Publications by authors named "Reda Bouabdallah"

122 Publications

A Phase 1b Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Durvalumab in Combination With Tremelimumab or Danvatirsen in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 Dec 17. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Hematology & Oncology, MUSC Health Hollings Cancer Center, Charleston, SC.

Background: Despite recent advances, outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remain poor. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown limited efficacy in this setting, but combinations with novel agents may enhance benefit. Combination therapy with durvalumab, an anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody, and danvatirsen (AZD9150; an antisense oligonucleotide inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [STAT3]) or tremelimumab (an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4] antibody) may augment endogenous antitumor activity.

Patients And Methods: In this phase 1b dose escalation and dose expansion study, we evaluated durvalumab 20 mg/kg every 4 weeks plus either tremelimumab 1 mg/kg every 4 weeks or danvatirsen 2 or 3 mg/kg (administered on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, and 22, then every week). Treatment continued until disease progression. The primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints included efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity.

Results: As of April 4, 2019, 32 patients were enrolled and treated, receiving a median of 2 prior lines of systemic therapy. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 21 patients (65.6%), most commonly alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase increased (grade 1-3), anemia (grade 1-3), and fatigue (grade 1). The overall objective response rate was 6.3%, with 2 partial responses. Median time to response was 11.0 weeks (range, 7.7-14.3 weeks). Median progression-free survival was 7.4 weeks (range, 0.1-31.4 weeks), and median overall survival was 28.0 weeks (range, 1.9-115.4 weeks).

Conclusion: The primary endpoint was met, with durvalumab plus tremelimumab/danvatirsen generally well tolerated in patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL; however, antitumor activity was limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.12.012DOI Listing
December 2020

Health-related quality of life and utility outcomes with selinexor in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Future Oncol 2021 Apr 2;17(11):1295-1310. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, 28046, Spain.

Evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health utility impact of single-agent selinexor in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) - Lymphoma and EuroQoL five-dimensions five-levels data collected in the single-arm Phase IIb trial SADAL (NCT02227251) were analyzed with mixed-effects models. Treatment responders maintained higher FACT - Lymphoma (p ≤ 0.05), FACT - General (p < 0.05) and EuroQoL five-dimensions five-levels index scores (p < 0.001) beginning in cycle 3. The estimated difference in health state utilities for treatment response and progressive disease was both statistically significant and clinically meaningful (mean difference: 0.07; p = 0.001). In patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, objective response to selinexor was associated with HRQoL maintenance, reduction in disease-related HRQoL decrements and higher health utilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0946DOI Listing
April 2021

Integrative analysis of a phase 2 trial combining lenalidomide with CHOP in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 Jan;5(2):539-548

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Unité Hémopathies Lymphoïdes, Créteil, France.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a frequent T-cell lymphoma in the elderly population that has a poor prognosis when treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone  (CHOP) therapy. Lenalidomide, which has been safely combined with CHOP to treat B-cell lymphoma, has shown efficacy as a single agent in AITL treatment. We performed a multicentric phase 2 trial combining 25 mg lenalidomide daily for 14 days per cycle with 8 cycles of CHOP21 in previously untreated AITL patients aged 60 to 80 years. The primary objective was the complete metabolic response (CMR) rate at the end of treatment. Seventy-eight of the 80 patients enrolled were included in the efficacy and safety analysis. CMR was achieved in 32 (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-52.7%) patients, which was below the prespecified CMR rate of 55% defined as success in the study. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 42.1% (95% CI, 30.9%-52.8%), and the 2-year overall survival was 59.2% (95% CI, 47.3%-69.3%). The most common toxicities were hematologic and led to treatment discontinuation in 15% of patients. This large prospective and uniform series of AITL treatment data was used to perform an integrative analysis of clinical, pathologic, biologic, and molecular data. TET2, RHOA, DNMT3A, and IDH2 mutations were present in 78%, 54%, 32%, and 22% of patients, respectively. IDH2 mutations were associated with distinct pathologic and clinical features and DNMT3A was associated with shorter PFS. In conclusion, the combination of lenalidomide and CHOP did not improve the CMR in AITL patients. This trial clarified the clinical impact of recurrent mutations in AITL. This trial was registered at www.clincialtrials.gov as #NCT01553786.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839364PMC
January 2021

Haploidentical related donor compared to HLA-identical donor transplantation for chemosensitive Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 24;20(1):1140. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Hematology Department, Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Unit, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Background: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor using an unmanipulated graft and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is growing. Haploidentical transplantation with PT-Cy showed a major activity in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), reducing the relapse incidence. The most important predictive factor of survival and toxicity was disease status before transplantation, which was better in patients with well controlled disease.

Methods: We included 198 HL in complete (CR) or partial remission (PR) before transplantation. Sixty-five patients were transplanted from haploidentical donor and 133 from a HLA identical donor (both sibling and unrelated donors). Survival analysis was defined according to the EBMT criteria. Survival curves were generated by using Kaplan-Meier method and differences between groups were compared by the log rank test or by the log rank test for trend when appropriated.

