Publications by authors named "Regina Goralczyk"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Combinations of bio-active dietary constituents affect human white adipocyte function in-vitro.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2016 21;13:84. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Department of Human Nutrition and Health, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass , is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Here we evaluated the role of (all-E)-lycopene (Lyc), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or -resveratrol (Res) and combinations thereof on human white adipocyte function.

Methods: In-vitro differentiating human pre-adipocytes were treated with EPA, Lyc and Res or their combinations for 14 days. The effects on intracellular lipid droplet (LD) accumulation, secreted anti- and pro-inflammatory cyto-/adipokines (e.g. adiponectin, IL-6, IL-8/CXCL-8 and MCP-1/CCL2) and on gene expression of markers of adipocyte differentiation and substrate metabolism (e.g. PPAR-gamma, C/EBP-alpha, GLUT-4, FAS, ATGL, HSL, and PLIN-1) were measured by fluorescent microscopy (Cellomics™), multi-parametric LiquiChip® technology and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively.

Results: Treatment of differentiating adipocytes for 14 days with the combination of Lyc/Res and EPA/Res resulted in significantly inhibited LD formation (~ -25 and -20%, respectively) compared to the effects of the single compounds. These morphological changes were accompanied by increased mRNA levels of the adipogenic marker PPAR-gamma and the lipase ATGL and by decreased expression levels of lipogenic markers (LPL, FAS, GLUT-4) and the LD-covering protein PLIN-1. In addition, a blunted adipocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and MCP-1) and adiponectin was observed following treatment with these compounds.

Conclusion: The combination of the dietary bio-actives Lyc and EPA with Res might influence adipocyte function by affecting the balance between adipogenic, lipogenic and lipolytic gene expression, resulting in a reduced LD storage and a less inflammatory secretion profile. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of dietary compounds may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders via effects on human white adipocyte function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-016-0143-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5117626PMC
November 2016

Dietary constituents reduce lipid accumulation in murine C3H10 T1/2 adipocytes: A novel fluorescent method to quantify fat droplets.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2011 May 12;8(1):30. Epub 2011 May 12.

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd,; Department of Human Nutrition and Health, CH-4002, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Adipocyte volume (fat accumulation) and cell number (adipogenesis) is increased in obese individuals. Our objective was the identification of dietary constituents with inhibitory effects on triglyceride formation during adipogenesis. Therefore an in vitro adipose cell assay in murine C3H10 T1/2 cells was developed, which enabled rapid quantification of intracellular fat droplet accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Results were corroborated by expression levels of several specific adipogenic and lipogenic genes which are known to regulate triglyceride accumulation.

Methods: C3H10 T1/2 adipocyte differentiation was conducted with rosiglitazone in the presence of test compounds for 7 days. Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets was measured using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® VTI HCS reader and SpotDetector® BioApplication from ThermoFisher. Fluorescent images were automatically acquired and analysed employing the fluorescent dyes BODIPY® 493/503 and Hoechst 33342, for staining neutral lipids and localisation of nuclei, respectively. The expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, such as PPARα and PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2, adiponectin, LPL and HSL, CPT-1β, ACC1, Glut4 and FAS, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Dietary ingredients including PUFAs, carotenoids, polyphenols and catechins were tested for their effect on lipid accumulation.

Results: The ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the carotenoid β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on the rosiglitazone-stimulated lipid formation. (all-E)-lycopene and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) showed a moderate inhibition, whereas resveratrol did not reduce fat droplet formation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression was attenuated. DHA, β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the gene expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2 and CPT-1β.

Conclusion: This in vitro assay in differentiating adipocytes enables automated detection and quantification of changes in lipid droplet number, size and intensity. The observed inhibitory effects of identified dietary constituents such as ω-3 PUFAs and β-carotene correlate with the modulation of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-8-30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3117678PMC
May 2011

Monoamine reuptake inhibition and mood-enhancing potential of a specified oregano extract.

Br J Nutr 2011 Apr 21;105(8):1150-63. Epub 2010 Dec 21.

