Publications by authors named "Regitze Bangsgaard"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cataract Surgery with or without Intraocular Lens Implantation in Pediatric Uveitis: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses.

J Ophthalmol 2021 11;2021:5481609. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.

Purpose: To systematically review the results of comparative studies of modern cataract surgery in pediatric uveitis with or without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and to perform comparative meta-analyses to compare visual acuity outcomes and complication rates.

Methods: On 12 November 2020, we systematically searched the Cochrane Central, PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE,, and all affiliated databases of the Web of Science. Two authors independently reviewed studies and extracted data. Studies were reviewed qualitatively in text and quantitatively with meta-analyses. Outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), inflammation control, and rates of postoperative complications.

Results: Ten studies of 288 eyes were eligible for review of which the majority were eyes with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. Summary estimates revealed that the BCVA was better in pseudophakic eyes vs. aphakic eyes (1-year postoperative: -0.23 logMAR, 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.03 logMAR, =0.027; 5-year postoperative: -0.35 logMAR, 95% CI: -0.51 to -0.18 logMAR, =0.000036). Pseudophakic eyes had more visual axis opacification (OR 6.76, 95% CI: 2.73 to 16.8, =0.000036) and less hypotony (OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.95, =0.044).

Conclusions: In modern era cataract surgery on eyes with pediatric uveitis with IOL implantation leads to satisfactory and superior visual outcomes and no differences in complication rates apart from an increased prevalence of visual axis opacification and a decreased prevalence of hypotony when compared to aphakia. However, limitations of the retrospective design and the presence of selection bias necessitate a careful interpretation.
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June 2021

Uveitis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: 18-Year Outcome in the Population-based Nordic Cohort Study.

Ophthalmology 2021 04 29;128(4):598-608. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Purpose: To assess the long-term outcome of uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

Design: Population-based, multicenter, prospective JIA cohort, with a cross-sectional assessment of JIA-associated uveitis (JIA-U) 18 years after the onset of JIA.

Participants: A total of 434 patients with JIA, of whom 96 had uveitis, from defined geographic areas of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.

Methods: Patients with onset of JIA between January 1997 and June 2000 were prospectively followed for 18 years. Pediatric rheumatologists and ophthalmologists collected clinical and laboratory data.

Main Outcome Measures: Cumulative incidence of uveitis and clinical characteristics, JIA and uveitis disease activity, ocular complications, visual outcome, and risk factors associated with the development of uveitis-related complications.

Results: Uveitis developed in 96 (22.1%) of 434 patients with JIA. In 12 patients (2.8%), uveitis was diagnosed between 8 and 18 years of follow-up. Systemic immunosuppressive medication was more common among patients with uveitis (47/96 [49.0%]) compared with patients without uveitis (78/338 [23.1%]). Active uveitis was present in 19 of 78 patients (24.4%) at the 18-year visit. Ocular complications occurred in 31 of 80 patients (38.8%). Short duration between the onset of JIA and the diagnosis of uveitis was a risk factor for developing ocular complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8). Patients with a diagnosis of uveitis before the onset of JIA all developed cataract and had an OR for development of glaucoma of 31.5 (95% CI, 3.6-274). Presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) was also a risk factor for developing 1 or more ocular complications (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.7). Decreased visual acuity (VA) <6/12 was found in 12 of 135 eyes (8.9%) with uveitis, and 4 of 80 patients (5.0%) with JIA-U had binocular decreased VA <6/12.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that uveitis screening should start immediately when the diagnosis of JIA is suspected or confirmed and be continued for more than 8 years after the diagnosis of JIA. Timely systemic immunosuppressive treatment in patients with a high risk of developing ocular complications must be considered early in the disease course to gain rapid control of ocular inflammation.
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April 2021

Proposal for a definition for response to treatment, inactive disease and damage for JIA associated uveitis based on the validation of a uveitis related JIA outcome measures from the Multinational Interdisciplinary Working Group for Uveitis in Childhood (MIWGUC).

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2019 Oct 1;17(1):66. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Pediatric Rheumatology Department, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: JIA-associated uveitis (JIAU) is a serious, sight-threatening disease with significant long-term complications and risk of blindness, even with improved contemporary treatments. The MIWGUC was set up in order to propose specific JIAU activity and response items and to validate their applicability for clinical outcome studies.