Results: The PFS, OS, and RI were significantly better in patients in CR compared to PR (55% vs 29% p = 0.001, 74% vs 55% p = 0.03, 27% vs 55% p <  0.001, respectively). The 2-year PFS was significantly better for HAPLO than HLA-id (63% vs 37%, p = 0.03), without difference in OS. The 1-year NRM was not different. The 2-year relapse incidence (RI) was lower in the HAPLO group (24% vs 44%, p = 0.008). Patients in CR receiving haplo HSCT showed higher 2-year PFS and lower 2-year RI than those allografted with HLA-id donor (75% vs 47%, p <  0.001 and 11% vs 34%, p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, donor type and disease status before transplantation were independent predictors of PFS as well as they predict the risk of relapse. Disease status at transplantation and age were independently associated to OS.

Conclusions: Nonetheless this is a retrospective study, limiting the wide applicability of results, data from this analysis suggest that HLA mismatch can induce a strong graft versus lymphoma effect leading to an enhanced PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07602-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685618PMC
November 2020

Obinutuzumab versus Rituximab in young patients with advanced DLBCL, a PET-guided and randomized phase 3 study by LYSA.

Blood 2020 Nov 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

C.H.U Dijon Bourgogne, Dijon, France.

Rituximab plus polychemotherapy is standard of care in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). GAINED trial compares obinutuzumab to rituximab. GAINED (NCT01659099) is an open-label, randomized phase 3 trial. Transplant-eligible patients (18-60yrs) with untreated aged-adjusted international prognostic index (aaIPI) ≥1 DLBCL were randomized (1:1) between obinutuzumab or rituximab. Patients were stratified by aaIPI (1; 2-3) and chemotherapy regimen (ACVBP; CHOP). Consolidation treatment was determined according to response assessed by centrally reviewed interim semi-quantitative PET. Responders after cycle 2 and 4 (PET2-/PET4-) received planned immuno-chemotherapy consolidation. Responders only after cycle 4 (PET2+/4-) received high-dose methotrexate plus transplantation. The primary objective was an 8% improvement (HR=0.73; 80% power; alpha risk 2.5%; one-sided) in 2-year event-free survival (EFS) in the obinutuzumab arm. Events included death, progression, PET 2 or 4 positivity, modification of planned treatment. From September 20, 2012, 670 patients were enrolled (obinutuzumab n=336; rituximab n=334). 383 (57.2%) were aaIPI 2-3, 339 (50.6%) received CHOP and 324 (48.4%) received ACVBP. Median follow-up was 38.7 months. The 2-year EFS were similar in obinutuzumab and rituximab groups (59.8% vs 56.6%; p=0.123; HR=0.88). The 2-year PFS in the whole cohort was 83.1% (95%CI 80-85.8). PET2-/4- and PET2+/4- had similar 2-year PFS and OS (89.9% vs 83.9%) and 94.8% vs 92.8%). The 2-year PFS and OS for PET4+ patients were 62% and 83.1%. Grade 3-5 infections were more frequent in the obinutuzumab arm (21% vs 12%). Obinutuzumab is not superior to rituximab in untreated aaIPI≥1 DLBCL transplant-eligible patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008750DOI Listing
November 2020

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in poor prognosis peripheral T-cell lymphoma: the impact of different donor type on outcome.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 15;56(4):883-889. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Haematology Department, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

We report the outcome of 68 patients with advanced peripheral T-cell lymphoma receiving transplantation from haploidentical or from conventional donors. The 4-year OS, PFS, 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse and 2-year GRFS was 75%, 70%, 21%, and 51%, respectively. Survival was not affected by donor type. The 2-year NRM was 9%, lower after related or haploidentical donor (21% vs 0% vs 7%; p = 0.06). Grade 2-4 aGVHD cumulative incidence was significantly different after transplantation from haploidentical vs matched sibling vs unrelated donor, and (24% vs 35% vs 58%, p = 0.024). The familial donor cohort was compared to the unrelated cohort. Familial donor induced less grade 2-4 aGVHD, with a trend to less grade 3-4 aGVHD or moderate-severe cGVHD. The OS and PFS were not different, while the relapse risk and NRM were reduced. Allo-SCT is highly effective in T-cell lymphoma, with low NRM and low relapse rate. The incidence of aGVHD was lower after haploidentical transplantation. Related donor may challenge unrelated transplant reducing the risk of relapse and NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01133-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666822PMC
April 2021

ICOS is widely expressed in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and its targeting promotes potent killing of malignant cells.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(20):5203-5214

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, INSERM U1068, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique U7258, Aix Marseille Université, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

