Publications by authors named "Remealle A How"

3 Publications

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Safety and efficacy of low-titer O whole blood resuscitation in a civilian level I trauma center.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 08;91(2S Suppl 2):S162-S168

From the Department of Surgery (P.M.K.B., P.M.M., A.M.A., R.C.C.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (M.E.W.), Bethesda, Maryland; and Department of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (J.E.F., J.S.R., R.A.H., V.G.S.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Background: Military experience has shown low-titer O whole blood (LTOWB) to be safe and beneficial in the resuscitation of hemorrhaging trauma patients. However, few civilian centers use LTOWB for trauma resuscitation. We evaluated the early experience and safety of a LTOWB program at a level 1 civilian trauma center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our trauma registry from January 2018 to June 2020 for patients admitted in shock (defined as ≥1 of the following: heart rate, >120 beats per minute; systolic blood pressure, <90 mm Hg; or shock index, >0.9) who received blood products within 24 hours. Patients were grouped by resuscitation provided: LTOWB (group 1), component therapy (CT; group 2), and LTOWB-CT (group 3). Safety, outcomes, and variables associated with LTOWB transfusion and mortality were analyzed.

Results: 216 patients were included: 34 in Group 1, 95 in Group 2, and 87 in Group 3. Patientsreceiving LTOWB were more commonly male (p<0.001) and had a penetrating injury (p=0.005). Groups 1 and 3 had higher median ISS scores compared to Group 2 (19 and 20 vs 17; p=0.01). Group 3 received more median units of blood product in the first 4h (p<0.001) and in the first 24h (p<0.001). There was no difference between groups in 24h mortality or transfusion-related complications (all p>0.05). Arrival ED SBP was associated with LTOWB transfusion (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.00, p=0.03). ED lactate was independently associated with 24h mortality. (OR 1.27, CI 1.02-1.58, p=0.03). LTOWB transfusion was not associated with mortality (p=0.49). Abstract.

Conclusion: Severely injured patients received LTOWB-CT and more overall product units but had similar 24 h mortality when compared with the LTOWB or CT groups. No increase in transfusion-related complications was seen after LTOWB transfusion. Low-titer O whole blood should be strongly considered in the resuscitation of trauma patients at civilian centers.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective, therapeutic, level IV.
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August 2021

Electronic trauma resuscitation documentation and decision support using T6 Health Systems Mobile Application: A combat trauma center pilot program.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 12;89(6):1172-1176

From the Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma Critical Care (L.M.A., R.A.H., D.A.V., J.S.F., V.G.S.), Department of Graduate Medical Education (J.K.A.), and Department of Emergency Medicine (K.R.B., J.M.N.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; St. Louis University Center for Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills, Department of Surgery (C.N.S.), Division of Traua Critical Care, St. Louis, MO.

Background: The care of trauma patients in combat operations is handwritten on a five-page flow sheet. The process requires the manual scanning and uploading of paper documents to bridge the gap between electronic and paper record management. There is an urgent operational need for an information technology solution that will enable medics to better capture patient treatment information, which will improve long-term health care without impacting short-term care responsibilities.

Methods: We conducted a process improvement project to evaluate the ability of T6 Health Systems Mobile Application to improve combat casualty care data collection at a deployed trauma hospital. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the completeness and accuracy of data capture of electronic versus handwritten records to determine noninferiority.

Results: During the 90-day pilot, there were 131 trauma evaluations of which 53 casualty resuscitations (40.5%) were also documented in the electronic application. We compared completeness and accuracy of admit, prehospital, primary survey, secondary survey, interventions, and trends data. We found an overall 13% increase in data capture at 96% accuracy compared with the written record, suggesting that the electronic record was superior. Completion of electronic documentation compared with paper by section was statistically significantly higher for admitting data, 119.7% (p < 0.0001); prehospital, 116.2% (p = 0.0039); primary, 109.6% (p < 0.001); and secondary, 125.5% (p < 0.001). We also had the medical evacuation teams document prehospital and en route care and then synchronize the record in the trauma bay, allowing the trauma teams there to continue documenting on the same casualty record, likely contributing to superiority because teams did not have to redocument based on an oral report.

Conclusion: Our pilot program in the deployed environment demonstrated a mobile technology that actually enhanced the completeness and accuracy of paper trauma documentation that has the capability of providing patient-specific decision support and real-time data analysis.

Level Of Evidence: Care Management, level IV.
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December 2020

Prehospital adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium has inferior survival compared with tactical combat casualty care resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged hemorrhagic shock.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 07;87(1):68-75

From the Division of Trauma Critical Care (R.A.H., V.G.S.), San Antonio Military Medical Center, and Naval Medical Research Unit (J.J.G., L.J.S., D.M.F., K.M.O., C.G.M., S.C.) San Antonio, JBSA-Ft. Sam Houston, Texas.

Background: Adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium (ALM) is a cardioplegic agent shown to improve survival by improving cardiac function, tissue perfusion, and coagulopathy in animal models of shock. We hypothesized prehospital ALM treatment in hemorrhagic shock would improve survival compared to current Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) resuscitation beyond the golden hour.

Methods: Swine were randomized to: (1) TCCC, (2) 2 mL·kg vehicle control (VC), (3) 2 mL·kg ALM + drip, (4) 4 mL·kg ALM + drip, 5) 4 mL·kg ALM + delayed drip at 0.5 mL·kg·h, 6) 4 mL/kg VC, 7) 4 mL·kg ALM for 15 minutes + delayed drip at 3 mL·kg·h. Animals underwent pressure controlled hemorrhage to mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mm Hg (S = 0). Treatment was administered at T = 0. After 120 minutes of simulated prehospital care (T = 120) blood product resuscitation commenced. Physiologic variables were recorded and laboratories were drawn at specified time points.

Results: Tactical Combat Casualty Care demonstrated superior survival to all other agents. The VC and ALM groups had lower MAPs and systolic blood pressures compared with TCCC. Except for the VC groups, lactate levels remained similar with correction of base deficit after prehospital resuscitation in all groups. Kidney function and liver function remained comparable across all groups. Compared with baseline values, TCCC demonstrated significant hypocoagulability.

Conclusion: Adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium, as administered in this study, are inferior to current Hextend-based resuscitation for survival from prolonged hemorrhagic shock in this model. In survivors, ALM groups had lower systolic blood pressures and MAPs, but provided a protective effect on coagulopathy as compared to TCCC. Adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium do not appear to be a suitable low volume replacement to current TCCC resuscitation. The reduced coagulopathy compared to TCCC warrants future studies of ALM, perhaps as a therapeutic adjunct.
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July 2019