Publications by authors named "Reinhard Buttner"

270 Publications

Notch1 Deficiency Induces Tumor Cell Accumulation Inside the Bronchiolar Lumen and Increases TAZ Expression in an Autochthonous Driven Lung Cancer Mouse Model.

Pathol Oncol Res 2021 16;27:596522. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Hematopathology Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Abrogation of Notch signaling, which is pivotal for lung development and pulmonary epithelial cell fate decisions was shown to be involved in the aggressiveness and the differentiation of lung carcinomas. Additionally, the transcription factors YAP and TAZ which are involved in the Hippo pathway, were recently shown to be tightly linked with Notch signaling and to regulate the cell fate in epidermal stem cells. Thus, we aim to elucidate the effects of conditional Notch1 deficiency on carcinogenesis and TAZ expression in lung cancer. We investigated the effect of conditional Cre-recombinase mediated knock-out on lung cancer cells using an autochthonous mouse model of lung adenocarcinomas driven by and comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, we analyzed clinical samples and human lung cancer cell lines for TAZ expression and supported our findings by publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In mice, we found induction of papillary adenocarcinomas and protrusions of tumor cells from the bronchiolar lining upon Notch1 deficiency. Moreover, the mutated driven lung tumors with deleted showed increased TAZ expression and focal nuclear translocation which was frequently observed in human pulmonary adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, but not in small cell lung carcinomas. In addition, we used data from TCGA to show that putative inactivating mutations co-occur with mutations and genomic amplifications in lung adenocarcinomas. Our study provides evidence that Notch1 deficiency in mutated driven lung carcinomas contributes to lung carcinogenesis in a subgroup of patients by increasing TAZ expression who might benefit from TAZ signaling blockade.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/pore.2021.596522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262161PMC
April 2021

Clinical interpretation of whole-genome and whole-transcriptome sequencing for precision oncology.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, United States; Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, United States. Electronic address:

Whole-genome sequencing either alone or in combination with whole-transcriptome sequencing has started to be used to analyze clinical tumor samples to improve diagnosis, provide risk stratification, and select patient-specific therapies. Compared with current genomic testing strategies, largely focused on small number of genes tested individually or targeted panels, whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing (WGTS) provides novel opportunities to identify and report a potentially much larger number of actionable alterations with diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive impact. Such alterations include point mutations, indels, copy- number aberrations and structural variants, but also germline variants, fusion genes, noncoding alterations and mutational signatures. Nevertheless, these comprehensive tests are accompanied by many challenges ranging from the extent and diversity of sequence alterations detected by these methods to the complexity and limited existing standardization in interpreting them. We describe the challenges of WGTS interpretation and the opportunities with comprehensive genomic testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.07.003DOI Listing
July 2021

No Difference in Penetrance between Truncating and Missense/Aberrant Splicing Pathogenic Variants in and : A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 28;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Medical Genetics, Institute for Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown.

Objective: To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the and genes.

Methods: Carriers of pathogenic variants of () and () genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity.

Results: Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately.

Conclusion: Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of and .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269121PMC
June 2021

Status quo of ALK testing in lung cancer: results of an EQA scheme based on in-situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and RNA/DNA sequencing.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Institute of Pathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

With this external quality assessment (EQA) scheme, we aim to investigate the diagnostic performance of the currently available methods for the detection of ALK alterations in non-small cell lung cancer on a national scale, namely, in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and RNA/DNA sequencing (NGS). The EQA scheme cohort consisted of ten specimens, including four ALK positive and six ALK negative samples, which were thoroughly pretested using IHC, ISH, and RNA/DNA NGS. Unstained tumor sections were provided to the 57 participants, and the results were retrieved via an online questionnaire. ISH was used by 29, IHC by 38, and RNA/DNA sequencing by 19 participants. Twenty-eight institutions (97%) passed the ring trial using ISH, 33 (87%) by using IHC, and 18 (95%) by using NGS. The highest sensitivity and interrater agreement (Fleiss ' kappa) was observed for RNA/DNA sequencing (99%, 0.975), followed by ISH (94%, 0.898) and IHC (92%, 0.888). However, the proportion of samples that were not evaluable due to bad tissue quality was also higher for RNA/DNA sequencing (4%) compared with ISH (0.7%) and IHC (0.5%). While all three methods produced reliable results between the different institutions, the highest sensitivity and concordance were observed for RNA/DNA sequencing. These findings encourage the broad implementation of this method in routine diagnostic, although the application might be limited by technical capacity, economical restrictions, and tissue quality of formalin-fixed samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03106-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Quality control stress test for deep learning-based diagnostic model in digital pathology.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Digital pathology provides a possibility for computational analysis of histological slides and automatization of routine pathological tasks. Histological slides are very heterogeneous concerning staining, sections' thickness, and artifacts arising during tissue processing, cutting, staining, and digitization. In this study, we digitally reproduce major types of artifacts. Using six datasets from four different institutions digitized by different scanner systems, we systematically explore artifacts' influence on the accuracy of the pre-trained, validated, deep learning-based model for prostate cancer detection in histological slides. We provide evidence that any histological artifact dependent on severity can lead to a substantial loss in model performance. Strategies for the prevention of diagnostic model accuracy losses in the context of artifacts are warranted. Stress-testing of diagnostic models using synthetically generated artifacts might be an essential step during clinical validation of deep learning-based algorithms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00859-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Analytical demands to use whole-genome sequencing in precision oncology.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Interrogating the tumor genome in its entirety by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers an unprecedented insight into the biology and pathogenesis of cancer, with potential impact on diagnostics, prognostication and therapy selection. WGS is able to detect sequence as well as structural variants and thereby combines central domains of cytogenetics and molecular genetics. Given the potential of WGS in directing targeted therapeutics and clinical decision-making, we envision a gradual transition of the method from research to clinical routine. This review is one out of three within this issue aimed at facilitating this effort, by discussing in-depth analytical validation, clinical interpretation and clinical utility of WGS. The review highlights the requirements for implementing, validating and maintaining a clinical WGS pipeline to obtain high-quality patient-specific data in accordance with the local regulatory landscape. Every step of the WGS pipeline, which includes DNA extraction, library preparation, sequencing, bioinformatics analysis, and data storage, is considered with respect to its logistics, necessities, potential pitfalls, and the required quality management. WGS is likely to drive clinical diagnostics and patient care forward, if requirements and challenges of the technique are recognized and met.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.06.009DOI Listing
June 2021

