0421-6DOI Listing
April 2013

Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2012 Apr 16;86(4-5):189-99. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes.

Subjects And Methods: We analyzed the brain (n=18), liver (n=14) and adipose tissue (n=11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn infants with different gestational ages (range 8-38 weeks) born to Tanzanian women with low linoleic acid (LA) intakes and high intakes of docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (AA) acids from local fish.

Results And Discussion: With advancing gestation, brain saturated-FA (SAFA; in g/100g FA), polyunsaturated-FA (PUFA), DHA, 20:3ω6, 22:4ω6 and 22:5ω6 increased, while monounsaturated-FA (MUFA), 20:3ω9, 22:3ω9 and AA decreased. Decreasing brain AA might be caused by increasing AA-metabolism to 20:3ω6, 22:4ω6 and 22:5ω6. In the liver, SAFA, PUFA and LA increased, while MUFA decreased with gestation. The steep increase of (mostly de novo synthesized) SAFA in adipose tissue coincided with relative decreases of MUFA, PUFA, DHA, LA and AA with advancing gestation. Compared to Western infants, the currently studied African infants had higher DHA, lower AA, and a higher DHA/AA-ratio in brain and adipose tissue, while the LA content of adipose tissue was lower.

Conclusion: The low LA and high DHA and AA intakes by the mothers of these infants might support optimal α-linolenic (ALA) vs. LA competition for Δ5D and Δ6D-activities and DHA vs. AA antagonism. Conversely, the Western diet, characterized by high LA and lower DHA and AA intakes, might disturb these evolutionary conserved mechanisms aiming at an optimal ω3/ω6-balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2012.02.007DOI Listing
April 2012

Fatty acid compositions of preterm and term colostrum, transitional and mature milks in a sub-Saharan population with high fish intakes.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2012 Apr 15;86(4-5):201-7. Epub 2012 Mar 15.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: There are no data on the fatty acid (FA) compositions of preterm and term milks for sub-Saharan African populations with advancing lactation. However, it is generally acknowledged that our ancestors evolved in sub-Saharan East-Africa, where they inhabited the land-water ecosystems.

Methods: We compared the FA-compositions of preterm (28-36 weeks) and term (37-42) colostrum (2-5 day), transitional (6-15) and mature (16-56) milks in rural African women with stable dietary habits and lifelong high freshwater fish intakes.

Results: From colostrum to mature milk: the median docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content decreased from 1.11 to 0.75; and arachidonic acid (AA) from 0.93 to 0.69 g% in preterm milk. In term milk, DHA decreased from 0.81 to 0.53 and AA from 1.08 to 0.55 g%. Medium-chain saturated-FA (MCSAFA) increased from 16.9 to 33.7, and 7.92-29.0 g%, while mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA) decreased from 32.5 to 22.6, and 40.0-26.5 g%, in preterm and term milk, respectively. Consistent with the literature, preterm colostrum contained higher DHA and MCSAFA, and lower MUFA compared to term colostrum. These differences vanished rapidly with advancing lactation. MUFA and MCSAFA were inversely related.

Conclusions: The presently found DHA in preterm colostrum and mature milks and AA in premature mature milk proved the highest reported in the literature so far, as derived from analysis with capillary GC-columns. We confirmed the much higher MCSAFA and lower MUFA contents in milk of rural African, compared to Westernized women. The milk FA composition of this traditional population might show us the FA composition on which our species evolved and consequently to which our genome has become adapted to optimally support (infant) health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2012.02.006DOI Listing
April 2012

Traditionally living populations in East Africa have a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 115 nmol/l.