Methods: The group consists of 8 paediatric rheumatologists and 7 ophthalmologists. A consensus meeting took place on November 2015 in Barcelona (Spain) with the objective of validating the previously proposed measures. The validation process was based on the results of a prospective open, international, multi-centre, cohort study designed to validate the outcome measures proposed by the initial MIWGUC group meeting in 2012. The meeting used the same Delphi and nominal group technique as previously described in the first paper from the MIWGUC group (Arthritis Care Res 64:1365-72, 2012). Patients were included with a diagnosis of JIA, aged less than 18 years, and with active uveitis or an uveitis flare which required treatment with a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug. The proposed outcome measures for uveitis were collected by an ophthalmologist and for arthritis by a paediatric rheumatologist. Patient reported outcome measures were also measured.

Results: A total of 82 patients were enrolled into the validation cohort. Fifty four percent (n = 44) had persistent oligoarthritis followed by rheumatoid factor negative polyarthritis (n = 15, 18%). The mean uveitis disease duration was 3.3 years (SD 3.0). Bilateral eye involvement was reported in 65 (79.3%) patients. The main findings are that the most significant changes, from baseline to 6 months, are found in the AC activity measures of cells and flare. These measures correlate with the presence of pre-existing structural complications and this has implications for the reporting of trials using a single measure as a primary outcome. We also found that visual analogue scales of disease activity showed significant change when reported by the ophthalmologist, rheumatologist and families. The measures formed three relatively distinct groups. The first group of measures comprised uveitis activity, ocular damage and the ophthalmologists' VAS. The second comprised patient reported outcomes including disruption to school attendance. The third group consisted of the rheumatologists' VAS and the joint score.

Conclusions: We propose distinctive and clinically significant measures of disease activity, severity and damage for JIAU. This effort is the initial step for developing a comprehensive outcome measures for JIAU, which incorporates the perspectives of rheumatologists, ophthalmologists, patients and families.
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October 2019

Adrenal Suppression in Infants Treated with Topical Ocular Glucocorticoids.

Ophthalmology 2018 10 19;125(10):1638-1643. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet/Glostrup, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: To analyze the incidence of adrenal suppression and the glucocorticoid (GC) dose per kilogram body weight given in infants treated with standard protocol for topical ophthalmic GCs after congenital cataract surgery.

Design: Retrospective, consecutive case series.

Participants: All children younger than 2 years of age who underwent operation for congenital cataract between January 2011 and May 2015 in 1 center.

Methods: Patient charts were reviewed to collect data on results and timing of a standard corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH]) stimulation test and GC dose per kilogram body weight.

Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of adrenal suppression in children tested on GC treatment. Glucocorticoid dose per kilogram body weight.

Results: Among 26 consecutive infants, 15 (58%) were tested while they were still on GC treatment. Ten of these 15 infants (67%) had adrenal suppression, 2 of whom had obvious clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome and 1 of whom had signs of Addisonian crises during general anesthesia. Eleven of the 26 infants (42%) were tested at a median time of 21 days (range, 6-89) after treatment cessation, and they all had normal test results. Children with suppressed adrenal function had received cumulative GC doses per body weight that were significantly higher the last 5 days before testing compared with children with normal test results. Infants with adrenal suppression were treated with hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Adrenal function recovered after a median of 3.1 months (range, 2.3 months to 2.3 years).

Conclusions: Two thirds of the infants tested during treatment with a standard GC protocol after congenital cataract surgery showed adrenal suppression. There was a significant association between the cumulative daily dose of GCs and the test result. Because adrenal suppression is a serious but treatable condition, we recommend a systematic assessment of adrenal function in infants treated with doses of topical ocular GCs comparable to our regimen and careful evaluations of other treatment regimens.
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October 2018


Ophthalmology 2016 12;123(12):e73-e75

Department of Ophthalmology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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December 2016

Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Danish National Study.

Ophthalmology 2016 Apr 4;123(4):796-803. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital and Rigshospitalet, Denmark.

Purpose: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark.

Design: A retrospective, register-based cohort study.

Participants: The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008.

Methods: The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration number. Each of the 31 candidate risk factors were evaluated in univariate analyses, while adjusted for known risk factors (i.e., gestational age [GA] at delivery, small for gestational age [SGA], multiple births, and male sex). Significant outcomes were analyzed thereafter in a backward selection multiple logistic regression model.

Main Outcome Measures: Treatment-demanding ROP and its associations to candidate risk factors.