DSM Nutritional Products Limited, Research and Development Human Nutrition and Health, PO Box 2676, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

A healthy, balanced diet is essential for both physical and mental well-being. Such a diet must include an adequate intake of micronutrients, essential fatty acids, amino acids and antioxidants. The monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline, are derived from dietary amino acids and are involved in the modulation of mood, anxiety, cognition, sleep regulation and appetite. The capacity of nutritional interventions to elevate brain monoamine concentrations and, as a consequence, with the potential for mood enhancement, has not been extensively evaluated. The present study investigated an extract from oregano leaves, with a specified range of active constituents, identified via an unbiased, high-throughput screening programme. The oregano extract was demonstrated to inhibit the reuptake and degradation of the monoamine neurotransmitters in a dose-dependent manner, and microdialysis experiments in rats revealed an elevation of extracellular serotonin levels in the brain. Furthermore, following administration of oregano extract, behavioural responses were observed in mice that parallel the beneficial effects exhibited by monoamine-enhancing compounds when used in human subjects. In conclusion, these data show that an extract prepared from leaves of oregano, a major constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is brain-active, with moderate triple reuptake inhibitory activity, and exhibits positive behavioural effects in animal models. We postulate that such an extract may be effective in enhancing mental well-being in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510004940DOI Listing
April 2011

Beta-carotene and lung cancer in smokers: review of hypotheses and status of research.

Authors:
Regina Goralczyk

Nutr Cancer 2009 ;61(6):767-74

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., R&D, Human Nutrition and Health, Kaiseraugst, Switzerland.

A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers have unexpectedly reported increased lung tumor rates after high, long-term, beta-carotene supplementation. Recently, detailed analyses by stratification for smoking habits of several large, long-term intervention or epidemiological trials are now available. The ATBC study, the CARET study, the Antioxidant Polyp Prevention trial, and the E3N study provide evidence that the adverse effects of beta-carotene supplementation are correlated with the smoking status of the study participants. In contrast, the Physician Health Study, the Linxian trial, and a pooled analysis of 7 epidemiological cohort studies have not supported this evidence. The ferret and A/J mouse lung cancer model have been used to investigate the mechanism of interaction of beta-carotene with carcinogens in the lung. Both models have specific advantages and disadvantages. There are a number of hypotheses concerning the beta-carotene/tobacco smoke interaction including alterations of retinoid metabolism and signaling pathways and interaction with CYP enzymes and pro-oxidation/DNA oxidation. The animal models consistently demonstrate negative effects only in the ferret, and following dosing with beta-carotene in corn oil at pharmacological dosages. No effects or even protective effects against smoke or carcinogen exposure were observed when beta-carotene was applied at physiological dosages or in combination with vitamins C and E, either as a mixture or in a stable formulation. In conclusion, human and animal studies have shown that specific circumstances, among them heavy smoking, seem to influence the effect of high beta-carotene intakes. In normal, healthy, nonsmoking populations, there is evidence of beneficial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635580903285155DOI Listing
May 2010

Angiogenesis in Balb/c mice under beta-carotene supplementation in diet.

Genes Nutr 2010 Mar 28;5(1):9-16. Epub 2009 Nov 28.

Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing ones. The most important steps in angiogenesis include detachment, proliferation, migration, homing and differentiation of vascular wall cells, which are mainly endothelial cells and their progenitors. The study focused on the effect of beta-carotene (BC) supplementation (12,000 mg/kg) in the diet on angiogenesis in Balb/c mice. Female Balb/c mice were fed for 5 weeks with two different diets: with BC or without BC supplementation. After 4 weeks of feeding, Balb/c mice were injected subcutaneously with two matrigel plugs with or without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Six days later, the animals were killed, and the matrigel plugs were used for immunohistochemical staining with CD31 antibody and for gene expression analysis. Microarray and Real-Time PCR data showed down-regulation of genes involved in proliferation and up-regulation of genes encoding inhibitors of apoptosis, proteins regulating cell adhesion, matrix-degrading enzymes and proteins involved in the VEGF pathway. The results of this study demonstrated that BC proangiogenic activity (with or without bFGF) in vivo seemed to be more significantly associated with cells' protection from apoptosis and their stimulation of chemotaxis/homing than cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12263-009-0160-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820200PMC
March 2010

Lycopene biodistribution is altered in 15,15'-carotenoid monooxygenase knockout mice.