Br J Nutr 2012 Nov 23;108(9):1557-61. Epub 2012 Jan 23.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D by exposure to UVB is the principal source of vitamin D in the human body. Our current clothing habits and reduced time spent outdoors put us at risk of many insufficiency-related diseases that are associated with calcaemic and non-calcaemic functions of vitamin D. Populations with traditional lifestyles having lifelong, year-round exposure to tropical sunlight might provide us with information on optimal vitamin D status from an evolutionary perspective. We measured the sum of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ and D₃ (25(OH)D) concentrations of thirty-five pastoral Maasai (34 (SD 10) years, 43 % male) and twenty-five Hadzabe hunter-gatherers (35 (SD 12) years, 84 % male) living in Tanzania. They have skin type VI, have a moderate degree of clothing, spend the major part of the day outdoors, but avoid direct exposure to sunlight when possible. Their 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations of Maasai and Hadzabe were 119 (range 58-167) and 109 (range 71-171) nmol/l, respectively. These concentrations were not related to age, sex or BMI. People with traditional lifestyles, living in the cradle of mankind, have a mean circulating 25(OH)D concentration of 115 nmol/l. Whether this concentration is optimal under the conditions of the current Western lifestyle is uncertain, and should as a possible target be investigated with concomitant appreciation of other important factors in Ca homeostasis that we have changed since the agricultural revolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511007161DOI Listing
November 2012

Fetal intrauterine whole body linoleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid contents and accretion rates.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2012 Jan-Feb;86(1-2):13-20. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: There is no information on the whole body fatty acid (FA) contents of preterm or term infants, although scattered information on the FA-composition of many organs is available.

Material And Methods: We collected data on the weights, lipid contents and FA-compositions of the quantitatively most important fetal organs of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) Western infants. From these we estimated the total body contents of linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids at 25, 35 and 40 weeks of gestation.

Results: Western infants accrete FA in the order of LA>AA>DHA at all stages during pregnancy and the highest accretion rates are reached in the last 5 weeks of gestation, i.e. 342 mg LA, 95 mg AA and 42 mg DHA/day. At term, most of the infant's LA, AA and DHA is located in adipose tissue (68, 44 and 50%, respectively), with substantial amounts of LA also located in skeletal muscle (17%) and skin (13%); of AA in skeletal muscle (40%) and brain (11%); and of DHA in brain (23%) and skeletal muscle (21%). The term AGA infant has accreted about 21 g LA, 7.5 g AA and 3 g DHA, which constitutes a gap of 12 g LA, 3.3 g AA and 1.5 g DHA compared to a 35 weeks old AGA infant.

Conclusion: The current fetal LA, AA and DHA pool sizes and accretion rates may especially be useful to estimate the preterm infant's requirements and the maternal LCP needs during pregnancy. Since they derive from populations with typically Western diets they do not necessarily reflect 'optimality' or 'health'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2011.10.012DOI Listing
May 2012

Gestational age dependent content, composition and intrauterine accretion rates of fatty acids in fetal white adipose tissue.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2012 Jan-Feb;86(1-2):39-49. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Little is known about the gestational age (GA) dependent content, composition and intrauterine accretion rates of fatty acids (FA) in fetal white adipose tissue (WAT).

Objective & Design: To acquire this information, we collected abdominal subcutaneous WAT samples from 40 preterm and term fetuses. Their GA ranged from 22 to 43 weeks. FA were expressed as mg/g wet WAT and g/100g FA (g%). Intrauterine WAT FA accretion rates were estimated for appropriate (AGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age infants.

Results: From 25 to 40 weeks gestation, saturated-FA (SAFA) increased from 83 to 298 mg/g WAT and monounsaturated-FA (MUFA) from 83 to 226 mg/g WAT, while polyunsaturated-FA (PUFA) increased insignificantly from 18.0 to 23.2 mg/g WAT. As percentages of total FA, SAFA increased from 46 to 55 g%, MUFA decreased from 44 to 41 g%, and PUFA from 10.3 to 4.26 g%. Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) accretion rates in WAT during the 3rd trimester for AGA infants were 88 and 193 mg/week, respectively. Contemporaneous DHA and AA accretion rates for 4500 g LGA infants were 184 and 402 mg/week, respectively. Compared to the whole 3rd trimester, increment rates during the last 5 weeks of gestation were about 2-fold higher.