Results: Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.08; P < 0.01) and blood transfusion (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.20-3.14; P = 0.01) were the only new statistically independent risk factors, in addition to GA at delivery, SGA, multiple births, and male sex. Modification in these prognostic factors for ROP did not cause an increase in treatment-demanding ROP.

Conclusions: In a large study population, blood transfusion and mechanical ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment-demanding ROP during a recent birth period (2003-2008).
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April 2016

Refraction and visual acuity in a national Danish cohort of 4-year-old children of extremely preterm delivery.

Acta Ophthalmol 2015 Jun 30;93(4):330-8. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Copenhagen University Eye Departments, Glostrup Hospital & Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Region Hovedstaden, Denmark.

Purpose: A recent threefold increase in laser treatment for advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) triggered a nationwide preschool ophthalmic and developmental status among extremely preterm survivors. Here, we discuss refraction and visual acuity.

Methods: Survivors (n = 178) from a national birth cohort (February 2004 to March 2006) of gestational age <28 weeks (PT) and 56 full-term (FT) controls attended for evaluation at age 4 years. Cycloplegic refraction and keratometry were achieved by Retinomax autokeratorefractor and visual acuities by symbol recognition (HOTV, logMAR).

Results: The refractive distribution presented a myopic tail (4.5%) and a hyperopic tail (11.9% ≥+2.5 D) as special preterm features, and corneas were more curved. Astigmatism and anisometropia were only marginally increased, and visual acuities were generally good. Best-corrected binocular median logMAR visual acuity was 0.1 in FT and 0.2 in PT, in Snellen equivalents 0.8 and 0.63. Snellen acuity ≤0.5 occurred across the ROP subgroups, but mainly in those with at least ROP stage 3. Two children had low vision.

Conclusions: The overall fair outcome for refraction and function is in accordance with other recent northern Europe experience. The results differ in particular from the poorer ophthalmic outcomes reported in the pioneer US treatment studies (cryotherapy for ROP and ETROP). The diode laser ablations (n = 32) appeared effective in our series; except one child, all treated subjects had good or fair social vision at the age of 4 years.
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June 2015

Cerebral damage may be the primary risk factor for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature.

Arch Ophthalmol 2012 Nov;130(11):1410-7

OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of cerebral damage and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature and to determine the primary risk factor of the two. METHODS A clinical follow-up study of a Danish national cohort of children born extremely premature (gestational age, <28 weeks). The study sample consisted of 262 extremely preterm children born between February 13, 2004, and March 23, 2006, of whom 178 children (67.9%) participated. A matched control group consisted of 56 term-born children (gestational age, 37 to <42 weeks). All participants were identified through the National Birth Register and invited to participate in a clinical examination. The children were evaluated with regard to visual acuity, foveal sequelae, and maximum ROP stage and the presence of global developmental deficits (an indicator for cerebral damage) that was measured by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. RESULTS Global developmental deficits and foveal sequelae occurred more often in extremely preterm children than in term-born control children and increased with ROP severity (χ2 test; P = .11 and P < .001, respectively). Global developmental deficits, moderate to severe foveal abnormality, and ROP treatment were independently associated with visual impairment (P < .05, for better and worse eyes). A stepwise multiple logistic regression for better-eye logarithmic visual acuities of 0.3 or greater (Snellen scale, ≤0.5) yielded an odds ratio of 8.7 (95% CI, 3.0-25.2; P < .001) for global developmental deficit and 6.3 (95% CI, 2.2-18.5; P < .001) for moderate to severe foveal sequelae. CONCLUSION Cerebral damage and ROP are independent risk factors for visual impairment in children born extremely premature, and cerebral damage may be the primary risk factor.
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November 2012

Experts do not agree when to treat retinopathy of prematurity based on plus disease.

Br J Ophthalmol 2012 Apr 15;96(4):549-53. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.

Objectives: To investigate inter-reader agreement on five severity levels of central vascular changes (none, mild, moderate, severe pre-plus disease, plus disease) and aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to see whether an unintended shift in indication for treatment occurred.

Methods: Four international ROP readers participated. Before the grading of the photographs, the readers were informed that a high proportion of advanced ROP cases were included. In total, 243 photographs/948 quadrants were available from 136 infants. As a standard series of photographs was available, grading was performed under optimised conditions.

