Publications by authors named "Reidar Tyssen"

58 Publications

Symptoms of disturbed eating behavior risk: Gender and study factors in a cross-sectional study of two Norwegian medical schools.

Eat Behav 2021 Dec 9;43:101565. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Unit of Research, Innovation and Teaching, Clinic of Mental Health, St. Olav University Hospital of Trondheim, Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Studies about medical student's stress associated with disturbed eating behavior are scarce.

Objectives: To study the explanatory role of curricular factors and distress in disturbed eating behavior among medical students and whether this varies according to gender, study stage, curriculum model, study stress and mental distress.

Methods: The cross-sectional sample surveyed consisted of Norwegian medical students at two faculties with different curricular models (traditional and integrated). The total response rate was 64% (1044/1635). We tested differences in disturbed eating behavior symptoms (EDS) and their correlates using stepwise linear regression analysis.

Results: In total, 18.3% were cases of disturbed eating behavior symptoms, including 23.5% of female and 5.6% of male participants. Disturbed eating behavior symptoms were independently associated with the medical school stress factors "medical school is cold and threatening" (β = 0.07, p = .041), "worries about work and competence" (β =0.15, p < .001) and "worries about finances and accommodation" (β = 0.07, p = .018), in addition to female gender (β = 0.30, p < .001), mental distress (β = 0.17, p < .001), and body mass index (β = 0.28, p < .001). The variables explained 28.9% of the variance in disturbed eating behavior symptoms, and medical school stress contributed 9%. "Worries about work and competence" was more important among the female students.

Conclusions: Nearly one in five female medical students in the current sample reported symptoms of disturbed eating behavior. The symptoms were associated with medical school stress factors, mental distress, and body mass index.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101565DOI Listing
December 2021

Analysis of Career Stage, Gender, and Personality and Workplace Violence in a 20-Year Nationwide Cohort of Physicians in Norway.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 06 1;4(6):e2114749. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Behavioural Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Importance: Workplace violence (WPV) is a worldwide problem in health services. Several studies have pointed to organizational factors, such as working in psychiatry and work stress. However, there is a lack of long-term longitudinal cohort studies with respect to trends during the career and individual factors among physicians.

Objective: To investigate WPV trends during Norwegian physicians' careers and assess individual and work-related factors associated with WPV in a long-term longitudinal study.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study involved 2 nationwide medical student cohorts who graduated 6 years apart and were surveyed at graduation (T1: 1993-1994 and 1999) and 4 years later (T2), 10 years later (T3), 15 years later (T4), and 20 years after graduation (T5). Generalized estimated equations were used. Statistical analysis was performed from January to September 2020.

Exposures: Medical career during 20 years in Norway.

Main Outcomes And Measures: WPV was measured as threats or acts of violence from a patient or visitor experienced at least twice, at each of the stages after leaving medical school. Individual factors were obtained at T1 and work-related factors at T2 through T5. We analyzed WPV by repeated measures.

Results: At T1, a total of 893 participants (with a mean [SD] age of 28 (2.83) years; 499 [56%] women) responded to the questionnaire. The prevalence of multiple threats of violence was 20.3% (156 of 769) at T2, 17.1% (118 of 691) at T3, 11.2% (66 of 588) at T4, and 8.6% (46 of 536) at T5; and the prevalence of multiple acts of violence was 4.3% (33 of 763) at T2, 5.2% (36 of 687) at T3, 3.1% (18 of 584) at T4, and 2.2% (12 of 532) at T5. There was a decline from T2 to T5 of both multiple threats (β = -1.06; 95% CI, -1.31 to -0.09; P < .001) and acts of violence (β = -1.13; 95% CI, -1.73 to -0.53; P < .001). In adjusted analysis, factors associated with multiple threats of violence were male gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.76; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.40; P < .001), vulnerability trait (neuroticism) (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99; P = .03), young physician cohort (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.58; P = .04), and working in psychiatry (OR, 7.50; 95% CI, 4.42 to 12.71; P < .001). Factors associated with multiple acts of violence in adjusted analysis were male gender (OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.45 to 7.84; P = .005), young physician cohort (OR, 6.08; 95% CI, 1.68 to 21.97; P = .006), and working in psychiatry (OR, 12.34; 95% CI, 5.40 to 28.23; P < .001). There were no interactions with gender or cohort in the significant associated factors.

Conclusions And Relevance: Higher rates of multiple threats and acts of violence were observed during early medical careers, among male physicians, and in psychiatry. Low levels of the vulnerability trait (neuroticism) were associated with the experience of multiple threats. There was an association between the young physician cohort and WPV. Preventive efforts should include early-career and male physicians, with additional emphasis on personality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.14749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239948PMC
June 2021

Effect of burnout among physicians on observed adverse patient outcomes: a literature review.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 21;21(1):369. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Behavioural Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Physician burnout has potentially harmful effects for both physicians and their patients. Despite relationships between physician burnout and lowered patient satisfaction and clinician-rated adverse patient outcomes, there is scarce literature regarding effects on objective patient outcomes. This study aimed to examine the relationship between physician burnout and observed adverse patient outcomes via a review of the literature.