Conclusion: FA accretion rates, notably those of DHA and AA, may be important for designing nutritional regiments for preterm infants. The current WAT-DHA and WAT-AA accretion rates are considerably lower than previously reported in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2011.10.007DOI Listing
May 2012

A maternal erythrocyte DHA content of approximately 6 g% is the DHA status at which intrauterine DHA biomagnifications turns into bioattenuation and postnatal infant DHA equilibrium is reached.

Eur J Nutr 2012 Sep 28;51(6):665-75. Epub 2011 Sep 28.

Laboratory Medicine, Groningen University Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Higher long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in infant compared with maternal lipids at delivery is named biomagnification. The decline of infant and maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status during lactation in Western countries suggests maternal depletion. We investigated whether biomagnification persists at lifelong high fish intakes and whether the latter prevents a postpartum decline of infant and/or maternal DHA status.

Methods: We studied 3 Tanzanian tribes with low (Maasai: 0/week), intermediate (Pare: 2-3/week), and high (Sengerema: 4-5/week) fish intakes. DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were determined in maternal (m) and infant (i) erythrocytes (RBC) during pregnancy (1st trimester n = 14, 2nd = 103, 3rd = 88), and in mother-infant pairs at delivery (n = 63) and at 3 months postpartum (n = 104).

Results: At delivery, infants of all tribes had similar iRBC-AA which was higher than, and unrelated to, mRBC-AA. Transplacental DHA biomagnification occurred up to 5.6 g% mRBC-DHA; higher mRBC-DHA was associated with "bioattenuation" (i.e., iRBC-DHA < mRBC-DHA). Compared to delivery, mRBC-AA after 3 months was higher, while iRBC-AA was lower. mRBC-DHA after 3 months was lower, while iRBC-DHA was lower (low fish intake), equal (intermediate fish intake), and higher (high fish intake) compared to delivery. We estimated that postpartum iRBC-DHA equilibrium is reached at 5.9 g%, which corresponds to a mRBC-DHA of 6.1 g% throughout pregnancy.

Conclusion: Uniform high iRBC-AA at delivery might indicate the importance of intrauterine infant AA status. Biomagnification reflects low maternal DHA status, and bioattenuation may prevent intrauterine competition of DHA with AA. A mRBC-DHA of about 6 g% during pregnancy predicts maternal-fetal equilibrium at delivery, postnatal iRBC-DHA equilibrium, but is unable to prevent a postnatal mRBC-DHA decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-011-0245-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419349PMC
September 2012

Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2011 Dec 13;85(6):387-97. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Laboratory Medicine, Room Y 3.181, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery.

Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant erythrocyte (iRBC)-FA-profiles at delivery and after 3 months exclusive breastfeeding in relation to freshwater-fish intakes. Approximation of de-novo-lipogenesis (DNL), stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD), elongation-of-very-long-chain-FA-family-member-6 (Elovl-6), delta-5-desaturase (D5D) and delta-6-desaturase (D6D)-enzymatic activities from their product/essential-FA and product/substrate-ratios.

Results And Discussion: Increasing iRBC-14:0 derived from mammary-gland DNL. Decreasing mRBC-ω9, but increasing iRBC-ω9, suggest high ω9-FA-transfer via breastmilk. Decreasing (m+i)RBC-16:0, DNL- and SCD-activities, but increasing (m+i)RBC-18:0 and Elovl-6-activity suggest more pronounced postpartum decreases in DNL- and SCD-activities, compared to Elovl-6-activity. Increasing (m+i)RBC-18:3ω3, 20:5ω3, 22:5ω3, 18:2ω6, mRBC-20:4ω6 and (m+i)D5D-activity, but decreasing mRBC-22:6ω3 and (m+i)D6D-activity and dose-dependent changes in iRBC-22:6ω3 confirm that D6D-activity is rate-limiting and 22:6ω3 is important during lactation. Fish-intake related magnitudes of postpartum FA-changes suggest that LCPω3 influence DNL-, SCD- and desaturase-activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2011.06.004DOI Listing
December 2011