[MSI testing : What is new? What should be considered? German version].

Pathologe 2021 Jul 27;42(4):414-423. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsklinikum Köln, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937, Köln, Deutschland.

Based on new trial data regarding immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), the detection of high-grade microsatellite instability (MSI-H) or underlying deficient mismatch repair protein (dMMR) is now becoming increasingly important for predicting treatment response. For the first time, a PD‑1 ICI (pembrolizumab) has been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for first-line treatment of advanced (stage IV) dMMR/MSI‑H colorectal cancer (CRC). Further indications, such as dMMR/MSI‑H endometrial carcinoma (EC), have already succeeded (Dostarlimab, 2nd line treatment) and others are expected to follow before the end of 2021. The question of optimal testing in routine diagnostics should therefore be re-evaluated. Based on a consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of the widely available methods (immunohistochemistry and PCR), a test algorithm is proposed that allows quality assured, reliable, and cost-effective dMMR/MSI‑H testing. For CRC and EC, testing is therefore already possible at the primary diagnosis stage, in line with international recommendations (NICE, NCCN). The clinician is therefore enabled from the outset to consider not only the predictive but also the prognostic and predispositional implications of such a test when counseling patients and formulating treatment recommendations. As a basis for quality assurance, participation in interlaboratory comparisons and continuous documentation of results (e.g., QuIP Monitor) are strongly recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00292-021-00944-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Pericentromeric Satellite III transcripts induce etoposide resistance.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 24;12(6):530. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute for Translational Epigenetics, University Hospital of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Non-coding RNA from pericentromeric satellite repeats are involved in stress-dependent splicing processes, maintenance of heterochromatin, and are required to protect genome stability. Here we show that the long non-coding satellite III RNA (SatIII) generates resistance against the topoisomerase IIa (TOP2A) inhibitor etoposide in lung cancer. Because heat shock conditions (HS) protect cells against the toxicity of etoposide, and SatIII is significantly induced under HS, we hypothesized that the protective effect could be traced back to SatIII. Using genome methylation profiles of patient-derived xenograft mouse models we show that the epigenetic modification of the SatIII DNA locus and the resulting SatIII expression predict chemotherapy resistance. In response to stress, SatIII recruits TOP2A to nuclear stress bodies, which protects TOP2A from a complex formation with etoposide and results in decreased DNA damage after treatment. We show that BRD4 inhibitors reduce the expression of SatIII, restoring etoposide sensitivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03810-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144429PMC
May 2021

Managing Difficulties of Microsatellite Instability Testing in Endometrial Cancer-Limitations and Advantages of Four Different PCR-Based Approaches.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, D-50924 Cologne, Germany.

Microsatellite instability (MSI), a common alteration in endometrial cancers (EC) is known as a biomarker for immune checkpoint therapy response alongside screening for Lynch Syndrome (LS). However, former studies described challenging MSI profiles in EC hindering analysis by using MSI testing methods intensively validated for colorectal cancer (CRC) only. In order to reduce false negatives, this study examined four different PCR-based approaches for MSI testing using 25 EC samples already tested for mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR). In a follow up validation set of 75 EC samples previously tested both for MMR and MSI, the efficiency of a seven-marker system corresponding to the Idylla system was further analyzed. Both Bethesda and Promega marker panels require trained operators to overcome interpretation complexities caused by either hardly visible additional peaks of one and two nucleotides, or small shifts in microsatellite repeat length. Using parallel sequencing adjustment of bioinformatics is needed. Applying the Idylla MSI assay, an evaluation of input material is more crucial for reliable results and is indispensable. Following MMR deficiency testing as a first-line screening procedure, additional testing with a PCR-based method is necessary if inconclusive staining of immunohistochemistry (IHC) must be clarified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000432PMC
March 2021

High sensitivity of PD-L1 analysis from pleural effusion in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jan 22;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Pneumology, University of Cologne, Solingen, Germany.