Methods: A search was performed on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases, using keywords and Medical Subject Headings. The identified studies were in English, published from 2007 to 2019, measured burnout among physicians using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and included observed adverse patient outcomes. In total, 360 eligible articles were identified, and 11 were included in the final review. All included studies measured patient outcomes by observed clinical measures (e.g. quality of care and medical errors).

Results: Four studies found a clear significant relationship between physician burnout and observed adverse patient outcomes, while 6 did not. One study found a significant relationship with one of the MBI subscales. Burnout was, in contrast to depression, only partly associated with observed patient outcomes.

Conclusions: This review illustrates the need for a validation of physician burnout measured by MBI with respect to observed patient outcomes. Further studies are required to investigate the effects of physician burnout on observed quality of their patient care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06371-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057942PMC
April 2021

Comparing mental distress and help-seeking among first-year medical students in Norway: results of two cross-sectional surveys 20 years apart.

BMJ Open 2020 08 16;10(8):e036968. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To investigate any changes in mental distress levels over 20 years among medical students, as well as the clinical importance of these changes.

Design: Two cross-sectional surveys 20 years apart.

Setting: The surveys were performed at two Norwegian medical faculties in 1993 and 2015.

Participants: One hundred and seventy-four first-year medical students in 1993 were compared with 169 students in 2015.

Main Outcome Measures: Mental distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist 5) and Mental Health Problems in Need of Treatment.

Results: Mental distress increased from 1993 to 2015 (p<0.001) due to a larger increase among female students, which seemed to be of clinical importance (Cohen's =0.63). There was a significant gender difference in mental distress in 2015 (p=0.007), but not in 1993. Independent factors associated with mental distress in 2015 were female sex (p<0.001), low perceived social support from parents (p=0.023) and low perceived social support from other friends (p=0.048). Additional analyses showed that social support from friends was more important for female students than for their male peers. From 1993 to 2015, there was no significant increase in the proportion of female students reporting previous mental health problems in need of treatment (21.3% vs 27.8%), but we found a significant increase in help-seeking among those in need of treatment over these years from 30.0% (6/20) to 74.3% (26/35; p=0.003).

Conclusions: We found a significant increase in mental distress among female medical students over the past 20 years, but also a promising increase in help-seeking among those in need of treatment. The strong and important association between low social support and mental distress should urge both universities and students to maintain students' social life after entering medical school.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430411PMC
August 2020

Have medical students' attitudes towards clinical communication skills changed over a 12- year period? A comparative long-term study.

BMC Med Educ 2020 Jan 10;20(1):11. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Dept. Research and Development, Division of Psychiatry, St Olavs' University hospital, Box 3250 Torgarden, 7006, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Attitudes towards learning clinical communication skills at the end of medical school are likely to reflect the students' training and motivation for the continued development of their skills as doctors. Students from two Norwegian medical schools, one with a traditional, and the other with an integrated curriculum, were approached in 2003 and 2015; with regard to changes in students' attitudes towards acquiring communication skills in two diverse learning environments. This comparison might reveal the effects of the training programs from a long-term perspective, as neither of the medical schools made any major curriculum changes within the study period.

Methods: The samples comprised final-year medical students. Two separate cross-sectional surveys performed 12 years apart (2003 and 2015) used items from the Communication Skills Attitude Scale in addition to age and gender. The traditional curriculum included only theoretical teaching and no contact with patients was made during the first 2 to 2.5 years of medical school. However, the integrated curriculum combined training in theoretical and clinical communication skills with early patient contact from the beginning.

Results: Attitudes improved from the first to the second survey at both schools, however, students from the integrated school reported more positive attitudes than those from the traditional school. Female students from the integrated school contributed the most to the difference in attitudes in both surveys.

Conclusions: Students in both traditional and integrated curricula improved their attitudes from the first to the second assessment. However, compared with the traditional curriculum, the integrated one fostered even higher levels of positive attitudes towards acquiring communication skills, and a pronounced influence was observed on female students. These findings suggest that an educational program with greater emphasis on improving attitudes among male students may be required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1915-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954512PMC
January 2020

Work and mental health in doctors: A short review of Norwegian studies.

Authors:
Reidar Tyssen

Porto Biomed J 2019 Sep-Oct;4(5):e50. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Behavioral Sciences in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pbj.0000000000000050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924981PMC
September 2019

Life satisfaction in Norwegian medical doctors: a 15-year longitudinal study of work-related predictors.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Oct 22;19(1):729. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PO. Box 1111 Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Despite many recent studies on burn-out and dissatisfaction among American medical doctors, less is known about doctors in the Scandinavian public health service. The aims of this study were to analyse long-term work-related predictors of life satisfaction among established doctors in Norway and to identify predictors in a subgroup of doctors who reported a decline in life satisfaction.

Methods: Two nationwide cohorts of doctors (n = 1052), who graduated medical school 6 years apart, were surveyed at graduation from medical school (T1, 1993/94 and 1999), and 4 (T2), 10 (T3), and 15 (T4) years later. Work-related predictors of life satisfaction (three items) obtained at T2 to T4 were analysed. Individual and lifestyle confounders were controlled for using mixed-models repeated-measures analyses, and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of the decrease in life satisfaction.