Differences in preterm and term milk fatty acid compositions may be caused by the different hormonal milieu of early parturition.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2011 Dec 7;85(6):369-79. Epub 2011 Sep 7.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The hormonal milieus of pregnancy and lactation are driving forces of nutrient fluxes supporting infant growth and development. The decrease of insulin sensitivity with compensatory hyperinsulinemia with advancing gestation, causes adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL).

Subjects And Methods: We compared fatty acid (FA) contents and FA-indices for enzyme activities between preterm (28-36 weeks) and term (37-42) milks, and between colostrum (2-5 days), transitional (6-15) and mature (16-56) milks. We interpreted FA differences between preterm and term milks, and their changes with lactation, in terms of the well known decrease of insulin sensitivity during gestation and its subsequent postpartum restoration, respectively.

Results: Compared with term colostrum, preterm colostrum contained higher indices of DNL in the breast (DNL-breast) and medium chain saturated-FA (MCSAFA), and lower DNL-liver and monounsaturated-FA (MUFA). Preterm milk also had higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colostrum and transitional milk and higher arachidonic acid (AA) in mature milk. Most preterm-term differences vanished with advancing lactation. In both preterm and term milks, DNL-breast and MCSAFA increased with advancing lactation, while DNL-liver, MUFA, long chain SAFA and AA decreased. DHA decreased in term milk. MUFA was inversely related to MCSAFA in all samples, correlated inversely with PUFA in colostrum and transitional milks, but positively in mature milk. MCSAFA correlated inversely with PUFA in mature milk.

Conclusion: Higher maternal insulin sensitivity at preterm birth may be the cause of lower MUFA (a proxy for DNL-liver) and higher MCSAFA (a proxy for DNL-breast) in preterm colostrum, compared with term colostrum. Restoring insulin sensitivity after delivery may be an important driving force for milk FA-changes in early lactation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2011.08.001DOI Listing
December 2011

The feasibility of a Paleolithic diet for low-income consumers.

Nutr Res 2011 Jun;31(6):444-51

Department of Business, SUNY Alfred State College, Alfred, NY 14802, USA.

Many low-income consumers face a limited budget for food purchases. The United States Department of Agriculture developed the Thrifty Food Plan to address this problem of consuming a healthy diet given a budget constraint. This dietary optimization program uses common food choices to build a suitable diet. In this article, the United States Department of Agriculture data sets are used to test the feasibility of consuming a Paleolithic diet given a limited budget. The Paleolithic diet is described as the diet that humans are genetically adapted to, containing only the preagricultural food groups of meat, seafood, fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Constraints were applied to the diet optimization model to restrict grains, dairy, and certain other food categories. Constraints were also applied for macronutrients, micronutrients, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results show that it is possible to consume a Paleolithic diet given the constraints. However, the diet does fall short of meeting the daily recommended intakes for certain micronutrients. A 9.3% increase in income is needed to consume a Paleolithic diet that meets all daily recommended intakes except for calcium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2011.05.008DOI Listing
June 2011

The relation between the omega-3 index and arachidonic acid is bell shaped: synergistic at low EPA+DHA status and antagonistic at high EPA+DHA status.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2011 Sep-Oct;85(3-4):171-8. Epub 2011 Jun 29.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The relation between docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. arachidonic acid (AA) seems characterized by both synergism and antagonism.

Materials And Methods: Investigate the relation between EPA+DHA and AA in populations with a wide range of EPA+DHA status and across the life cycle. EPA+DHA and AA were determined in erythrocytes (RBC; n=1979), umbilical arteries (UA; n=789) and umbilical veins (UV; n=785).