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for monotherapy of metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) depending on tumour cells' PD-L1 expression. Pleural effusion is common in mNSCLC. The significance of immunocytochemistry PD-L1 analysis from pleural effusion samples is unclear. The aim of the study was to analyse the sensitivity regarding immunocytochemistry PD-L1 analysis of pleural effusion in NSCLC as compared to immunohistochemistry of pleural biopsies. Fifty consecutive subjects (17 female, median age 72.5 years, seven never-smokers) were enrolled in this prospective controlled two-centre study. Inclusion criteria were pleural effusion, suspected or known lung cancer, indication for pleural puncture and thoracoscopy, and written informed consent. Immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry PD-L1 analyses were performed with the Dako-PDL1-IHC-22C3pharmDx assay. Analysis for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value was performed for PD-L1 detection from pleural effusion. 50 subjects underwent pleural puncture and thoracoscopy. Pathological diagnoses were lung cancer (48), lymphoma (1) and mesothelioma (1). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PD-L1-testing with expression ≥50% defined as positive were 100% (95% CI 46-100%), 63% (36-84%), 45% (18-75%) and 100% (66-100%), and with expression ≥1% defined as positive 86% (56-97%), 43% (12-80%), 75% (47-92%) and 60% (17-93%). PD-L1 analysis in tumour-positive pleural effusion samples shows a very high sensitivity and negative predictive value, especially regarding PD-L1 expression levels ≥50% (European Medicines Agency approval). Negative results are reliable and help in the decision against a first-line checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy. However, a 1% cut-off level (United States Food and Drug Administration approval) leads to a markedly lower negative predictive value, making other invasive procedures necessary (NCT02855281).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00787-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983225PMC
January 2021

TargetPlex FFPE-Direct DNA Library Preparation Kit for SiRe NGS panel: an international performance evaluation study.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Aim: Next generation sequencing (NGS) represents a key diagnostic tool to identify clinically relevant gene alterations for treatment-decision making in cancer care. However, the complex manual workflow required for NGS has limited its implementation in routine clinical practice. In this worldwide study, we validated the clinical performance of the TargetPlex FFPE-Direct DNA Library Preparation Kit for NGS analysis. Impressively, this new assay obviates the need for separate, labour intensive and time-consuming pre-analytical steps of DNA extraction, purification and isolation from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens in the NGS workflow.

Methods: The TargetPlex FFPE-Direct DNA Library Preparation Kit, which enables NGS analysis directly from FFPE, was specifically developed for this study by TargetPlex Genomics Pleasanton, California. Eleven institutions agreed to take part in the study coordinated by the Molecular Cytopathology Meeting Group (University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy). All participating institutions received a specific Library Preparation Kit to test eight FFPE samples previously assessed with standard protocols. The analytical parameters and mutations detected in each sample were then compared with those previously obtained with standard protocols.

Results: Overall, 92.8% of the samples were successfully analysed with the TargetPlex FFPE-Direct DNA Library Preparation Kit on Thermo Fisher Scientific and Illumina platforms. Altogether, in comparison with the standard workflow, the TargetPlex FFPE-Direct DNA Library Preparation Kit was able to detect 90.5% of the variants.

Conclusion: The TargetPlex FFPE-Direct DNA Library Preparation Kit combined with the SiRe panel constitutes a convenient, practical and robust cost-saving solution for FFPE NGS analysis in routine practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2021-207450DOI Listing
March 2021

Uptake of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 17;148:124-133. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany; MGZ- Medical Genetics Center, Munich, Germany; The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT), The Polyposis Registry, St Mark's Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 3UJ, UK; European Hereditary Tumour Group (EHTG), C/o Lindsays, Caledonian Exchange, 19A Canning Street, Edinburgh, EH3 8HE, United Kingdom.

Purpose: This study aimed to report the uptake of hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to prevent gynaecological cancers (risk-reducing surgery [RRS]) in carriers of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) was used to investigate RRS by a cross-sectional study in 2292 female path_MMR carriers aged 30-69 years.

Results: Overall, 144, 79, and 517 carriers underwent risk-reducing hysterectomy, BSO, or both combined, respectively. Two-thirds of procedures before 50 years of age were combined hysterectomy and BSO, and 81% of all procedures included BSO. Risk-reducing hysterectomy was performed before age 50 years in 28%, 25%, 15%, and 9%, and BSO in 26%, 25%, 14% and 13% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 carriers, respectively. Before 50 years of age, 107 of 188 (57%) BSO and 126 of 204 (62%) hysterectomies were performed in women without any prior cancer, and only 5% (20/392) were performed simultaneously with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery.