Results: Ninety per cent (947/1052) responded at least once, and 42% (450/1052) responded at all four times. Work-related predictors of higher life satisfaction in the adjusted model were work-home stress (β = - 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = - 0.25 to - 0.16, p < 0.001), perceived job demands (β = - 0.10, CI = - 0.15 to - 0.05, p < 0.001), and colleague support (β = 0.05, CI = 0.04 to 0.07, p < 0.001). The new adjusted individual predictors that we identified included female gender, reality weakness trait, and problematic drinking behaviour. Neuroticism trait and low colleague support predicted a decrease in life satisfaction.

Conclusions: Work-home stress, perceived job demands, and colleague support were the most important predictors of life satisfaction related to doctors' work. When personality traits were controlled for, female doctors were more satisfied with their life than male doctors. These findings suggest that improving work-related factors with targeted interventions, including a supportive work environment, may increase life satisfaction among doctors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4599-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805390PMC
October 2019

T.K. Hertzberg and colleagues respond.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2019 09 9;139(12). Epub 2019 Sep 9.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.19.0524DOI Listing
September 2019

Work-home balance in two cohorts of Norwegian doctors.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2019 Jun 24;139(10). Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Background: Stress linked to the balance between work and home, so-called work-home interface stress, may affect the health and life situation of doctors. Reports have shown an increase in job-related stress among Norwegian doctors. We wished to investigate the development trends for this type of stress in the period 2003-14.

Material And Method: Work-home interface stress was measured with the aid of three questions from a validated scale, on which the respondents reported their level of stress on a scale from 1 (no stress) to 5 (very high level of stress). The measurements were made 10 and 15 years after graduation in two cohorts of doctors who had received their training within six years of each other. We used the t-test and chi-square test to compare the cohorts and to compare gender within each cohort, and linear regression analysis to adjust for any confounding factors.

Results: Doctors who had graduated later (later cohort, n = 248) reported significantly lower levels of work-home interface stress than doctors who had completed their studies six years earlier (early cohort, n = 197) (average score (standard deviation) 2.2 (1.0) vs. 2.6 (1.0), p = 0.001). This correlation remained significant after adjusting for other explanatory variables, such as gender (woman), number of children, weekly working hours and collegial and partner support. Fifteen years after graduation there were no differences between the cohorts in terms of perceived work-home interface stress. Within the cohorts there were no significant gender differences at any point of measurement. After adjustment for partner support and working hours, being a woman gave a significantly increased risk of experiencing work-home interface stress.

Interpretation: Doctors who graduated later, experienced less work-home interface stress than those who had received their training earlier. The experience of stress was buffered in women who perceived their partner as supportive and had reduced working hours.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.18.0339DOI Listing
June 2019

Change in subjective well-being over 20 years at two Norwegian medical schools and factors linked to well-being today: a survey.

BMC Med Educ 2019 Feb 4;19(1):45. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Research and Development, Division of Mental Health Care, St. Olavs Trondheim University Hospital, Postbox 3250 Torgarden, NO-7006, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: There is a lack of studies on factors in the curriculum, study environment and individual differences that can promote well-being among medical students as a response to the frequent reports on the negative health effects of study demands among medical students worldwide.

Objective: This study investigates differences in well-being among today's Norwegian medical students compared with students 20 years ago, the most important predictors of well-being today, and whether there have been any changes in the levels of some of these factors since the period analysed.

Methods: We analysed cross-sectional survey data among all medical students (63.9%, N = 1044/1635) at two medical faculties with different curriculums (traditional and integrated) in Norway in 2015 (STUDMED 2015). We used comparison data from a longitudinal survey among medical students from the same medical faculties in 1993 to 1999: the NORDOC project (T1 = 89%, T2 = 72% and T3 = 68%). Differences in subjective well-being and correlates by demographic, curriculum, and study environment factors among the present students were tested by t-tests and stepwise linear regression analysis.

Results: Students today scored lower on their levels of subjective well-being than students 20 years ago. The difference was found among female and males in different study stages. The final model showed that subjective well-being today was associated with self-esteem (β = .98, p < .001) and social support from medical school friends (β = .22, p < .001), a partner (β = .08, p = .020) or other family members (β = .04, p = .041), as well as perception of medical curriculum and environment (β = -.38, p < .001), personal competence (β = -.40, p < .001), finance/accommodation (β = -.22, p < .001) and perceived exam stress (β = -.26, p < .001).

Conclusions: The results show a decrease in subjective well-being among medical students and, in particular, among female students. The faculties should pay attention to the factors identified in the study environment and curriculum associated with subjective well-being in order to promote their student's well-being and stimulate health and academic performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1476-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360750PMC
February 2019

Factors influencing doctors' counselling on patients' lifestyle habits: a cohort study.

BJGP Open 2018 Oct 19;2(3):bjgpopen18X101607. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Professor, Faculty of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Science, Elverum, Norway.

Background: Lifestyle changes are important for prevention and treatment of many common diseases, and doctors have an important role in the lifestyle counselling of patients. It is important to know more about factors influencing lifestyle counselling.

Aim: To investigate the frequency of counselling about physical activity compared to that about alcohol habits; the impact of doctors' own physical activity and alcohol habits on patient counselling about these lifestyle dimensions; and whether perceived mastery of clinical work or vulnerable personality have a confounding or moderating effect on these associations.

