Publications by authors named "Regan W Stewart"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Listen, don't tell: Partnership and adaptation to implement trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy in low-resourced settings.

Am Psychol 2020 11;75(8):1158-1174

Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi.

Clinical psychological science has developed many efficacious treatments for diverse emotional and behavioral difficulties encountered by children and adolescents, although randomized trials investigating these treatments have disproportionally been conducted by American, university-based research labs. The subsection of the world population involved in these studies, however, represents very few people among those in need of psychological services whose voices, perspectives, and orientations to therapy have not generally been reflected in well-funded research trials. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based services designed to meet the needs of this broader global population, therefore, may require cultural and contextual adaptation to be successful. The current article describes the implementation of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) in 3 separate low-resourced settings (rural South Carolina, Puerto Rico, and El Salvador) utilizing the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) framework and guided by a community-based participatory research framework. Emphasis is placed on description of program development, building collaborative and responsive partnerships, and the use of implementation strategies to guide continuous quality improvement. Program evaluation data comparing baseline to posttreatment trauma symptoms and treatment completion rates for all sites are also presented, which suggests that treatment was associated with a large reduction in symptoms, exceeding that noted in many TF-CBT randomized trials. The implications of attention to context, adaptation, and methods of building partnerships with global communities are discussed, with a particular focus on propelling more refined models and controlled studies in the future. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000691DOI Listing
November 2020

Disaster Exposure and Mental Health Among Puerto Rican Youths After Hurricane Maria.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 04 5;2(4):e192619. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi, Oxford.

Importance: Quantifying the magnitude of disaster exposure and trauma-related symptoms among youths is critical for deployment of psychological services in underresourced settings. Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017, resulting in massive destruction and unprecedented mortality.

Objective: To determine the magnitude of disaster exposure and mental health outcomes among Puerto Rican youths after Hurricane Maria.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Survey study in which a school-based survey was administered to each public school student at all schools in Puerto Rico between February 1 and June 29, 2018 (5-9 months after Hurricane Maria). Of the 226 808 students eligible to participate, 96 108 students completed the survey.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Participants were assessed for exposure to hurricane-related stressors, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive symptoms, using standardized self-report measures administered in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were compiled for all outcome variables, as was the frequency of individuals reporting clinically elevated symptoms of PTSD or depression. Differences in these statistics across sexes were also examined via t tests. Correlations between demographic, geographic, and main outcome variables were also calculated, and regressions were conducted to examine their association with symptoms of PTSD.

Results: A total of 96 108 students participated in the study (42.4% response rate; 50.3% female), representative of grades 3 to 12 across all 7 educational regions of Puerto Rico. As a result of the hurricane, 83.9% of youths saw houses damaged, 57.8% had a friend or family member leave the island, 45.7% reported damage to their own homes, 32.3% experienced shortages of food or water, 29.9% perceived their lives to be at risk, and 16.7% still had no electricity 5 to 9 months after the hurricane. Overall, 7.2% of youths (n = 6900) reported clinically significant symptoms of PTSD; comparison of the frequency of reporting clinically elevated symptoms of PTSD across sex yielded a significant difference (t = 12.77; 95% CI of the difference, 0.018-0.025; P < .001), with girls (8.2%) exceeding the clinical cutoff score more often than boys (6.1%). Finally, similar analysis of differences in depression between sexes was also significant (t = 17.56; 95% CI of the difference, 0.31-0.39; P < .001), with girls displaying higher mean (SD) scores (2.72 [3.14]) than boys (2.37 [2.93]). Demographic and risk variables accounted for approximately 20% of variance in symptoms of PTSD (r2 = 0.195; 95% CI, 0.190-0.200).

Conclusions And Relevance: Survey results indicate that Hurricane Maria exposed Puerto Rican youths to high levels of disaster-related stressors, and youths reported high levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Results are currently being used by the Puerto Rico Department of Education to inform targeted and sustainable evidence-based practices aimed at improving mental health outcomes for Puerto Rico's youths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6487632PMC
April 2019

Leveraging Technology and Cultural Adaptations to Increase Access and Engagement Among Trauma-Exposed African American Youth: Exploratory Study of School-Based Telehealth Delivery of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

J Interpers Violence 2019 Mar 2:886260519831380. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

1 Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.