Conclusion: Uptake of RRS before 50 years of age was low, and RRS was rarely undertaken in association with surgical treatment of CRC. Uptake of RRS aligned poorly with gene- and age-associated risk estimates for endometrial or ovarian cancer that were published recently from PLSD and did not correspond well with current clinical guidelines. The reasons should be clarified. Decision-making on opting for or against RRS and its timing should be better aligned with predicted risk and mortality for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome to improve outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.022DOI Listing
May 2021

The evolving landscape of biomarker testing for non-small cell lung cancer in Europe.

Lung Cancer 2021 04 22;154:161-175. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

University of Cologne, Cologne Institute of Pathology, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

The discovery of oncogenic driver mutations rendering non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) targetable by small-molecule inhibitors, and the development of immunotherapies, have revolutionised NSCLC treatment. Today, instead of non-selective chemotherapies, all patients with advanced NSCLC eligible for treatment (and increasing numbers with earlier, less extensive disease) require fast and comprehensive screening of biomarkers for first-line patient selection for targeted therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy (with or without chemotherapy). To avoid unnecessary re-biopsies, biomarker screening before first-line treatment should also include markers that are actionable from second-line onwards; PD-L1 expression testing is also mandatory before initiating treatment. Population differences exist in the frequency of oncogenic driver mutations: EGFR mutations are more frequent in Asia than Europe, whereas the converse is true for KRAS mutations. In addition to approved first-line therapies, a number of emerging therapies are being investigated in clinical trials. Guidelines for biomarker testing vary by country, with the number of actionable targets and the requirement for extensive molecular screening strategies expected to increase. To meet diagnostic demands, rapid screening technologies for single-driver mutations have been implemented. Improvements in DNA- and RNA-based next-generation sequencing technologies enable analysis of a group of genes in one assay; however, turnaround times remain relatively long. Consequently, rapid screening technologies are being implemented alongside next-generation sequencing. Further challenges in the evolving landscape of biomarker testing in NSCLC are actionable primary and secondary resistance mechanisms to targeted therapies. Therefore, comprehensive testing on re-biopsies, collected at the time of disease progression, in combination with testing of circulating tumour DNA may provide important information to guide second- or third-line therapies. Furthermore, longitudinal biomarker testing can provide insights into tumour evolution and heterogeneity during the course of the disease. We summarise best practice strategies for Europe in the changing landscape of biomarker testing at diagnosis and during treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.02.026DOI Listing
April 2021

KRAS G12C-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A real-world cohort from the German prospective, observational, nation-wide CRISP Registry (AIO-TRK-0315).

Lung Cancer 2021 04 13;154:51-61. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Pius-Hospital Oldenburg, Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin, Oldenburg, Germany.

Objectives: After decades of unsuccessful efforts in inhibiting KRAS, promising clinical data targeting the mutation subtype G12C emerge. Since little is known about outcome with standard treatment of patients with G12C mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we analyzed a large, representative, real-world cohort from Germany.

Patients And Methods: A total of 1039 patients with advanced KRAS-mutant or -wildtype NSCLC without druggable alterations have been recruited in the prospective, observational registry CRISP from 12/2015 to 06/2019 by 98 centers in Germany. Details on treatment, best response, and outcome were analyzed for patients with KRAS wildtype, G12C, and non-G12C mutations.

Results: Within the study population, 160 (15.4 %) patients presented with KRAS G12C, 251 (24.2 %) with non-G12C mutations, 628 (60.4 %) with KRAS wildtype. High PD-L1 expression (Tumor Proportion Score, TPS > 50 %) was documented for 28.0 %, 43.5 %, and 28.9 % (wildtype, G12C, non-G12C) of the tested patients; 68.8 %, 89.3 %, and 87.7 % of the patients received first-line treatment combined with an immune checkpoint-inhibitor in 2019. TPS > 50 % vs. TPS < 1 % was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality in a multivariate Cox model (HR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.26-0.60, p=<0.001). There were no differences in clinical outcome between KRAS wildtype, G12C or non-G12C mutations and KRAS mutational status was not prognostic in the model.

Conclusion: Here we describe the so far largest prospectively recruited cohort of patients with advanced NSCLC and KRAS mutations, with special focus on the G12C mutation. These data constitute an extremely valuable historical control for upcoming clinical studies that employ KRAS inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.02.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Bringing Greater Accuracy to Europe's Healthcare Systems: The Unexploited Potential of Biomarker Testing in Oncology.

Biomed Hub 2020 Sep-Dec;5(3):182-223. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Digestive Cancers Europe, Brussels, Belgium.