Design & Setting: In this nationwide cohort survey, a total of 978 doctors in Norway were surveyed by postal questionnaires in 1993/94 and 2014. The response rate was 562/978 (57%).

Method: The outcome variables were questions on frequency of asking about alcohol and exercise habits. Explanatory variables were questions on doctors' own exercise habits, drinking habits (using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]), perceived mastery of clinical work, vulnerable personality, and specialty. Associations were studied by linear regression analysis.

Results: Of the 526 responders, 307 (58%) reported asking usually/often about exercise habits, while = 140/524 (27%) usually/often asked about alcohol habits. A doctor's own physical activity level was associated with frequency of asking about physical activity (unstandardised regression coefficient [] = 0.07; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.01 to 0.13). There were no significant associations between doctors' own lifestyle habits and counselling on alcohol habits. Doctors with low levels of vulnerability asked more frequently about physical activity, regardless of their own physical activity habits ( = 2.41, = 0.048).

Conclusion: Doctors' own lifestyles influenced their preventive counselling about physical activity, but not about alcohol. Vulnerability moderated these effects, indicating the importance of early interventions to help doctors with a vulnerable personality to handle negative criticism from patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgpopen18X101607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202006PMC
October 2018

Factors associated with low vs increased perceived mastery of clinical work over ten years of practice: a prospective study of Norwegian doctors.

BMC Med Educ 2018 May 29;18(1):116. Epub 2018 May 29.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.O. Box 104, 2381, Brumunddal, Norway.

Background: A higher sense of mastery of doctors' clinical work could benefit not only their own mental health but also their work performance and patient care. However, we know little about factors associated with perceived mastery of clinical work among physicians. Our aim was therefore to study characteristics of those with stable low levels and of those with increased levels of mastery over a period of ten years of medical practice.

Methods: N = 631 doctors were surveyed in their final year of medical school in 1993/94 (T1) and 10 (T2), 15 (T3) and 20 (T4) years later. Low and increased perceived mastery of clinical work were measured between T2, T3 and T4. Response rates for all items measuring low and increased mastery were 238/522 (46%) and 256/522 (49%) respectively. The following explanatory variables were included: demographics, medical school factors, personality and contextual work-related and non-work-related factors.

Results: N = 73 (31%) of the doctors reported stable low mastery from T2 to T4. The following variables were significantly associated with low mastery in the adjusted analyses: vulnerability (OR: 1.30, P < .000, CI: 1.12 to 1.50), drinking alcohol to cope with stress during medical school (OR: 2.66, P = .04, CI: 1.03 to 6.85) and social support (OR: 0.78, P = .002, CI: 0.66 to 0.91). N = 39 (15%) reported increased mastery during the ten-year period from T2 to T4. Perceived job demands (OR: 0.66, P = .02, CI: 0.45 to 0.98) and taking up a leading position (OR: 3.04, P = .01, CI: 1.31 to 7.07) were associated with increased mastery after adjustment.

Conclusions: Stable low sense of mastery over time is associated with having a vulnerable personality, a history of having used alcohol to cope with stress during medical school and lack of contemporary social support. Conversely, increased sense of mastery is associated with taking up a leading position and having the perception that job demands are decreasing over time. These findings indicate that perceived mastery of clinical work may not be a trait, but a state modifiable over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1236-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975549PMC
May 2018

Six-year positive effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on mindfulness, coping and well-being in medical and psychology students; Results from a randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2018 24;13(4):e0196053. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

College of Social Work, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America.

Longitudinal research investigating the enduring impact of mindfulness training is scarce. This study investigates the six-year effects of a seven-week mindfulness-based course, by studying intervention effects in the trajectory of dispositional mindfulness and coping skills, and the association between those change trajectories and subjective well-being at six-year follow-up. 288 Norwegian medical and psychology students participated in a randomized controlled trial. 144 received a 15-hour mindfulness course over seven weeks in the second or third semester with booster sessions twice yearly, while the rest continued their normal study curricula. Outcomes were subjective well-being, and dispositional mindfulness and coping assessed using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Ways of Coping Checklist. Analyses were performed for the intention-to-treat sample, using latent growth curve models. At six-year follow-up, students receiving mindfulness training reported increased well-being. Furthermore, they reported greater increases in the trajectory of dispositional mindfulness and problem-focused coping along with greater decreases in the trajectory of avoidance-focused coping. Increases in problem-focused coping predicted increases in well-being. These effects were found despite relatively low levels of adherence to formal mindfulness practice. The findings demonstrate the viability of mindfulness training in the promotion of well-being and adaptive coping, which could contribute to the quality of care given, and to the resilience and persistence of health care professionals.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00892138.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196053PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916495PMC
July 2018

Medical school predictors of later perceived mastery of clinical work among Norwegian doctors: a cohort study with 10-year and 20-year follow-up.

BMJ Open 2017 Sep 24;7(9):e014462. Epub 2017 Sep 24.

Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Doctors' self-perceived mastery of clinical work might have an impact on their career and patient care, in addition to their own health and well-being. The aim of this study is to identify predictors at medical school of perceived mastery later in doctors' careers.

Design: A cohort of medical students (n=631) was surveyed in the final year of medical school in 1993/1994 (T1), and 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) years later.

Setting: Nationwide healthcare institutions.

Participants: Medical students from all universities in Norway.