Results: The four readers agreed on the quadrant scores of only 70 (7.38%) of the 948 quadrants--that is, on 1, 5, 15, 4 and 45 quadrants for scores 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The mean scores differed systematically between the readers (permutation test, p<0.0001). Agreement on presence of aggressive posterior ROP from all four readers was not obtained for any of the photographs. Readers scored plus disease in at least two quadrants in 95.5% of the eyes for which treatment was indicated. All four readers agreed on the scoring of indication for treatment for 195 eyes (80.2%); however, treatment was only recommended in 18 (7.4%) eyes. One reader was found to differ systematically from the others in indicating treatment (Rasch analysis; p=0.0001). Finally, a significant shift in indication for treatment occurred between birth period 2000-2002 and 2003-2006 (Mann-Whitney rank sum test, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Inter-reader agreement on central vascular changes is poor, especially when based on more than two rating categories. The subjective nature of diagnosing such vascular changes possibly resulted in earlier treatment of preterm infants in Denmark over the entire study period (1997-2006). The recent increased incidence of treated infants in Denmark is, at least in part, explained by a significant shift in indication for treatment.
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April 2012

A new risk-based screening criterion for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark.

Pediatrics 2011 Mar 14;127(3):e598-606. Epub 2011 Feb 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup Hospital, Nordre Ringvej 57, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark.

Objective: The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark.

Methods: This retrospective national cohort study is based on data from 3 national registers. These registers provided on infants treated for retinopathy of prematurity, infants in need of treatment but missed by the present screening program, and the candidate neonates for advanced retinopathy of prematurity development A nonlinear logistic regression model was fitted to the data, and various screening criteria were evaluated.

Results: During the study period (2002-2006), 116 infants were treated for retinopathy of prematurity, no treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity infants were missed by the screening program, and 182 premature infants were candidates for developing treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity. Screening criteria combining gestational age at delivery and birth weight limits and new risk-based criteria were compared with regards to their effectiveness. The risk-based criteria were the most effective. Use of the 0.13% risk-based criterion to define the population to be screened resulted in the detection of all treated infants in the study period and 17.4% fewer infants to screen. The model predicted this criterion to result in 1 missed case of treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity every 11 years and 1 case of blindness every 18 years in Denmark.

Conclusions: Screening criteria based on risk estimates of developing treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity are the most effective for retinopathy-of-prematurity screening. The risk-based criterion of 0.13% can safely be implemented for future retinopathy-of-prematurity screening in Denmark.
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March 2011

11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report.

Mol Cytogenet 2009 Feb 17;2. Epub 2009 Feb 17.

Kennedy Center, Glostrup, Denmark.

WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation) and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome are rare contiguous gene deletion syndromes caused by deletions of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.We present a patient with mental retardation, unilateral cataract, bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12) located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described in both WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. Characterization of this patient contributes further to elucidate the function of the genes in the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.
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February 2009

Isolated bilateral optic neuritis in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006 Dec;84(6):815-7

Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.

Purpose: We present a 4-year-old girl with isolated visual loss related to a bilateral oedematous optic neuropathy of unknown origin, occurring after an episode of viral illness.

Methods: A cerebral MRI was performed, showing bilateral enhancement of the optic nerves and bilateral, diffuse, cerebral white matter lesions.

Results: The MRI scan suggested acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Treatment with intravenous steroids and immunoglobulins resulted in favourable visual recovery.

Conclusions: Bilateral isolated optic neuritis in childhood may be the only presenting symptom in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which requires appropriate evaluation and therapeutic management.
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December 2006

Occurrence of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal fossa: comparison of clinical and histopathological findings.

Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2005 Feb;83(1):100-3

Eye Pathology Institute, University of Copenhagen, Frederick V's Vej 11 I, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Purpose: To analyse clinical referral diagnoses and the location of lesions with histologically verified lacrimal gland tissue occurring outside the fossa of the lacrimal gland.

Methods: Sections of lesions excised from areas outside the fossa of the lacrimal gland containing lacrimal gland tissue on histological examination were collected from the files of the Eye Pathology Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. Specimens spanned a period of 50 years. Sections were re-examined and referral data on location and clinical diagnosis were compared with histological findings.