Rapid and continuing advances in biomarker testing are not being matched by take-up in health systems, and this is hampering both patient care and innovation. It also risks costing health systems the opportunity to make their services more efficient and, over time, more economical. This paper sets out the potential of biomarker testing, the unfolding precision and range of possible diagnosis and prediction, and the many obstacles to adoption. It offers case studies of biomarker testing in breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, thyroid and colon cancers, and derives specific lessons as to the potential and actual use of each of them. It also draws lessons about how to improve access and alignment, and to remedy the data deficiencies that impede development. And it suggests solutions to outstanding issues - notably including funding and the tangled web of obtaining reimbursement or equivalent coverage that Europe's fragmented health system implies. It urges a European evolution towards an initial minimum testing scenario, which would guarantee universal access to a suite of biomarker tests for the currently most common conditions, and, further into the future, to an optimum testing scenario in which a much wider range of biomarker tests would be introduced and become part of a more sophisticated health system articulated around personalised medicine. For exploiting genomics to the full, it argues the need for a new policy framework for Europe. Biomarker testing is not an issue that can be treated in isolation, since the purpose of testing is to improve health. Its use is therefore always closely linked to specific health challenges and needs to be viewed in the broader policy context in the EU and more widely. The paper is the result of extensive engagement with experts and decision makers to develop the framework, and consequently represents a wide consensus of views on how healthcare systems should respond from push and pull factors at local, national and cross-border and EU level. It contains strong views and clear recommendations springing from the convictions of patients, clinicians, academics, medicines authorities, HTA bodies, payers, the diagnostic, pharmaceutical and ICT industries, and national policy makers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841733PMC
September 2020

Active Akt signaling triggers CLL toward Richter transformation via overactivation of Notch1.

Blood 2021 02;137(5):646-660

Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), Cologne, Germany.

Richter's transformation (RT) is an aggressive lymphoma that occurs upon progression from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Transformation has been associated with genetic aberrations in the CLL phase involving TP53, CDKN2A, MYC, and NOTCH1; however, a significant proportion of RT cases lack CLL phase-associated events. Here, we report that high levels of AKT phosphorylation occur both in high-risk CLL patients harboring TP53 and NOTCH1 mutations as well as in patients with RT. Genetic overactivation of Akt in the murine Eµ-TCL1 CLL mouse model resulted in CLL transformation to RT with significantly reduced survival and an aggressive lymphoma phenotype. In the absence of recurrent mutations, we identified a profile of genomic aberrations intermediate between CLL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Multiomics assessment by phosphoproteomic/proteomic and single-cell transcriptomic profiles of this Akt-induced murine RT revealed an S100 protein-defined subcluster of highly aggressive lymphoma cells that developed from CLL cells, through activation of Notch via Notch ligand expressed by T cells. Constitutively active Notch1 similarly induced RT of murine CLL. We identify Akt activation as an initiator of CLL transformation toward aggressive lymphoma by inducing Notch signaling between RT cells and microenvironmental T cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005734DOI Listing
February 2021

Sarcoma classification by DNA methylation profiling.

Nat Commun 2021 01 21;12(1):498. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Sarcomas are malignant soft tissue and bone tumours affecting adults, adolescents and children. They represent a morphologically heterogeneous class of tumours and some entities lack defining histopathological features. Therefore, the diagnosis of sarcomas is burdened with a high inter-observer variability and misclassification rate. Here, we demonstrate classification of soft tissue and bone tumours using a machine learning classifier algorithm based on array-generated DNA methylation data. This sarcoma classifier is trained using a dataset of 1077 methylation profiles from comprehensively pre-characterized cases comprising 62 tumour methylation classes constituting a broad range of soft tissue and bone sarcoma subtypes across the entire age spectrum. The performance is validated in a cohort of 428 sarcomatous tumours, of which 322 cases were classified by the sarcoma classifier. Our results demonstrate the potential of the DNA methylation-based sarcoma classification for research and future diagnostic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20603-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819999PMC
January 2021

Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte clusters are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibition in BRAF V600 mutated malignant melanomas.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 19;11(1):1834. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

Patients with metastasized malignant melanomas (MM) are regularly treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI). Within our study, we evaluated the predictive value of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clusters in primary MM and its association to molecular subtypes to predict response to CPI treatment. A cohort of 90 MM patients who received CPI treatment were collected from a single center, as well as a validation cohort of 351 patients from the TCGA database (SKCM) who received standard of care. A deep-convolutional-neural network (U-Net) was trained to detect viable tumor areas on H&E whole-slide-images, following a quantitative detection of TILs with help of a separate additional neural network. The number of TIL clusters was associated with response to CPI in 90 MM patients (AUC = 0.6), even more pronounced within the sub-cohort of BRAF V600-mutated MM patients (AUC = 0.7, n = 32). Interestingly, the TIL clusters in NRAS-mutated as well as wildtype MM (BRAF-wt, NRAS-wt) tumors, did not demonstrate a predictive value of CPI response (AUC = 0.5, n = 25). Moreover, PD-L1 expression had a limited predictive value within our cohort. In parallel, within an independent cohort of MM patients (TCGA, n = 351), the number of TIL clusters was associated with improved survival in BRAF V600 mutated MM (p < 0.0001, n = 164) but neither in NRAS-mutated (55.7 months vs. 63.0 months, respectively, p = 0.590, n = 85) nor BRAF/NRAS-wildtype MM patients (52.4 months vs. 47.4 months, respectively, p = 0.581, n = 104). While TILs in MM have been associated with improved survival, we show-for the first time-that TIL clusters are associated with response to immunotherapy in BRAF V600 mutated MM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81330-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815914PMC
January 2021

An Autochthonous Mouse Model of Myd88- and BCL2-Driven Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Reveals Actionable Molecular Vulnerabilities.