Main Outcome Measures: Perceived mastery of clinical work was measured at T2 and T3. The studied predictors measured at T1 included personality traits, medical school stress, perceived medical recording skills, identification with the role of doctor, hazardous drinking and drinking to cope, in addition to age and gender. Effects were studied using multiple linear regression models.

Results: Response rates: T1, 522/631 (83%); T2, 390/522 (75%); and T3, 303/522 (58%). Mean scores at T2 and T3 were 22.3 (SD=4.2) and 24.5 (3.0) (t=8.2, p<0.001), with no gender difference. Adjusted associations at T2 were: role identification (β=0.16; p=0.006; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.28), perceived medical recording skills (β=0.13; p=0.02; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.24) and drinking to cope (β=-2.45; p=0.001; 95% CI -3.88 to -1.03). Adjusted association at T3 was perceived medical recording skills (β=0.11; p=0.015; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.21).

Conclusions: Perceived medical recording skills and role identification were associated with higher perceived mastery. Medical schools should provide experiences, teaching and assessment to enhance students' physician role identification and confidence in their own skills. Drinking to cope was associated with lower perceived mastery, which indicates the importance of acquiring healthier coping strategies in medical school.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5623388PMC
September 2017

Contextual Factors and Mental Distress as Possible Predictors of Hazardous Drinking in Norwegian Medical Doctors: A 15-Year Longitudinal, Nationwide Study.

Eur Addict Res 2017 11;23(1):19-27. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: We have previously identified long-term individual predictors of hazardous drinking in doctors, but longitudinal studies on contextual factors (work and life stress) and mental distress being independently linked to hazardous drinking over the first 15 years of a medical career are lacking.

Methods: Two nationwide cohorts of Norwegian doctors (n = 1,052) from all 4 Norwegian universities were surveyed in their final year of medical school (1993/1994 and 1999) (T1), and 4 (T2), 10 (T3), and 15 (T4) years later. Hazardous drinking was measured using a validated 9-item version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Work-related and other predictors were analysed using generalized estimating equations.

Results: Ninety percent (947/1,052) responded at least once, and 42% (450/1,052) responded at all 4 time points. Hazardous drinking was reported by 16% at T1, 14% at T2 and T3, and 15% at T4. Life events (p = 0.009) and mental distress (p = 0.002) were adjusted predictors of hazardous drinking, in addition to male gender, no religious activity, drinking to cope with tension, and low conscientiousness.

Conclusions: Doctors' work-related stress was not linked to hazardous drinking, but life events, mental distress, and drinking to cope were. Prevention should target mental distress and drinking to cope with tension.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000452442DOI Listing
June 2017

The hospital doctor of today - still continuously on duty.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2016 10 25;136(19):1635-1638. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

LEFO - Legeforskningsinstituttet Oslo og Forskningsinstituttet Modum Bad Vikersund.

Background: Norwegian hospital doctors emphasise the value of working hard and efficiently and of a high degree of attendance in the workplace. This helps establish social norms that guide behaviour within the professional culture. It is important to examine what consequences these values may entail when the doctor also needs to cater to his or her own needs.

Material And Method: We conducted eight focus-group interviews and three individual interviews among a total of 48 senior consultants and specialty registrars working in the areas of surgery, psychiatry and internal medicine. Total N = 48; 56  % women. The interviews were analysed with the aid of systematic text condensation.

Results: When Norwegian hospital doctors wish to appear as good doctors, they see that this entails consequences for the interrelationships with colleagues, the management and the work-life balance. Conflicts of interest arose between senior consultants and specialty registrars. Management initiatives to deal with absence, adaptation of the job to the life stage of each individual doctor and increased management involvement among doctors were among the measures proposed.

Interpretation: Better mutual knowledge between doctors and management with regard to each other’s values and responsibilities could constitute key premises for structural changes, for example in terms of better planning of leaves of absence and opportunities for adaptation of work schedules to the life stage of the persons concerned.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.16.0067DOI Listing
October 2016

The good doctor - strong and persevering.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2016 10 25;136(19):1631-1634. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

LEFO - Legeforskningsinstituttet Oslo og Forskningsinstituttet Modum Bad Vikersund.

Background: In today’s society, doctors are confronted with a number of opposing interests, from other colleagues, patients and employers. The development and regulation of the medical profession have been widely studied. However, less research has been devoted to the doctors’ own perception of what it means to be a good doctor.

Material And Method: We conducted eight focus-group interviews and three individual interviews among senior consultants and specialty registrars in the areas of surgery, psychiatry and internal medicine in two different hospitals. Total N = 48, of which 56  % were women. The interviews were analysed with the aid of systematic text condensation.

Results: «Professional dedication» demonstrated through «a high degree of attendance in the workplace» and «a high work capacity» were key topics for good doctors. Having a «high work capacity» was defined as being willing to go to great lengths, work overtime and work effectively. The senior consultants perceived their job as doctors more as a «lifestyle», while the specialty registrars more frequently regarded their work as a «job».

Interpretation: Norwegian hospital doctors wish to appear dedicated to their profession. They can demonstrate this by showing great willingness to work intensively and effectively with patients, while also going to great lengths to be available beyond normal working hours.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.16.0066DOI Listing
October 2016

Do work-related factors contribute to differences in doctor-certified sick leave? A prospective study comparing women in health and social occupations with women in the general working population.