J Nutr 2008 Dec;138(12):2367-71

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

15,15'-carotenoid monooxygenase (CMO I) is generally recognized as the central carotenoid cleavage enzyme responsible for converting provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A, while having little affinity for nonprovitamin A carotenoids, such as lycopene. To investigate the role of CMO I in carotenoid metabolism, approximately 90-d-old C57BL/6 x 129/SvJ [CMO I wild-type (WT)] and B6;129S6-Bcmo1tm1Dnp [CMO I knockout (KO)] mice were fed a high-fat, moderate vitamin A, cholesterol-containing diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg diet of beta-carotene, lycopene, or placebo beadlets for 60 d (n = 12-14). CMO I KO mice fed lycopene (Lyc-KO) exhibited significant decreases in hepatic, spleen, and thymus lycopene concentrations and significant increases in prostate, seminal vesicles, testes, and brain lycopene concentrations compared with WT mice fed lycopene (Lyc-WT). Furthermore, in the serum and all tissues analyzed, excluding the testes, there was a significant increase in the percent lycopene cis isomers in Lyc-KO mice compared with Lyc-WT mice. CMO I KO mice fed beta-carotene (betaC-KO) had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A concentrations (17% of WT mice fed beta-carotene [betaC-WT]). Concordantly, betaC-KO mice had higher serum and tissue beta-carotene concentrations than betaC-WT mice. In addition, phenotypically CMO I KO mice had significantly higher final body weights and CMO I KO female mice had significantly lower uterus weights than CMO I WT mice. In conclusion, CMO I KO mice fed low levels of vitamin A have altered lycopene biodistribution and isomer patterns and do not cleave beta-carotene to vitamin A at appreciable levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.099663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3415862PMC
December 2008

The chemotactic activity of beta-carotene in endothelial cell progenitors and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: A microarray analysis.

Exp Clin Cardiol 2006 ;11(2):117-22

Department of Clinical Biochemistry.

Objectives: Endothelial cells and their progenitors play an important role in angiogenesis that is essential for organogenesis and tissue remodelling, as well as for inflammatory responses and carcinogenesis in all periods of life. In the present study, the authors concentrated on the direct effect of beta-carotene (BC) on human umbilical cord-originated endothelial progenitor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

Methods: BC uptake was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect on cell proliferation was measured based on bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Chemotaxis was performed in a Boyden chamber. The influence on tubular-like structure formation was investigated using a three-dimensional assay in Matrigel (Becton Dickinson, USA) both in an in vitro and in vivo model. Changes in gene expression were analyzed using the microarray hybridization method. Quantitative gene expression was estimated using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method.

Results: It was shown that BC, in the physiological range of concentrations found in human blood, is a potent activator of chemotaxis of endothelial cells. Microarray data analysis revealed that the genes involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, matrix reorganization and activation of chemotaxis were the most affected by BC genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells. These results were also confirmed in an in vivo angiogenesis model.

Conclusion: BC, in the range of physiological concentrations, stimulates early steps of angiogenic activity of endothelial cells by activation of cellular migration, as well as by matrix reorganization and a decrease in cellular adhesion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2274854PMC
July 2011

CMO1 deficiency abolishes vitamin A production from beta-carotene and alters lipid metabolism in mice.

J Biol Chem 2007 Nov 12;282(46):33553-33561. Epub 2007 Sep 12.

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., R & D Human Nutrition and Health, P.O. Box 3255, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Carotenoids are currently investigated regarding their potential to lower the risk of chronic disease and to combat vitamin A deficiency in humans. These plant-derived compounds must be cleaved and metabolically converted by intrinsic carotenoid oxygenases to support the panoply of vitamin A-dependent physiological processes. Two different carotenoid-cleaving enzymes were identified in mammals, the classical carotenoid-15,15'-oxygenase (CMO1) and a putative carotenoid-9',10'-oxygenase (CMO2). To analyze the role of CMO1 in mammalian physiology, here we disrupted the corresponding gene by targeted homologous recombination in mice. On a diet providing beta-carotene as major vitamin A precursor, vitamin A levels fell dramatically in several tissues examined. Instead, this mouse mutant accumulated the provitamin in large quantities (e.g. as seen by an orange coloring of adipose tissues). Besides impairments in beta-carotene metabolism, CMO1 deficiency more generally interfered with lipid homeostasis. Even on a vitamin A-sufficient chow, CMO1(-/-) mice developed a fatty liver and displayed altered serum lipid levels with elevated serum unesterified fatty acids. Additionally, this mouse mutant was more susceptible to high fat diet-induced impairments in fatty acid metabolism. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-regulated marker genes related to adipogenesis was elevated in visceral adipose tissues. Thus, our study identifies CMO1 as the key enzyme for vitamin A production and provides evidence for a role of carotenoids as more general regulators of lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M706763200DOI Listing
November 2007