Blood Cancer Discov 2021 Jan;2(1):70-91

Center for Integrated Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Based on gene expression profiles, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is sub-divided into germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) DLBCL. Two of the most common genomic aberrations in ABC-DLBCL are mutations in , as well as copy number gains. Here, we employ immune phenotyping, RNA-Seq and whole exome sequencing to characterize a and -driven mouse model of ABC-DLBCL. We show that this model resembles features of human ABC-DLBCL. We further demonstrate an actionable dependence of our murine ABC-DLBCL model on BCL2. This BCL2 dependence was also detectable in human ABC-DLBCL cell lines. Moreover, human ABC-DLBCLs displayed increased expression, compared to GCB-DLBCL. experiments in our ABC-DLBCL model showed that combined venetoclax and RMP1-14 significantly increased the overall survival of lymphoma bearing animals, indicating that this combination may be a viable option for selected human ABC-DLBCL cases harboring and aberrations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2643-3230.BCD-19-0059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806186PMC
January 2021

LAG-3, TIM-3 and VISTA Expression on Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Potential Biomarkers for Targeted Therapy Concepts.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 31;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937 Cologne, Germany.

Tumor growth and survival requires a particularly effective immunosuppressant tumor microenvironment (TME) to escape destruction by the immune system. While immunosuppressive checkpoint markers like programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L1) are already being targeted in clinical practice, lymphocyte-activation-protein 3 (LAG-3), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3) and V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) inhibitors are currently under investigation in clinical trials. Reliable findings on the expression status of those immune checkpoint inhibitors on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the TME of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are lacking. This work aims to describe the expression of LAG-3, TIM-3, and VISTA expression in the TME of OPSCC. We created a tissue microarray of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue of 241 OPSCC. Expression of the immune checkpoint protein LAG-3, TIM-3, and VISTA in OPSCC was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and results were correlated with CD8+ T-cell inflammation and human papillomavirus (HPV)-status. 73 OPSCC stained positive for LAG-3 (31%; HPV+:44%; HPV-:26%, = 0.006), 122 OPSCC stained positive for TIM-3 (51%; HPV+:70%; HPV-:44%, < 0.001) and 168 OPSCC (70%; HPV+:75%; HPV-:68%, = 0.313) for VISTA. CD8+ T-cells were significantly associated with LAG-3, TIM-3 and VISTA expression ( < 0.001 < 0.001, 0.007). Immune checkpoint therapy targeting LAG-3, TIM-3, and/or VISTA could be a promising treatment strategy especially in HPV-related OPSCC. Future clinical trials investigating the efficacy of a checkpoint blockade in consideration of LAG-3, TIM-3, and VISTA expression are required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796181PMC
December 2020

Biomarker testing in non-small cell lung cancer in routine care: Analysis of the first 3,717 patients in the German prospective, observational, nation-wide CRISP Registry (AIO-TRK-0315).

Lung Cancer 2021 02 2;152:174-184. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Onkologie der Thoraxtumore, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg gGmbH, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Germany.

Objectives: An increasing number of treatment-determining biomarkers has been identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and molecular testing is recommended to enable optimal individualized treatment. However, data on implementation of these recommendations in the "real-world" setting are scarce. This study presents comprehensive details on the frequency, methodology and results of biomarker testing of advanced NSCLC in Germany.

Patients And Methods: This analysis included 3,717 patients with advanced NSCLC (2,921 non-squamous; 796 squamous), recruited into the CRISP registry at start of systemic therapy by 150 German sites between December 2015 and June 2019. Evaluated were the molecular biomarkers EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, KRAS, MET, TP53, RET, HER2, as well as expression of PD-L1.

Results: In total, 90.5 % of the patients were tested for biomarkers. Testing rates were 92.2 % (non-squamous), 70.7 % (squamous) and increased from 83.2 % in 2015/16 to 94.2% in 2019. Overall testing rates for EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 66.1 %, and 53.0 %, respectively (non-squamous). Testing rates for PD-L1 expression were 64.5 % (non-squamous), and 58.5 % (squamous). The most common testing methods were immunohistochemistry (68.5 % non-squamous, 58.3 % squamous), and next-generation sequencing (38.7 % non-squamous, 14.4 % squamous). Reasons for not testing were insufficient tumor material or lack of guideline recommendations (squamous). No alteration was found in 37.8 % (non-squamous), and 57.9 % (squamous), respectively. Most common alterations in non-squamous tumors (all patients/all patients tested for the respective biomarker): KRAS (17.3 %/39.2 %), TP53 (14.1 %/51.4 %), and EGFR (11.0 %/15.1 %); in squamous tumors: TP53 (7.0 %/69.1 %), MET (1.5 %/11.1 %), and EGFR (1.1 %/4.4 %). Median PFS (non-squamous) was 8.7 months (95 % CI 7.4-10.4) with druggable EGFR mutation, and 8.0 months (95 % CI 3.9-9.2) with druggable ALK alterations.