BMC Public Health 2016 Mar 8;16:235. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

Department of Occupational Health Surveillance, National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Doctor -certified sick leave is prevalent in the health and social sector. We examined whether the higher risk of doctor-certified sick leave in women in health and social occupations compared to women in other occupations was explained by particular work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors.

Methods: A randomly drawn cohort aged 18-69 years from the general population in Norway was surveyed in 2009 (n = 12,255, response at baseline = 60.9 %), and was followed up in the national registry of social transfer payments in 2010. Eligible respondents were women registered with an active employee relationship for ≥100 actual working days in 2009 and 2010 (n = 3032). Using this sample, we compared health and social workers (n = 661) with the general working population (n = 2371). The outcome of interest was long-term sick leave (LTSL) ≥21 working days during 2010. Eight psychosocial and eight mechanical factors were evaluated.

Results: After adjusting for age, previous LTSL, education and working hours/week, women in health and social occupations had a higher risk for LTSL compared with women in the general working population (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 1.13-1.79; p = 0.003). After adjusting for psychosocial and mechanical factors, 70 % of the excess risk for LTSL was explained compared with the initial model. The main contributory factors to the increased risk were threats of violence and violence, emotional demands and awkward lifting.

Conclusions: Psychosocial and mechanical factors explained much of the excess risk for LTSL in women in health and social occupations compared with working women in general. Psychosocial risk factors were the most important contributors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-2908-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782354PMC
March 2016

A longitudinal mediational study on the stability of alexithymia among alcohol-dependent outpatients in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Psychol Addict Behav 2016 Feb 21;30(1):64-72. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Alcohol & Drug Assessment Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital.

Alexithymia is characterized by difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. Alexithymia has been described as a trait-like risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders. Few studies have investigated the absolute (whether mean scores change over time) and relative (extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) stability of alexithymia among men and women with alcohol dependence, or have considered potential underlying mechanisms. Social learning processes contribute to and maintain alcohol problems. The reinforcement of alcohol expectancies is one plausible mechanism that links the difficulties in emotional processing associated with alexithymia and alcohol use. The present study investigated the stability of alexithymia as well as alcohol expectancy as a mediator of alexithymia. Three hundred fifty-five alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled in a cognitive behavioral treatment program. Ninety-two alcohol-dependent patients completed assessments at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results indicated that total Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994) mean score, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings decreased significantly over time with a larger decrease in alexithymia mean scores for females. Externally oriented thinking mean scores did not change. The TAS-20 and its subfactors demonstrated significant correlations, from baseline to follow-up, which were stronger for males than for females. Regression analyses showed that the total TAS-20 mean scores, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings were partially mediated through assertion alcohol expectancies. In conclusion, this suggests that alexithymia has relative stability and is a trait-like factor among alcohol-dependent treatment seekers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000135DOI Listing
February 2016

Alexithymia in relation to alcohol expectancies in alcohol-dependent outpatients.

Psychiatry Res 2016 Feb 8;236:186-188. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Alcohol & Drug Assessment Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Qld, Australia; Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, Faculty of Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.

Alexithymia and alcohol outcome expectancies were investigated in 355 alcohol-dependent treatment seekers. Patients with alexithymia gave stronger self-report ratings of expectancies of affective change related to beliefs that alcohol leads to negative mood states and assertion, that alcohol enhances social skills, compared to those without alexithymia. The findings suggest that alcohol-dependent outpatients with alexithymia may drink to experience intensified negative emotions and improved social functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.01.016DOI Listing
February 2016

Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

Ind Health 2016 3;54(2):139-48. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

Modum Bad, Norway.

The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2015-0134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821897PMC
February 2017

Effects of Psychological and Social Factors in Shiftwork on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Nurses: A 1-Year Follow-Up.

J Occup Environ Med 2015 Oct;57(10):1127-37

Department of Work Psychology and Physiology (Ms Berthelsen, Dr Knardahl), National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo; Department of Psychosocial Science (Ms Berthelsen, Dr Pallesen), Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen; Department of Occupational Medicine (Dr Magerøy), Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (Dr Tyssen), Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo; Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care (Dr Bjorvatn), Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry; and Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care (Dr Moen), University of Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to elucidate prospective effects of both shift schedules and work environment on mental distress.

Methods: A total of 2059 nurses participated at baseline (38.1%), and 1582 nurses completed wave 2 of the survey (76.8%). Psychosocial work factors were measured by the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social factors at work and the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Mental distress was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

Results: Shiftwork was not associated with "caseness" anxiety or depression. Effects of shiftwork on mental distress were not moderated by psychosocial work factors. Mental distress predicted role clarity, role conflict, fair leadership, and social support. Job demands predicted symptoms of depression.

Conclusions: Whether psychosocial working conditions buffer mental health effects of shiftwork remains undecided. Prospective studies with multiple measurement points are needed to elucidate potential mutual relationships between work factors and mental distress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000532DOI Listing
October 2015

Risk Factors Measured During Medical School for Later Hazardous Drinking: A 10-year, Longitudinal, Nationwide Study (NORDOC).