Results: A total of 120 lesions were collected. Of these, 59 (49%) consisted of prolapsed lacrimal gland. The remaining 61 (51%) lesions contained ectopic lacrimal gland tissue, either as part of a complex choristoma in 38 (32%) cases, or as solitary ectopic lacrimal gland tissue in 23 (19%) cases. The majority (97; 81%) of lesions had been located at the temporal epibulbar conjunctiva and included mainly prolapsed lacrimal gland and complex choristoma. The clinical referral diagnoses covered a wide spectrum of lesions. The most frequent clinical diagnoses were non-specific tumour (35%), non-specific cyst (18%) and dermoid (11%). Of the 61 lesions containing ectopic lacrimal gland tissue, only two had been preoperatively diagnosed as such and only two of the 59 lesions with prolapsed lacrimal gland had been correctly diagnosed.

Conclusions: Prolapsed palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland was the most common lesion and, as expected, the prime location was the temporal conjunctiva. Despite this location, the referring clinical diagnosis was often wrong or non-specific. Surgeons seem to have been unaware of the various clinical manifestations of extrafossal glandular tissue, particularly when excising lesions in the upper temporal region of the conjunctiva. Surgical intervention in this location may jeopardize the excretory ducts of the lacrimal gland and may consequently lead to dry eye and thus should be avoided when the typical clinical appearance of prolapsed lacrimal gland is encountered.
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February 2005

Low whole-body insulin sensitivity in patients with ischaemic heart disease is associated with impaired myocardial glucose uptake predictive of poor outcome after revascularisation.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2002 Aug 27;29(8):991-8. Epub 2002 Apr 27.

Division of Cardiology, Medical Department B, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 24, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

We tested the hypothesis that low whole-body insulin sensitivity in patients with ischaemic heart disease and impaired left ventricular (LV) function is associated with abnormalities of insulin-mediated myocardial glucose uptake affecting outcome after coronary bypass surgery (CABG). We studied 29 patients with ischaemic heart disease and impaired LV ejection fraction (EF) and age-matched healthy volunteers ( n = 30). As assessed by euglycaemic glucose-insulin clamp, 15 patients had a low and 14 a normal whole-body insulin sensitivity. Using positron emission tomography, patterns of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and nitrogen-13 ammonia uptake in addition to quantified glucose uptake, blood flow and hyperaemic blood flow were assessed before CABG in 16 myocardial segments of the left ventricle. Major adverse cardiac events and LVEF were evaluated 7 months after CABG. Glucose uptake in normokinetic PET-normal myocardium was found to be higher in patients with normal whole-body insulin sensitivity ( P < 0.001), whereas in patients with low whole-body insulin sensitivity more segments displayed a pattern of reduced glucose uptake in normoperfused myocardium (PET-reverse mismatch) ( P < 0.05). Hyperaemic blood flow was impaired in both patient groups. A major cardiac event after CABG could partly be predicted by the LV extent of normoperfused segments with PET-reverse mismatch. We conclude that low whole-body insulin sensitivity in patients with ischaemic heart disease and impaired LV function is associated with impaired insulin-mediated myocardial glucose uptake, which is partially predictive of a worse outcome after CABG.
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August 2002

Prolonged ischemic heart disease and coronary artery bypass - relation to contractile reserve.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002 Mar;21(3):417-23

Division of Cardiology, Medical Department B, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: A major effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with ischemic heart disease and impaired left ventricular (LV) contractile function is believed to be an improvement in LV function due to recovery of dysfunctional, but viable myocardium. However, recent studies have indicated a time limit for such a recovery. We therefore investigated the extent of viable myocardium in patients with impaired LV function due to ischemic heart disease after a prolonged strategy of medical treatment and its relation to changes in clinical variables after CABG.

Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with a mean duration of ischemic heart symptoms of 9 years and LV ejection fraction (EF) <45% referred for CABG were included and LV extent of viable myocardium was measured preoperatively by glucose metabolism--blood flow positron emission tomography imaging and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Symptoms, exercise-capacity and LV function were evaluated before and 7 months after surgery in event-free survivors.

Results: LV extent of myocardial viability was <30% in most patients. In event-free survivors, LVEF decreased from 31+/-7 to 26+/-8% 7 months after CABG. The decrease in LVEF was correlated to the LV extent of myocardial metabolism--blood flow reverse mismatch. Most of the patients experienced an improvement in their angina pectoris, heart failure symptoms and exercise capacity after CABG; the overall 3-year survival was 77%.

Conclusions: Patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and impairment of LV function, in whom an initial long-standing conservative treatment has been practiced, benefit from CABG, despite a lack of LV functional reserve.
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March 2002