Conclusion: Testing rates in Germany are high nationwide and acceptable in international comparison, but still leave out a significant portion of patients, who could potentially benefit. Thus, specific measures are needed to increase implementation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.10.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Deep learning for sensitive detection of Helicobacter Pylori in gastric biopsies.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Dec 11;20(1):417. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Institute for Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Helicobacter pylori, a 2 × 1 μm spiral-shaped bacterium, is the most common risk factor for gastric cancer worldwide. Clinically, patients presenting with symptoms of gastritis, routinely undergo gastric biopsies. The following histo-morphological evaluation dictates therapeutic decisions, where antibiotics are used for H. pylori eradication. There is a strong rational to accelerate the detection process of H. pylori on histological specimens, using novel technologies, such as deep learning.

Methods: We designed a deep-learning-based decision support algorithm that can be applied on regular whole slide images of gastric biopsies. In detail, we can detect H. pylori both on Giemsa- and regular H&E stained whole slide images.

Results: With the help of our decision support algorithm, we show an increased sensitivity in a subset of 87 cases that underwent additional PCR- and immunohistochemical testing to define a sensitive ground truth of HP presence. For Giemsa stained sections, the decision support algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 100% compared to 68.4% (microscopic diagnosis), with a tolerable specificity of 66.2% for the decision support algorithm compared to 92.6 (microscopic diagnosis).

Conclusion: Together, we provide the first evidence of a decision support algorithm proving as a sensitive screening option for H. pylori that can potentially aid pathologists to accurately diagnose H. pylori presence on gastric biopsies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01494-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731757PMC
December 2020

GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) is co-amplified with PIK3CA in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma and is linked to neoadjuvant therapy.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 10;147(4):1031-1040. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Gastrointestinal Cancer Group Cologne (GCGC), Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Driver mutations are typically absent in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Mostly, oncogenes are amplified as driving molecular events (including GATA6-amplification in 14% of cases). However, only little is known about its biological function and clinical relevance.

Methods: We examined a large number of EAC (n = 496) for their GATA6 amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyzing both primary resected (n = 219) and neoadjuvant treated EAC (n = 277). Results were correlated to clinicopathological data and known mutations/amplifications in our EAC-cohort.

Results: GATA6 amplification was detectable in 49 (9.9%) EACs of our cohort. We observed an enrichment of GATA6-positive tumors among patients after neoadjuvant treatment (12,3% amplified tumors versus 6,8% in the primary resected group; p = 0.044). Additionally, there was a simultaneous amplification of PIK3CA and GATA6 (p < 0.001) not detectable when analyzing other genes such as EGFR, ERBB2, KRAS or MDM2. Although we did not identify a survival difference depending on GATA6 in the entire cohort (p = 0.212), GATA6 amplification was associated with prolonged overall survival among patients with primary surgery (median overall-survival 121.1 vs. 41.4 months, p = 0.032). Multivariate cox-regression analysis did not confirm GATA6 as an independent prognostic marker, neither in the entire cohort (p = 0.210), nor in the subgroup with (p = 0.655) or without pretreatment (p = 0.961).

Conclusions: Our study investigates the relevance of GATA6 amplification on a large tumor collective, which includes primary resected tumors and the clinically relevant group of neoadjuvant treated EACs. Especially in the pretreated group, we found an accumulation of GATA6-amplified tumors (12.3%) and a frequent co-amplification of PIK3CA. Our data suggest an increased resistance to radio-chemotherapy in GATA6-amplified tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-020-03486-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954758PMC
April 2021

Deep Learning Predicts HPV Association in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Identifies Patients with a Favorable Prognosis Using Regular H&E Stains.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Feb 1;27(4):1131-1138. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical Faculty, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is tumorigenic and has been associated with a favorable prognosis compared with OPSCC caused by tobacco, alcohol, and other carcinogens. Meanwhile, machine learning has evolved as a powerful tool to predict molecular and cellular alterations of medical images of various sources.

Experimental Design: We generated a deep learning-based HPV prediction score (HPV-ps) on regular hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and assessed its performance to predict HPV association using 273 patients from two different sites (OPSCC; Giessen, = 163; Cologne, = 110). Then, the prognostic relevance in a total of 594 patients (Giessen, Cologne, HNSCC TCGA) was evaluated. In addition, we investigated whether four board-certified pathologists could identify HPV association ( = 152) and compared the results to the classifier.

Results: Although pathologists were able to diagnose HPV association from H&E-stained slides (AUC = 0.74, median of four observers), the interrater reliability was minimal (Light Kappa = 0.37; = 0.129), as compared with AUC = 0.8 using the HPV-ps within two independent cohorts ( = 273). The HPV-ps identified individuals with a favorable prognosis in a total of 594 patients from three cohorts (Giessen, OPSCC, HR = 0.55, < 0.0001; Cologne, OPSCC, HR = 0.44, = 0.0027; TCGA, non-OPSCC head and neck, HR = 0.69, = 0.0073). Interestingly, the HPV-ps further stratified patients when combined with p16 status (Giessen, HR = 0.06, < 0.0001; Cologne, HR = 0.3, = 0.046).