Results: In all compartments, notably RBC, the relation between EPA+DHA and AA appeared bell-shaped. Populations with low RBC-EPA+DHA (<2g%) exhibited positive relationships; those with high RBC-EPA+DHA (>8g%) negative relationships. Antagonism in UA and UV could not be demonstrated.

Conclusion: Both synergism and antagonism might aim at a balance between ω6 and ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) to maintain homeostasis. Synergism might be a feature of low LCPω3 status. AA becomes suppressed by antagonism from an RBC-EPA+DHA >8g%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2011.05.004DOI Listing
December 2011

Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2011 Nov 10;85(5):245-52. Epub 2011 May 10.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Room Y 3.181, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status that corresponded with no decrease in mRBC-DHA during pregnancy, or in infant (i) RBC-DHA or mRBC-DHA during the first 3 months postpartum (DHA-equilibrium) while exclusively breastfeeding. At delivery, iRBC-AA is uniformly high and independent of mRBC-AA. Infants born to mothers with low RBC-DHA exhibit higher, but infants born to mothers with high RBC-DHA exhibit lower RBC-DHA than their mothers. This switch from 'biomagnification' into 'bioattenuation' occurs at 6g% mRBC-DHA. At 6g%, mRBC-DHA is stable throughout pregnancy, corresponds with postpartum infant DHA-equilibrium of 6 and 0.4g% DHA in mature milk, but results in postpartum depletion of mRBC-DHA to 5g%. Postpartum maternal DHA-equilibrium is reached at 8g% mRBC-DHA, corresponding with 1g% DHA in mature milk and 7g% iRBC-DHA at delivery that increases to 8g% during lactation. This 8g% RBC-DHA concurs with the lowest risks of cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases in adults. RBC-data from 1866 infants, males and (non-)pregnant females indicated AA vs. DHA synergism at low RBC-DHA, but antagonism at high RBC-DHA. These data, together with high intakes of AA and DHA from our Paleolithic diet, suggest that bioattenuation of DHA during pregnancy and postnatal antagonism between AA and DHA are the physiological standard for humans across the life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2011.04.015DOI Listing
November 2011

Postpartum changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids are likely to be driven by restoring insulin sensitivity and DHA status.

Med Hypotheses 2011 Jun 8;76(6):794-801. Epub 2011 Mar 8.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), The Netherlands.

Introduction: Perinatal changes in maternal glucose and lipid fluxes and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are driven by hormones and nutrients. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduces, whereas insulin augments, nuclear abundance of sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1 (SREBP-1), which promotes DNL, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD, also Δ9-desaturase), fatty acid-(FA)-elongation (Elovl) and FA-desaturation (FADS). Decreasing maternal insulin sensitivity with advancing gestation and compensatory hyperinsulinemia cause augmented postprandial glucose levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic glucose- and VLDL-production. Hepatic VLDL is composed of dietary, body store and DNL derived FA. Decreasing insulin sensitivity increases the contribution of FA from hepatic-DNL in VLDL-triacylglycerols, and consequently saturated-FA and monounsaturated-FA (MUFA) in maternal serum lipids increase during pregnancy. Although other authors described changes in maternal serum and RBC essential-FA (EFA) after delivery, none went into detail about the changes in non-EFA and the mechanisms behind -and/or functions of- the observed changes.

Hypothesis: Postpartum FA-changes result from changing enzymatic activities that are influenced by the changing hormonal milieu after delivery and DHA-status.

Empirical Data: We studied FA-profiles and FA-ratios (as indices for enzymatic activities) of maternal and infant RBC at delivery and after 3 months exclusive breastfeeding in three populations with increasing freshwater-fish intakes. DNL-, SCD- and FADS2-activities decreased after delivery. Elongation-6 (Elovl-6)- and FADS1-activities increased. The most pronounced postpartum changes for mothers were increases in 18:0, linoleic (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) and decreases in 16:0, 18:1ω9 and DHA; and for infants increases in 18:1ω9, 22:5ω3, LA and decreases in 16:0 and AA. Changes were in line with the literature.