Transcriptomics does not show adverse effects of beta-carotene in A/J mice exposed to smoke for 2 weeks.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2007 Sep 18;465(2):336-46. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

DSM Nutritional Products, Human Nutrition and Health, PO Box 3255, Building 241/421, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

Beta-carotene (betaC) supplementation in smokers was unexpectedly associated with increased incidence of lung cancer versus smoking alone. We performed a study in A/J mice to explore possible betaC/cigarette smoke (CS) interactions potentially influencing lung cancer risk in smokers. A/J mice received a diet containing 120 or 600 ppm betaC for six weeks, and exposed to mainstream CS (140 mg total suspended particulates/m(3)) during the last two weeks. Lung transcriptomics analysis revealed that CS induced drug metabolism, oxidative stress, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, inflammation markers, and apoptosis. betaC reduced CS-induced inflammation markers and ECM degradation. betaC modulated the CS effect on apoptosis without a clear pro- or anti-apoptotic trend. betaC alone induced only minor changes of gene expression. In conclusion, betaC/CS interactions caused gene regulations in lungs. CS was the main effector. The gene regulations overall did not indicate that betaC exacerbated CS effects. Dose-dependency of betaC effects was minor and not detectable by genome-wide data mining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2007.06.034DOI Listing
September 2007

Effects of 6-month daily supplementation with oral beta-carotene in combination or not with benzo[a]pyrene on cell-cycle markers in the lung of ferrets.

J Nutr Biochem 2008 May 24;19(5):295-304. Epub 2007 Jul 24.

Departament de Biologia Fonamental i Ciències de la Salut, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca and CIBER Fisiopatología obesidad y nutrición (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain.

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that people who eat more fruits and vegetables (rich in carotenoids) and people who have higher serum beta-carotene (BC) levels have a lower risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer. However, the two main human intervention studies of BC supplementation (the ATBC and the CARET trials) revealed an increased risk of lung cancer among smokers and asbestos workers. Previous studies carried out in the ferret have reported that BC effects are related to dose. Here, we treated ferrets with two concentrations of oral BC (0.8 and 3.2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 6 months, using BC in a formulation also containing dl-alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate. The effect of the smoke-derived carcinogenic agent benzo[a]pyrene (BP), with or without low-dose BC, was also analysed. We determined the protein levels and mRNA expression levels of activator protein 1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), c-Myc, cyclin D1, proliferating cellular nuclear antigen and retinoic acid receptor beta. We did not find higher levels of cell proliferation markers in the lung of ferrets treated with BC or signals of squamous metaplasia lesions either. On the other hand, although no evident signals of pulmonary carcinogenesis were observed in animals exposed to BP, BC supplementation in these animals may prevent against excess cell proliferation, since this reestablishes Jun protein and cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the lung of BP-exposed animals. In summary, these results show that the combination of BC with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate does not induce pro-oxidant effects in the lung of ferrets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.03.004DOI Listing
May 2008

Beta-carotene and apocarotenals promote retinoid signaling in BEAS-2B human bronchioepithelial cells.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2006 Nov 20;455(1):48-60. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

DSM Nutritional Products, R&D, Human Nutrition and Health, P. O. Box 3255, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

High dose beta-carotene supplementation of smokers was associated with increased lung cancer risk in two intervention trials. It was proposed that generation of apocarotenals in smoke-exposed lungs impaired retinoic acid (RA) signaling, leading to squamous metaplasia and cell proliferation. To test this, we compared RA target gene regulation by retinoids, apocarotenals or beta-carotene by transcriptomics in BEAS-2B cells cultured to promote squamous differentiation. Retinoids, beta-carotene as well as apocarotenals induced known RA target genes. Retinoids upregulated involucrin, indicating that retinoids did not rescue BEAS-2B cells from squamous differentiation. Muc5AC, a marker for mucous differentiation, was transiently induced. beta-Carotene and apocarotenals less strongly induced involucrin and did not induce muc5AC. In summary, apocarotenals or beta-carotene upregulated RA target genes suggesting promotion, not inhibition, of RA signaling in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, apocarotenals and beta-carotene regulated gene expression independently of RA signaling. Squamous differentiation is not unequivocally linked to RA deficiency in BEAS-2B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2006.08.023DOI Listing
November 2006

beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

Nutr Cancer 2006 ;54(2):252-62

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Research and Development, Human Nutrition and Health, Basel, Switzerland.