Alcohol Alcohol 2016 Jan 3;51(1):71-6. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Aims: To investigate the prevalence and temporal patterns of hazardous drinking and risk factors during medical school for future hazardous drinking among doctors.

Methods: Two cohorts of graduating medical students (N = 1052) from all four Norwegian universities (NORDOC) were surveyed in their final year of medical school training (1993/94 and 1999) (T1) and again 4 (T2) and 10 (T3) years later. Longitudinally, 53% (562/1052) of the sample responded at all three time points. Hazardous drinking was defined as drinking five or more drinks during one session at least 2-3 times per month. Predictors of hazardous drinking, identified by logistic regression models after controlling for cohort, included a parental history of alcohol problems, having children, no religious activity, use of alcohol to cope with tension and some personality traits.

Results: There was a significant decline in the prevalence of hazardous drinking from T1 (14%) to T2 (10%) but not from T2 to T3 (8%). Approximately 23% of hazardous drinkers at T1 remained hazardous drinkers at T3 (N = 18). At T2, significant adjusted predictors included male gender (OR = 2.0, P = 0.04), use of alcohol as a coping strategy (OR = 2.2, P = 0.03) and hazardous drinking at T1 (OR = 9.8, P < 0.001). The significant adjusted predictors at T3 included older age (OR = 1.1, P = 0.01), male gender (OR = 3.6, P = 0.002) and hazardous drinking at T1 (OR = 7.5, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Hazardous drinking and drinking to cope with tension during medical school were the most important predictors of later hazardous drinking and should be targets of preventive efforts in medical schools.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agv059DOI Listing
January 2016

Does Personality Moderate the Effects of Mindfulness Training for Medical and Psychology Students?

Mindfulness (N Y) 2015;6(2):281-289

Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, P.O. Box 4623, 0405 Oslo, Norway.

The majority of mindfulness research to date has reported only on the group-level effects of interventions. Therefore, there is a need to better understand who is most likely to benefit from mindfulness interventions. This study reports on moderation analyses from a two-centre randomised controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) among 288 medical and psychology students. The study investigated whether baseline personality factors (neuroticism, conscientiousness and extroversion) and baseline mindfulness moderated effects on mental distress, study stress and subjective well-being measured after the intervention. An increased effect of the intervention on mental distress and subjective well-being was found in students with higher scores on neuroticism. Students with higher scores on conscientiousness showed an increased effect of mindfulness training on study stress. The training protected students against an increase in mental distress and study stress and a decrease in subjective well-being that was seen in the control group. Baseline mindfulness and extroversion did not moderate the effects of the intervention on the outcomes. The majority of the 288 medical and psychology students in the study sample were female. Female participants scored significantly higher on neuroticism and conscientiousness, and they may therefore be an important target group for mindfulness interventions among students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-013-0258-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4359274PMC
January 2015

Psychosocial and organizational risk factors for doctor-certified sick leave: a prospective study of female health and social workers in Norway.

BMC Public Health 2014 Sep 29;14:1016. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Department of Occupational Health Surveillance, National Institute of Occupational Health, PO BOX 8149 Dep, NO-0033 Oslo, Norway.

Background: Doctor-certified sick leave differs substantially across sectors, and among health and social workers, in particular, there is an increased risk. Previous studies have shown that work environmental factors contribute to sick leave. Hence, the identification of specific organizational and psychosocial risk factors for long- term sick leave, taking into account potential confounding related to mechanical risk factors such as lifting and awkward body postures, will be of importance in the work of prevention.

Methods: A randomly drawn population sample of Norwegian residents was interviewed about working conditions in 2009 (n = 12,255; response rate 60.9%). Female health and social care workers (n = 925) were followed in a national registry for subsequent sickness absence during 2010. The outcome of interest was doctor-certified sick leave of 21 days or more (long-term sick leave). Eleven work-related psychosocial and organizational factors were evaluated.

Results: In total, 186 persons (20.1%) were classified with subsequent long-term sick leave. After thoroughly adjusting for competing explanatory variables, the most consistent predictors for long-term sick leave were violence and threats of violence (OR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.14-2.45). The estimated population attributable risk for violence and threats of violence was 13%.

Conclusions: The present study among female health and social care workers revealed a substantial relationship between self-reported violence and threats of violence and subsequent long- term sick leave.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190425PMC
September 2014

The impact of economic factors on migration considerations among Icelandic specialist doctors: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2013 Dec 18;13:524. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, P,O,B, 1111 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

Background: Globalization has facilitated the employability of doctors almost anywhere in the world. In recent years, the migration of doctors seems to have increased. However, we lack studies on doctors' migration from developed countries. Because the economic recession experienced by many countries might have affected the migration of doctors, research on this topic is important for the retention of doctors. Iceland was hit hard by the economic recession in 2008. Therefore, we want to explore how many specialist doctors in Iceland have considered migrating and whether economic factors at work and in private life, such as extensive cost-containment initiatives at work and worries about personal finances, are related to doctors' migration considerations.

Methods: In 2010, all doctors in Iceland registered with the Icelandic Medical Association were sent an electronic cross-sectional survey by email. The 467 specialists who participated in this study represent 55% of all specialist doctors working in Iceland. Information on doctors' contemplation of migration was available from responses to the question: "Have you considered moving and working abroad?" The predictor variables in our logistic regression model are perceived cost-containment initiatives at work, stress related to personal finances, experience of working abroad during vacations, job dissatisfaction, job position, age, and gender.