African American youth are disproportionately represented among trauma-exposed youth; yet, they are significantly less likely to access and complete mental health services. Research suggests that barriers to accessing and engaging in trauma-focused treatment include both logistical factors and engagement factors. This multiple case study sought to illustrate the initial feasibility and acceptability of delivering culturally tailored, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) via telehealth in a school setting with three African American youth presenting with multiple barriers to accessing treatment. Barriers to treatment, telehealth modifications, and cultural tailoring are described for each participant. The UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD-RI) was completed at pretreatment and posttreatment. Results demonstrated significant decreases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress, as evidenced by a reduction in total UCLA PTSD-RI scores to nonclinical levels for all participants at posttreatment (UCLA scores posttreatment = 8-12). In addition, at posttreatment no participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or adjustment disorder. This multiple case study provides preliminary support for school-based, culturally tailored TF-CBT delivered via telehealth with African American youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519831380DOI Listing
March 2019

A Pilot Study of Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Delivered via Telehealth Technology.

Child Maltreat 2017 11 4;22(4):324-333. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

1 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Significant barriers exist in access to evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment among youth from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, those living in rural areas, and belonging to a racial and ethnic minority group, despite the high prevalence rates of trauma exposure among these underserved groups. The present study is proof-of-concept pilot of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered to underserved trauma-exposed youth ( N = 15) via telehealth technology (i.e., via one-on-one videoconferencing), aimed at addressing barriers in access to TF treatment. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of the ability to successfully deliver TF-CBT via a telehealth delivery format. Results demonstrated clinically meaningful symptom change posttreatment (large effect sizes for youth-reported ( d = 2.93) and caregiver-reported ( d = 1.38) reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms), with no treatment attrition (0% dropout). These findings are promising in showing treatment effects that are comparable with TF-CBT delivered in an in-person, office-based setting and an important first step in determining how to best address the mental health needs of trauma-exposed youth with barriers in access to care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559517725403DOI Listing
November 2017

A decision-tree approach to the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Engineering empirically rigorous and ecologically valid assessment measures.

Psychol Serv 2016 Feb 14;13(1):1-9. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi.

Structured diagnostic interviews are widely considered to be the optimal method of assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress; however, few clinicians report using structured assessments to guide clinical practice. One commonly cited impediment to these assessment approaches is the amount of time required for test administration and interpretation. Empirically keyed methods to reduce the administration time of structured assessments may be a viable solution to increase the use of standardized and reliable diagnostic tools. Thus, the present research conducted an initial feasibility study using a sample of treatment-seeking military veterans (N = 1,517) to develop a truncated assessment protocol based on the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale (CAPS). Decision-tree analysis was utilized to identify a subset of predictor variables among the CAPS items that were most predictive of a diagnosis of PTSD. The algorithm-driven, atheoretical sequence of questions reduced the number of items administered by more than 75% and classified the validation sample at 92% accuracy. These results demonstrated the feasibility of developing a protocol to assess PTSD in a way that imposes little assessment burden while still providing a reliable categorization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312769PMC
February 2016

The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: An Investigation of Its Psychometric Properties.

J Interpers Violence 2017 08 12;32(15):2237-2256. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

4 University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA.

The current study addresses the need for accurate measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in youth by investigating the psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS). The factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity of the CPSS were investigated in a sample of 206 6th- to 12th-grade adolescents. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a single-factor structure, which was contrary to the hypothesized three-factor structure. Scores comprising this one-factor structure were also associated with high reliability (α = .93), and tests of concurrent and discriminant validity were also strong. The implications of these findings are discussed, with particular emphasis on future directions for research on self-report measures for adolescent PTSD symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260515596536DOI Listing
August 2017

The Development and Psychometric Investigation of the Cyberbullying Scale.

J Interpers Violence 2014 Aug 14;29(12):2218-2238. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

University of Mississippi, University, USA.

Accurate assessment of cyberbullying is essential for intervention planning and evaluation. Limitations to many currently available self-report measures of cyberbullying victimization include a lack of psychometric information and a limited scope (i.e., not assessing multiple electronic mediums of cybervictimization). To address these limitations, we developed and investigated the psychometric properties of a broad self-report measure of cyberbullying, the Cyberbullying Scale (CBS). We examined the factor structure and reliability of the CBS across 736 students in Grades 6 to 12 in six Northern Mississippi schools. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) results indicated that the structure of the CBS was best represented by a one-factor model. The finding of a single-factor structure suggests that cyberbullying is a unidimensional construct, which is consistent with previous research. In the current sample, the CBS demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .94) and significant positive correlations with related constructs of anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Results from the present study provide initial support for the CBS as a measure of cybervictimization among adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260513517552DOI Listing
August 2014