A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers reported increased lung tumor rates after high long-term beta-carotene supplementation. For insight into these conflicting results, we studied the influence of beta-carotene on tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung cancer development in the A/J-mouse using 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitro samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as the initiator and lung adenoma multiplicity as the functional endpoint. Gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for its relevance in predicting the endpoint of lung cancer. A/J-mice achieved plasma beta-carotene levels of up to 3 micromol/L within 4 wk and up to 6 micromol/L after 6 mo of supplementation on a diet modified to enhance beta-carotene absorption. Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by the beta-carotene treatment, either in carcinogen-initiated or non-initiated mice, and was unrelated to beta-carotene dose and the time point of treatment during cancer formation. Tumor multiplicity did not correlate with beta-carotene plasma levels in NNK-treated animals. All RARbeta isoforms were significantly suppressed in the lungs of NNK- and NNK plus high dose beta-carotene-treated animals. However, the number of tumors per mouse did not correlate with the RARbeta-isoform expression levels. beta-carotene alone after 3 mo of supplementation mildly but significantly increased levels of RARbeta1, beta2, and beta4. This increase persisted for 6 mo for RARbeta2 and beta4. In summary, we found no effect of beta-carotene on tumor formation in the NNK-initiated A/J-mouse lung cancer model with respect to dose or time point of treatment. beta-Carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform gene expression levels were not predictive for the number of lung tumors but were indicative of intact beta-carotene metabolism and persistent sensitivity to retinoic acid in the mice. Down-regulation of RARbeta in NNK-induced adenoma-bearing lungs was similar to that observed in human lung cancer and further confirms the A/J-mouse as a valuable model for lung carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5402_12DOI Listing
December 2006

The effect of beta-carotene and its derivatives on cytotoxicity, differentiation, proliferative potential and apoptosis on the three human acute leukemia cell lines: U-937, HL-60 and TF-1.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2005 May 5;1740(2):206-14. Epub 2005 Feb 5.

Chair and Department of Haematology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ul. Kopernika 17, 31-501 Cracow, Poland.

The influence of beta-carotene (BC) and its derivatives on differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis in three human acute leukemia cell lines was studied. We investigated: (i) the cellular uptake of BC, (ii) the cytotoxicity, (iii) the effect on cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. The dose- and time-dependent pattern of cellular BC uptake in all studied cell lines was seen. We did not observe any cytotoxic effect of BC and ATRA in the chosen concentrations. There was only limited effect of BC on gene expression. The microarrray analysis of U-937 cell line exposed to BC for 72 h showed an increased expression of BAX gene. This finding was confirmed by real-time Q-PCR analysis, and supported by a flow cytometry apoptosis tests. We did not observe any influence of studied components on cellular proliferation. The induction of differentiation after incubation with ATRA in HL-60 cells was noted. The induction of cellular apoptosis by BC was seen in all studied cell lines. We demonstrated that BC used in the concentrations achievable in vivo does not affect the proliferation and differentiation process of the studied leukemic cell lines, but can influence and enhance the apoptosis by modulating the expression of the regulatory genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2004.12.005DOI Listing
May 2005

Beta-carotene interaction with NNK in the AJ-mouse model: effects on cell proliferation, tumor formation and retinoic acid responsive genes.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2005 May 27;1740(2):179-88. Epub 2005 Jan 27.