Results: Sixty-three per cent of Iceland's specialist doctors had considered relocation abroad, 4% were moving in the next year or two, and 33% had not considered relocating. Logistic regression analysis shows that, controlling for age, gender, job position, job satisfaction, and experience of working abroad during vacations, doctors' migration considerations were significantly affected by their experiences of cost-containment initiatives at work (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, p < 0.01) and being stressed about personal finances (OR = 1.6, p < 0.001). Age, job satisfaction, and working abroad during vacations also had an effect, whereas job position did not.

Conclusions: Economic factors affect whether specialist doctors in Iceland consider migration. More studies on the effect of economic recession on migration by doctors are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3878398PMC
December 2013

Physicians' perceptions of quality of care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction in Canada, Norway, and the United States.

BMC Health Serv Res 2013 Dec 15;13:516. Epub 2013 Dec 15.

Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1111, Blindern, Oslo NO-0317, Norway.

Background: We lack national and cross-national studies of physicians' perceptions of quality of patient care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction to inform clinicians and policymakers. This study aims to compare such perceptions in Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Norway.

Methods: We analyzed data from large, nationwide, representative samples of physicians in Canada (n = 3,213), the U.S. (n = 6,628), and Norway (n = 657), examining demographics, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy.

Results: Among U.S. physicians, 79% strongly agreed/agreed they could provide high quality patient care vs. only 46% of Canadian and 59% of Norwegian physicians. U.S. physicians also perceived more clinical autonomy and time with their patients, with differences remaining significant even after controlling for age, gender, and clinical hours. Women reported less adequate time, clinical freedom, and ability to provide high-quality care. Country differences were the strongest predictors for the professional autonomy variables. In all three countries, physicians' perceptions of quality of care, clinical freedom, and time with patients influenced their overall job satisfaction. Fewer U.S. physicians reported their overall job satisfaction to be at-least-somewhat satisfied than did Norwegian and Canadian physicians.

Conclusions: U.S. physicians perceived higher quality of patient care and greater professional autonomy, but somewhat lower job satisfaction than their colleagues in Norway and Canada. Differences in health care system financing and delivery might help explain this difference; Canada and Norway have more publicly-financed, not-for-profit health care delivery systems, vs. a more-privately-financed and profit-driven system in the U.S. None of these three highly-resourced countries, however, seem to have achieved an ideal health care system from the perspective of their physicians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3904199PMC
December 2013

Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students.

BMC Med Educ 2013 Aug 13;13:107. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Background: Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students.

Methods: A total of 288 students (mean age = 23 years, 76% female) from the University of Oslo and the University of Tromsø were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The control group continued with their standard university courses and received no intervention. Participants were evaluated using self-reported measures both before and after the intervention. These were: the 'General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory Student version, Perceived Medical School Stress, Subjective Well-being, and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire' and additional indices of compliance.

Results: Following the intervention, a moderate effect on mental distress (Hedges'g 0.65, CI = .41, .88), and a small effect on both subjective well-being (Hedges'g 0.40, CI = .27, .63) and the mindfulness facet 'non-reacting' (Hedges'g 0.33, CI = .10, .56) were found in the intervention group compared with the control group. A higher level of programme attendance and reported mindfulness exercises predicted these changes. Significant effects were only found for female students who additionally reported reduced study stress and an increase in the mindfulness facet 'non-judging'. Gender specific effects of participation in the MBSR programme have not previously been reported, and gender differences in the present study are discussed.

Conclusion: Female medical and psychology students experienced significant positive improvements in mental distress, study stress, subjective well-being and mindfulness after participating in the MBSR programme.

Trial Registration: NCT00892138.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-13-107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751423PMC
August 2013

Perceived mastery of work among shift workers in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry.

Ind Health 2013 24;51(2):145-53. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway.

This study investigated associations between individual and work-related factors and perceived mastery of work among offshore shift workers. 2,406 employees of a Norwegian petroleum company were invited to participate. A web-based survey was used and 1336 completed questionnaires were returned (56%). Mastery of work was assessed using QPS Nordic Mastery Scale and the results were compared with a sample from the QPS Nordic study. Individual factors adjusted for were age, gender, marital status and personality. The following work-related factors were included: demands, control, support, night work and shift work home interference. Female offshore shift workers reported higher levels of perceived mastery of work compared with women in the comparison sample. The following variables were independently associated with perceived mastery of work: female gender (β=0.10, p=0.008), decisional demands (β=0.13, p<0.001), control (β=0.05, p=0.009), social support (β=0.07, p<0.001), shift-work locus of control (β=0.04, p=0.005) and neuroticism (β=-0.29, p<0.001). Post hoc analyses showed no sex differences in perceived mastery in two separate work positions on the platforms. Work-related variables and personality explained 55% and 45% respectively of the total variance (R(2)=0.22) explained by the final model. Female petroleum offshore workers reported somewhat higher levels of mastery of work than their male colleagues, however, this may be due to different work positions. Work-related factors accounted for about half of the explained variance and decisional demands, control and support remained statistically significant after controlling for personality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2012-0086DOI Listing
May 2014
-->