Conclusions: Detection of HPV association in OPSCC using deep learning with help of regular H&E stains may either be used as a single biomarker, or in combination with p16 status, to identify patients with OPSCC with a favorable prognosis, potentially outperforming combined HPV-DNA/p16 status as a biomarker for patient stratification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3596DOI Listing
February 2021

Risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in female heterozygotes of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Genet Med 2021 04 1;23(4):705-712. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusion: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01029-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026395PMC
April 2021

Expression profiling on subclasses of primary parotid gland carcinomas.

Oncotarget 2020 Nov 10;11(45):4123-4137. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Introduction: The underlying molecular mechanisms of parotid gland carcinomas (PGC) are still unknown. Knowledge about the tumor-driving signaling pathways is necessary either for diagnostics or developing new therapeutic options in this heterogeneous and rare entity.

Material And Methods: 94 matching RNA formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from PGC and the corresponding non-tumor area, RNA quality and quantity were sufficient for gene expression profiling of 770 genes using the NanoString's nCounter technology. Oncogenic and tumor suppressor genes were examined in the three common PGC tumor entities: adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), adenocarcinoma NOS (AC-NOS), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC).

Results: Expression profiling and subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis clearly differentiated between non-tumor gland tissue samples and PGC. In addition expression pattern of all three entities differed. The extensive pathway analysis proved a prominent dysregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the three PGC entities. Moreover, transcript upstream analysis demonstrated a pronounced activation of the PI3K pathway in ACC and MEC.

Discussion: Our findings revealed divergent molecular expression profiles in MEC, ACC and AC-NOS that are presently studied for their potential application in PGC diagnostics. Importantly, identification of Wnt and PI3K signaling in PGC revealed novel options of PGC therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665229PMC
November 2020

Integrin alpha V (ITGAV) expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma is associated with shortened overall-survival.

Sci Rep 2020 10 27;10(1):18411. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of General, Visceral, Cancer and Transplantation Surgery, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

Valid biomarkers for a better prognostic prediction of the clinical course in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are still not implemented. Integrin alpha V (ITGAV), a transmembrane glycoprotein responsible for cell-to-matrix binding has been found to enhance tumor progression in several tumor entities. The expression pattern and biological role of ITGAV expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has not been analyzed so far. Aim of the study is to evaluate the expression level of ITGAV in a very large collective of EAC and its impact on individual patients´ prognosis. 585 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma were analyzed immunohistochemically for ITGAV. The data was correlated with clinical, pathological and molecular data (TP53, HER2/neu, c-myc, GATA6, PIK3CA and KRAS). A total of 85 patients (14.3%) out of 585 analyzable tumors showed an ITGAV expression and intratumoral heterogeneity was low. ITGAV expression was correlated with a shortened overall-survival in the patients´ group that underwent primary surgery (p = 0.014) but not in the group of patients that received neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. No correlation between any of the analyzed molecular marker (mutations or amplifications) (TP53, HER2, c-myc, GATA6, PIK3CA and KRAS) and ITGAV expression could be observed. A multivariate cox-regression model was performed which showed tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and ITGAV expression as independent prognostic markers for overall-survival in the group of patients without neoadjuvant treatment. ITGAV expression is correlated with an impaired patient outcome in the group of patients without neoadjuvant therapy and serves as a prognostic factor in EAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75085-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591891PMC
October 2020

Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cytopathology practice: Results from an international survey of laboratories in 23 countries.

Cancer Cytopathol 2020 Dec 27;128(12):885-894. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: To the authors' knowledge, the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cytopathology practices worldwide has not been investigated formally. In the current study, data from 41 respondents from 23 countries were reported.

Methods: Data regarding the activity of each cytopathology laboratory during 4 weeks of COVID-19 lockdown were collected and compared with those obtained during the corresponding period in 2019. The overall number and percentage of exfoliative and fine-needle aspiration cytology samples from each anatomic site were recorded. Differences in the malignancy and suspicious rates between the 2 periods were analyzed using a meta-analytical approach.

Results: Overall, the sample volume was lower compared with 2019 (104,319 samples vs 190,225 samples), with an average volume reduction of 45.3% (range, 0.1%-98.0%). The percentage of samples from the cervicovaginal tract, thyroid, and anorectal region was significantly reduced (P < .05). Conversely, the percentage of samples from the urinary tract, serous cavities, breast, lymph nodes, respiratory tract, salivary glands, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, and biliary tract increased (P < .05). An overall increase of 5.56% (95% CI, 3.77%-7.35%) in the malignancy rate in nongynecological samples during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed. When the suspicious category was included, the overall increase was 6.95% (95% CI, 4.63%-9.27%).

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a drastic reduction in the total number of cytology specimens regardless of anatomic site or specimen type. The rate of malignancy increased, reflecting the prioritization of patients with cancer who were considered to be at high risk. Prospective monitoring of the effect of delays in access to health services during the lockdown period is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22373DOI Listing
December 2020
-->