Build. 221/106, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., R and D, Human Nutrition and Health P.O. Box 3255, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

We studied the influence of beta-carotene on the tobacco smoke carcinogen 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumor development in the A/J-mouse model. The normally low beta-carotene absorption was facilitated with a diet enriched in fat and bile salt, resulting in plasma and lung tissue levels similar to humans. beta-Carotene enhanced NNK-induced early bronchial cell proliferation, however, this effect was not predictive for later tumor development. Tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by beta-carotene, neither in carcinogen-initiated nor in uninitiated mice, and regardless of dose and time point of supplementation during tumor development. RARbeta isoform and CYP26 gene expression levels analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR were weakly, but significantly, inversely correlated and showed evidence for altered retinoid signaling and catabolism in the lungs of NNK-initiated, beta-carotene supplemented mice. However, this interaction did not translate into enhanced tumor multiplicity. These results indicate that impaired retinoid signaling is not likely a key factor in lung tumorigenesis in this mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.01.005DOI Listing
May 2005

beta-Carotene interferes with ultraviolet light A-induced gene expression by multiple pathways.

J Invest Dermatol 2005 Feb;124(2):428-34

DSM Nutritional Products, 205/217A, PO Box 3255, Department of Human Nutrition and Health, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

Ultraviolet light A (UVA) exposure is thought to cause skin aging mainly by singlet oxygen ((1)O(2))-dependent pathways. Using microarrays, we assessed whether pre-treatment with the (1)O(2) quencher beta-carotene (betaC; 1.5 microM) prevents UVA-induced gene regulation in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Downregulation of growth factor signaling, moderate induction of proinflammatory genes, upregulation of immediate early genes including apoptotic regulators and suppression of cell cycle genes were hallmarks of the UVA effect. Of the 568 UVA-regulated genes, betaC reduced the UVA effect for 143, enhanced it for 180, and did not interact with UVA for 245 genes. The different interaction modes imply that betaC/UVA interaction involved multiple mechanisms. In unirradiated keratinocytes, gene regulations suggest that betaC reduced stress signals and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, and promoted keratinocyte differentiation. In irradiated cells, expression profiles indicate that betaC inhibited UVA-induced ECM degradation, and enhanced UVA induction of tanning-associated protease-activated receptor 2. Combination of betaC-promoted keratinocyte differentiation with the cellular "UV response" caused synergistic induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In conclusion, betaC at physiological concentrations interacted with UVA effects in keratinocytes by mechanisms that included, but were not restricted to (1)O(2) quenching. The retinoid effect of betaC was minor, indicating that the betaC effects reported here were predominantly mediated through vitamin A-independent pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.23593.xDOI Listing
February 2005

Lycopene reduced gene expression of steroid targets and inflammatory markers in normal rat prostate.

FASEB J 2005 Feb 15;19(2):272-4. Epub 2004 Nov 15.

DSM Nutritional Products, Human Nutrition and Health, Carotenoid Section, Basel, Switzerland.

Epidemiological evidence links consumption of lycopene, the red carotenoid of tomato, to reduced prostate cancer risk. We investigated the effect of lycopene in normal prostate tissue to gain insight into the mechanisms, by which lycopene can contribute to primary prostate cancer prevention. We supplemented young rats with 200 ppm lycopene for up to 8 wk, measured the uptake into individual prostate lobes, and analyzed lycopene-induced gene regulations in dorsal and lateral lobes after 8 wk of supplementation. Lycopene accumulated in all four prostate lobes over time, with all-trans lycopene being the predominant isoform. The lateral lobe showed a significantly higher total lycopene content than the other prostate lobes. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that lycopene treatment mildly but significantly reduced gene expression of androgen-metabolizing enzymes and androgen targets. Moreover, local expression of IGF-I was decreased in the lateral lobe. Lycopene also consistently reduced transcript levels of proinflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulins, and immunoglobulin receptors in the lateral lobe. This indicates that lycopene reduced inflammatory signals in the lateral prostate lobe. In summary, we show for the first time that lycopene reduced local prostatic androgen signaling, IGF-I expression, and basal inflammatory signals in normal prostate tissue. All of these mechanisms can contribute to the epidemiologically observed prostate cancer risk reduction by lycopene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.04-1905fjeDOI Listing
February 2005

Lycopene: modes of action to promote prostate health.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2004 Oct;430(1):127-34

DSM Nutritional Products, Human Nutrition and Health, Carotenoid Section, Basel, Switzerland.

Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that lycopene consumption contributes to prostate cancer risk reduction. Preclinical studies show that lycopene acts via different mechanisms, which have the potential to cooperate in reducing the proliferation of normal and cancerous prostate epithelial cells, in reducing DNA damage, and in improving oxidative stress defense. The mechanisms include inhibition of prostatic IGF-I signaling, IL-6 expression, and androgen signaling. Moreover, lycopene improves gap-junctional communication and induces phase II drug metabolizing enzymes as well as oxidative defense genes. These findings provide plausible explanations for the epidemiological findings how lycopene can contribute to reduced prostate cancer risk. The novel finding that lycopene reduces local androgen signaling in the prostate suggests also efficacy in prevention of benign prostate hyperplasia. Intervention trials in humans are required to finally prove clinical efficacy of the lycopene molecule in prostate health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2004.04.023DOI Listing
October 2004

Beta-carotene inhibits UVA-induced matrix metalloprotease 1 and 10 expression in keratinocytes by a singlet oxygen-dependent mechanism.

Free Radic Biol Med 2004 Sep;37(5):654-70

Department Human Nutrition and Health, Carotenoid Group, DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland.

UVA exposure causes skin photoaging by singlet oxygen (1)O(2)-mediated induction of, e.g., matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). We assessed whether pretreatment with beta-carotene, a (1)O(2) quencher and retinoic acid (RA) precursor, interferes with UVA-induced gene regulation. HaCaT keratinocytes were precultured with beta-carotene at physiological concentrations (0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 microM) prior to exposure to UVA from a Hönle solar simulator (270 kJ/m(2)). HaCaT cells accumulated beta-carotene in a time- and dose-dependent manner. UVA irradiation massively reduced the cellular beta-carotene content. Beta-carotene suppressed UVA-induction of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-10, three major matrix metalloproteases involved in photoaging. We show that regulation by not only MMP-1, but also MMP-10, involves (1)O(2)-dependent mechanisms. Beta-carotene dose-dependently quenched (1)O(2)-mediated induction of MMP-1 and MMP-10. Thus, as in chemical solvent systems, beta-carotene quenches (1)O(2) also in living cells. Vitamin E did not cooperate with beta-carotene to further inhibit MMP induction. HaCaT cells produced weak retinoid activity from beta-carotene, as demonstrated by mild upregulation of RAR beta and activation of an RARE-dependent reporter gene. Beta-carotene did not regulate the genes encoding other RARs, RXRs, or the two beta-carotene cleavage enzymes. These results demonstrate that beta-carotene acts photoprotectively, and that this effect is mediated by (1)O(2) quenching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.05.018DOI Listing
September 2004

Lycopene and vitamin E interfere with autocrine/paracrine loops in the Dunning prostate cancer model.

FASEB J 2004 Jun 14;18(9):1019-21. Epub 2004 Apr 14.

DSM Nutritional Products, Human Nutrition and Health, Carotenoid Section, Basel, Switzerland.

Epidemiological studies have consistently associated high intakes of lycopene or vitamin E with a reduced prostate cancer risk. Both compounds were tested in the MatLyLu Dunning prostate cancer model to gain insight into the in vivo action of lycopene and vitamin E. Supplementation for 4 weeks with 200 ppm lycopene, 540 ppm vitamin E, or both led to plasma levels comparable with those in humans. Both compounds also accumulated in tumor tissue. Macroscopic evaluation of the tumors by magnetic resonance imaging showed a significant increase in necrotic area in the vitamin E and the lycopene treatment groups. Microarray analysis of tumor tissues revealed that both compounds regulated local gene expression. Vitamin E reduced androgen signaling without affecting androgen metabolism. Lycopene interfered with local testosterone activation by down-regulating 5-alpha-reductase and consequently reduced steroid target genes expression (cystatin-related protein 1 and 2, prostatic spermine binding protein, prostatic steroid binding protein C1, C2 and C3 chain, probasin). In addition, lycopene down-regulated prostatic IGF-I and IL-6 expression. Based on these findings, we suggest that lycopene and vitamin E contribute to the reduction of prostate cancer by interfering with internal autocrine or paracrine loops of sex steroid hormone and growth factor activation/synthesis and signaling in the prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-1116fjeDOI Listing
June 2004

Betacarotene supplementation protects from photoaging-associated mitochondrial DNA mutation.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2003 Jun;2(6):655-9

