Publications by authors named "Remigiusz Mruk"

7 Publications

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Influence of Fraction Particle Size of Pure Straw and Blends of Straw with Calcium Carbonate or Cassava Starch on Pelletising Process and Pellet.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Oct 16;13(20). Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Information Technology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure agglomeration process of wheat straw (WS) and the blends of WS with calcium carbonate (CC) or cassava straw (CS) with a ratio of 6% wt./wt. from seven separate fractions with sizes in the range of 0.21-2.81 mm. The agglomeration was performed at a moisture of 30% wb and a material temperature of 78 °C, with a dose of 0.1 g, in a die of diameter 8 mm and height 80 mm. The effects of the process were evaluated based on the compaction parameters and the pellets' density, tensile strength, and water absorption. The incorporation of additives into the WS improved the pellet process and quality. Refined results were achieved after adding CC, as compared to those achieved after adding CS, and the preferred particle size was in the range of 1.00-1.94 mm. This was because, under the given conditions, the back pressure in the die chamber significantly increased, allowing the achievement of a single pellet density of 800 kg·m. The pellets were resistant to compressive loads and cracked only at tensile strength of 6 MPa and a specific compression work of 6.5 mJ·mm. The addition of CC to the WS improved the strength of the adhesive and the cohesive bonds between the particles. The water absorption for the uncrushed pellets was considerably less than that for crushed pellets, which results in the safer storage of uncrushed pellets and excellent moisture absorption of crushed pellets. The addition of CC to the WS offers benefits in the form of pellet strength with a high water absorption capability. Notably, a study of crushed pellet litter under broiler rearing conditions and an analysis of the operational costs of using WS additives are required for implementing this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13204623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602947PMC
October 2020

Lung effects of 7- and 28-day inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel fuels with and without particle filter - The FuelHealth project.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Apr 18;67:8-20. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Division for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway. Electronic address:

Increased use of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed cellular and molecular lung effects in Fisher 344 rats exposed to diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on B7: petrodiesel fuel containing 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or SHB20 (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel): petrodiesel fuel containing 7% FAME and 13% hydrogenated vegetable oil. The Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 7 consecutive days (6 h/day) or 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without diesel particle filter (DPF) treatment of the exhaust in whole body exposure chambers (n = 7/treatment). Histological analysis and analysis of cytokines and immune cell numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) did not reveal adverse pulmonary effects after exposure to DEE from B7 or SHB20 fuel. Significantly different gene expression levels for B7 compared to SHB20 indicate disturbed redox signaling (Cat, Hmox1), beta-adrenergic signaling (Adrb2) and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1). Exhaust filtration induced higher expression of redox genes (Cat, Gpx2) and the chemokine gene Cxcl7 compared to non-filtered exhaust. Exposure time (7 versus 28 days) also resulted in different patterns of lung gene expression. No genotoxic effects in the lungs were observed. Overall, exposure to B7 or SHB20 emissions suggests only minor effects in the lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2019.01.005DOI Listing
April 2019

Gene expression changes in rat brain regions after 7- and 28 days inhalation exposure to exhaust emissions from 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel fuels - The FuelHealth project.

Inhal Toxicol 2018 Jun - Jul;30(7-8):299-312. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

a Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health , Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Oslo , Norway.

While the impact of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of exhaust exposure from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its neurotoxicity. The objective of the present work was to compare the gene expression patterns in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus after exposure to diesel exhaust emissions (DEE) from combustion of two 1st generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a 2nd generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB20: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel), with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The Fisher 344 rats (n = 7/treatment) were exposed to DEE for 7 days (6h/day), and for 28 days (6h/day, 5 days/week) in whole body exposure chambers. The controls were breathing room air. Brain histological examinations did not reveal any adverse exposure-related effects of DEE in frontal cortex or in hippocampus. Gene expression analysis showed that several genes associated with antioxidant defenses and inflammation were statistically differently expressed in DEE exposed animals versus control. In addition, the gene expression changes between the exposure groups were compared, where the observed rank order in frontal cortex was B7 > B20 > SHB20 after 7 days of exposure, and SHB20 > B7 = B20 after 28 days of exposure. In the hippocampus, the rank order was B7 > SHB20 > B20. Effect of DPF treatment was observed for Tnf only. Overall, moderate increases in bio-components in diesel blends do not appear to result in dramatic alterations in gene expression or adverse histopathological effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2018.1520370DOI Listing
August 2019

Genotoxic potential of diesel exhaust particles from the combustion of first- and second-generation biodiesel fuels-the FuelHealth project.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Nov 9;24(31):24223-24234. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Department of Radiobiology and Immunology, Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, 15 Swietokrzyska Str, 25-406, Kielce, Poland.

Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from traffic emissions is associated with higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, accelerated progression of atherosclerotic plaques, and possible lung cancer. While the impact of DEPs from combustion of fossil diesel fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of DEPs from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its mutagenicity and genotoxicity, as well as possible adverse health risks. The objective of the present work was to compare the genotoxicity of DEPs from combustion of two first-generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a second-generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel) fuel. Our results revealed that particulate engine emissions from each type of biodiesel fuel induced genotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as the increased levels of single-strand breaks, the increased frequencies of micronuclei, or the deregulated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling pathways. We also found that none of the tested DEPs showed the induction of oxidative DNA damage and the gamma-H2AX-detectable double-strand breaks. The most pronounced differences concerning the tested particles were observed for the induction of single-strand breaks, with the greatest genotoxicity being associated with the B7-derived DEPs. The differences in other effects between DEPs from the different biodiesel blend percentage and biodiesel feedstock were also observed, but the magnitude of these variations was limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9995-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5655577PMC
November 2017

No adverse lung effects of 7- and 28-day inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without particulate filter - the FuelHealth project.

Inhal Toxicol 2017 04 17;29(5):206-218. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

a Division for Infection Control and Environmental Health , Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Oslo , Norway.

Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers. Animals breathing clean air were used as controls. Genotoxic effects of the lungs by the Comet assay, histological examination of lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of pulmonary injury, and mRNA markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results showed that a minor number of genes related to inflammation were slightly differently expressed in the exposed animals compared to control. Histological analysis also revealed only minor effects on inflammatory tissue markers in the lungs, and this was supported by flow cytometry and ELISA analysis of cytokines in BALF. No exposure-related indications of genotoxicity were observed. Overall, exposure to DEE with or without DPF technology produced no adverse effects in the endpoints analyzed in the rat lung tissue or the BALF. Overall, exposure to DEE from a modern Euro 5 light vehicle engine run on B20 fuel with or without DPF technology produced no adverse effects in the endpoints analyzed in the rat lung tissue or the BALF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2017.1339149DOI Listing
April 2017

A comparative analysis of in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particles from combustion of 1st- and 2nd-generation biodiesel fuels in relation to their physicochemical properties-the FuelHealth project.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Aug 3;24(23):19357-19374. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Center for Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 16 Dorodna Str., 03-195, Warsaw, Poland.

Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel. Our findings indicate that particulate emissions of each type of biodiesel fuel induce cytotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), decreased protein concentrations, intracellular ROS production, as well as increased expression of antioxidant genes and genes coding for DNA damage-response proteins. The different biodiesel blend percentages and biodiesel feedstocks led to marked differences in chemical composition of the emitted DEP. The different DEPs also displayed statistically significant differences in cytotoxicity in A549 and BEAS-2B cells, but the magnitude of these variations was limited. Overall, it seems that increasing biodiesel blend concentrations from the current 7 to 20% FAME, or substituting 1st-generation FAME biodiesel with 2nd-generation HVO biodiesel (at least below 20% blends), affects the in vitro toxicity of the emitted DEP to some extent, but the biological significance of this may be moderate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9561-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556143PMC
August 2017

Proinflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles from moderate blend concentrations of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells-The FuelHealth project.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jun 5;52:138-142. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Division for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Biodiesel fuel fuels are introduced at an increasing extent as a more carbon-neutral alternative to reduce CO-emissions, compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present study we have investigated the impact of increasing the use of 1st generation fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel from current 7% blend (B7) to 20% blend (B20), or by increasing the biodiesel content by adding 2nd generation hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) based biodiesel (SHB; Synthetic Hydrocarbon Biofuel) on toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an in vitro system. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 4 and 20h to DEP from B7, B20 and SHB at different concentrations, and examined for effects on gene expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), CXCL8 (IL-8), CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The results show that both B20 and SHB were more potent inducers of IL-6 expression compared to B7. Only B20 induced statistically significant increases in CXCL8 expression. By comparison the rank order of potency to induce CYP1A1 was SHB>B7>B20. No statistically significant difference were observed form HO-1 expression, suggesting that the differences in cytokine responses were not due to oxidative stress. The results show that even moderate increases in biodiesel blends, from 7% to 20%, may increase the proinflammatory potential of emitted DEP in BEAS-2B cells. This effect was observed for both addition of 1st generation FAME and 2nd generation HVO biodiesel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.04.004DOI Listing
June 2017