Discussion: Postpartum increases in 18:0, and decreases in 16:0 and 18:1ω9, might derive from reduced insulin-promoted DNL-activity, with more reduced SCD- than Elovl-activity that leaves more 16:0 to be converted to 18:0 (Elovl-activity) than to MUFA (SCD-activity). Postpartum changes in ΣDNL, saturated-FA and MUFA related negatively to RBC-DHA. This concurs with suppression of both SCD- and Elovl-6 activities by DHA, through its influence on SREBP. Infant MUFA and LA increased at expense of their mothers. Sustained transport might be important for myelination (MUFA) and skin barrier development (LA). Maternal postpartum decreases in FADS2-, and apparent increases in FADS1-activity, together with increases in LA, AA, and 22:5ω3, but decrease in DHA, confirm that FADS2 is rate limiting in EFA-desaturation. Maternal LA and AA increases might be the result of rerouting from transplacental transfer to the incorporation into milk lipids and discontinued placental AA-utilization.

Implications: Perinatal changes in maternal and infant FA status may be strongly driven by changing insulin sensitivity and DHA status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2011.02.020DOI Listing
June 2011

Maternal DHA equilibrium during pregnancy and lactation is reached at an erythrocyte DHA content of 8 g/100 g fatty acids.

J Nutr 2011 Mar 26;141(3):418-27. Epub 2011 Jan 26.

Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Low long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA, or LCP) consumption relates to suboptimal neurodevelopment, coronary artery disease, and [postpartum (PP)] depression. Maternal-to-infant LCP transport during pregnancy and lactation is at the expense of maternal status, a process known as biomagnification. Despite biomagnification, maternal and infant LCP status generally declines during lactation. To assess the 1) turning point of biomagnification [level from which maternal (m)LCP status exceeds infant (i)LCP status]; 2) LCP equilibrium (steady-state-level from which mRBC-LCP stop declining during lactation); 3) corresponding iLCP-status; and 4) the relationship between RBC-DHA and RBC-arachidonic acid (AA), we measured RBC-fatty acids in 193 Tanzanian mother-infant pairs with no, intermediate (2-3 times/wk), and high (4-5 times/wk) freshwater fish consumption at delivery and after 3 mo of exclusive breast-feeding. At 3 mo, mRBC-DHA was lower than the corresponding iRBC-DHA up to a mRBC-DHA of 7.9 g%. mRBC-DHA equilibrium, with equivalent mRBC-DHA at both delivery and at 3 mo PP, occurred at 8.1 g%. This mRBC-DHA equilibrium of 8.1 g% corresponded with an iRBC-DHA of 7.1-7.2 g% at delivery that increased to 8.0 g% at 3 mo. We found between-group differences in mRBC-AA; however, no differences in iRBC-AA were observed at delivery or 3 mo. Relations between RBC-DHA and RBC-AA were bell-shaped. We conclude that, at steady-state LCP intakes during lactation: 1) biomagnification occurs up to 8 g% mRBC-DHA; 2) mRBC-DHA equilibrium is reached at 8 g%; 3) mRBC-DHA equilibrium corresponds with an iRBC-DHA of 7 g% at delivery and 8 g% after 3 mo; 4) unlike RBC-DHA, mRBC-AA and iRBC-AA are independently regulated in these populations; and 5) bell-shaped RBC-DHA vs. RBC-AA-relations might support uniform iRBC-AA. A (maternal) RBC-DHA of 8 g% might be optimal for infant neurodevelopment and adult cardiovascular disease incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.110.128488DOI Listing
March 2011

Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.

Br J Nutr 2010 Dec 23;104(11):1666-87. Epub 2010 Sep 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein < 35 energy % (en%) and linoleic acid (LA) >1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510002679DOI Listing
December 2010
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