Institut für Umweltmedizinische Forschung gGmbH at the Heinrich-Heine-University, Auf' m Hennekamp 40, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Mutations of mitochondrial DNA accumulate during normal aging and can be detected at elevated levels in skin prematurely aged by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (photoaging). In normal human fibroblasts, we have previously demonstrated that mtDNA deletions are induced by repetitive exposure to sublethal doses of UVA radiation mediated through singlet oxygen. Betacarotene is a known quencher of ROS and singlet oxygen in particular, and it is widely applied in photoprotective compounds. Therefore we investigated whether in our in vitro system, betacarotene is capable of protecting from the induction of photoaging-associated mtDNA deletions. All-E (trans) betacarotene was tested at doses from 0.25 to 3.0 microM for uptake into cells as well as its protective capacity. Assessment of cellular uptake of all-E betacarotene measured by HPLC revealed a dose dependent increase of intracellular concentrations, as well as an increase in oxidative metabolites. UVA-exposure led to a decrease of all-E-betacarotene, its Z-isomers and oxidative metabolites. Assessment of mtDNA deletions by PCR revealed reduced levels of mtDNA mutagenesis in cells coincubated with betacarotene at concentrations of 0.5 microM and higher. Taken together, these results indicate that betacarotene (i) is taken up into the cell in a dose dependent manner, (ii) interacts with UVA radiation in the cell and (iii) shows protective properties from the induction of a photoaging-associated mtDNA mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b300808hDOI Listing
June 2003

Beta-carotene suppresses UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

Free Radic Biol Med 2003 Feb;34(4):456-64

Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.

The ultraviolet region of sunlight causes a significant oxidative stress to human skin cells and modulates expression of a series of genes in dermal fibroblasts and other cell types. The human heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene is strongly activated within the first hours that follow UVA irradiation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (FEK4) and this response is being used as a marker of oxidative stress in cells. It has been shown that the induction of this gene occurs via singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) produced upon interaction of UVA radiation with an as yet undefined cellular chromophore. Carotenoids, as the most potent singlet oxygen quenchers in nature, are expected to effectively suppress the UVA-induced HO-1 gene activation in human cells. In this study, we measured the suppression of UVA-induced levels of HO-1 mRNA after the addition of a series of six all-trans-beta-carotene concentrations (0.07, 0.2, 0.8, 2.3, 8.0, and 21 microM) to the culture medium of exponentially growing FEK4 cells. The corresponding levels of beta-carotene uptake and apo-carotenal formation were measured following HPLC separation. The results of this study show a concentration-dependent suppression of UVA- (250 kJ/m(2)) induced transcriptional activation of HO-1 in exponentially growing FEK4 cells by beta-carotene. Suppression occurred at concentrations that have been observed in human plasma after dietary supplementation with beta-carotene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0891-5849(02)01303-5DOI Listing
February 2003

Feedback regulation of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase by retinoic acid in rats and chickens.

J Nutr 2002 Dec;132(12):3616-22

Roche Vitamins, Human Nutrition and Health, Carotenoid Group, CH-4070 Basel, Switzerland.

beta,beta-Carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (formerly termed beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, EC 1.13.11.21) catalyzes the conversion of provitamin A carotenoids to retinal in vertebrate tissues. In the present study, we investigated whether preformed vitamin A or beta-carotene and its direct metabolites can regulate the enzyme activity in vivo. We found dose-dependent decreases in intestinal beta,beta-carotene monooxygenase activity after oral administration to rats of retinyl acetate (up to -79%), beta-carotene (up to -79%), apo-8'-carotenal (up to -56%), all-trans retinoic acid (up to -88%), and 9-cis retinoic acid (up to -67%). Liver beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (betaCMOOX) activity was not affected. Apo-12'carotenal and the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha antagonist Ro 41-5253 significantly increased the intestinal enzyme activity by 55 and 94%, respectively. When beta-carotene was administered to rats pretreated with the two cytochrome P(450) (CYP) inducers, pentobarbital and naphthoflavone, the intestinal betaCMOOX activity increased by 39%. In a transcriptional study in chickens, treatment with retinoic acid resulted in low expression of the intestinal betaCMOOX. Our data suggest that retinoids and carotenoids might regulate betaCMOOX expression by a transcriptional feedback mechanism via interaction with members of the RAR family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.12.3616DOI Listing
December 2002