The treatment of advanced-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) remains an unmet medical need. Mogamulizumab, anti-KIR3DL2, and brentuximab vedotin (BV), an anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) coupled with monomethyl-auristatin-E (MMAE), provided encouraging results, but new targeted therapies are needed. Inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS), a T-cell costimulatory receptor, is a promising therapeutic target, not only because it is expressed by malignant T cells in CTCL but also because of its connection with the suppressive activity of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ICOS was widely expressed by malignant cells in skin biopsy specimens from 52 patients with mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (SS), as well as in involved node biopsy specimens from patients with SS. Furthermore, flow cytometry demonstrated its strong expression by circulating tumor cells in all our patients with SS. Percentages of ICOS+ Treg cells were significantly higher in patients with SS than in healthy donors. We then investigated the preclinical efficacy of anti-ICOS ADCs generated by coupling murine anti-ICOS monoclonal antibodies with MMAE and pyrrolobenzodiazepine. In 3 CTCL cell lines (Myla, MJ, and HUT78), we observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in the presence of anti-ICOS ADCs. In addition, anti-ICOS-MMAE ADCs had an in vitro and in vivo efficacy superior to BV in a mouse xenograft model (MyLa). Finally, we assessed the efficacy of anti-ICOS ADCs in ICOS+ patient-derived xenografts from patients with SS and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Collectively, our findings provide the preliminary basis for a therapeutic trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594390PMC
October 2020

Avadomide plus obinutuzumab in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CC-122-NHL-001): a multicentre, dose escalation and expansion phase 1 study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Sep 3;7(9):e649-e659. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Avadomide (CC-122) is a novel oral cereblon-modulating agent with promising activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to examine the safety and preliminary activity of avadomide plus obinutuzumab in patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: CC-122-NHL-001 was a phase 1b dose escalation and expansion study at eight sites in France, Italy, and the Netherlands. Eligible patients (aged ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed CD20-positive relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and had received previous treatment. In the dose expansion phase, only patients with previously treated relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma (grade 1, 2, or 3a) were included. Avadomide was administered in escalating doses and two formulations: active pharmaceutical ingredient in capsule in 1·0 mg, 2·0 mg, 3·0 mg, and 4·0 mg doses and as formulated capsules in 3·0 mg and 4·0 mg doses orally once daily on days 1-5 followed by 2 days off (5-7-day schedule) every week of each 28-day cycle. Obinutuzumab 1000 mg was administered intravenously on days 2, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 2-8. Primary objectives were to determine the safety and tolerability, the non-tolerated dose, maximum tolerated dose, and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). All patients who received treatment were included in the safety analyses. Efficacy-evaluable patients completed at least one cycle of treatment and had baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02417285 and EudraCT 2014-003333-26, and is ongoing.

Findings: Between June 24, 2015, and Dec 5, 2018, 73 patients were enrolled and treated; 19 had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 53 follicular lymphoma, and one marginal zone lymphoma. Median follow-up was 253 days (IQR 127-448). The median number of previous anticancer regimens was three (IQR 2-4). The maximum tolerated dose and non-tolerated dose were not reached in the dose escalation phase. On the basis of safety and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data, the avadomide RP2D was established as 3·0 mg as formulated capsules on a 5-7-day schedule in combination with 1000 mg of obinutuzumab. Patients enrolled in the expansion cohort received the established RP2D of avadomide. Across all doses, three patients had dose-limiting toxicities; one patient treated at the RP2D had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 sepsis). The most common adverse events of grade 3 and above were neutropenia (41 [56%] of 73) and thrombocytopenia (17 [23%] of 73). 34 (47%) patients had serious adverse events, which were considered to be avadomide-related in 23 (32%) of 73 patients and obinutuzumab-related in 20 (27%) of 73 patients. Two treatment-related deaths occurred, one owing to tumour flare and one from acute myeloid leukaemia after study discontinuation.

Interpretation: Avadomide plus obinutuzumab has a manageable toxicity, being a tolerable treatment option for most patients. Although the prespecified threshold for activity was not met in the trial, we believe that the preliminary antitumour activity of cereblon modulators plus next-generation anti-CD20 antibodies in heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma warrants further investigation as a chemotherapy-free option in this setting.

Funding: Celgene Corporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30208-8DOI Listing
September 2020

Selinexor in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SADAL): a single-arm, multinational, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jul;7(7):e511-e522

Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer with a median overall survival of less than 6 months. We aimed to assess the response to single-agent selinexor, an oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export, in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL who had no therapeutic options of potential clinical benefit.

Methods: SADAL was a multicentre, multinational, open-label, phase 2b study done in 59 sites in 19 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with pathologically confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, who had received two to five lines of previous therapies, and progressed after or were not candidates for autologous stem-cell transplantation were enrolled. Germinal centre B-cell or non-germinal centre B-cell tumour subtype and double or triple expressor status were determined by immunohistochemistry and double or triple hit status was determined by cytogenetics. Patients received 60 mg selinexor orally on days 1 and 3 weekly until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study was initially designed to evaluate both 60 mg and 100 mg twice-weekly doses of selinexor; however, the 100 mg dose was discontinued in the protocol (version 7.0) on March 29, 2017, when an improved therapeutic window was observed at 60 mg. Primary outcome was overall response rate. The primary outcome and safety were assessed in all patients who received 60 mg selinexor under protocol version 6.0, or enrolled under protocol versions 7.0 or higher and received at least one dose of selinexor. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02227251 (active but not enrolling).

Findings: Between Oct 21, 2015, and Nov 2, 2019, 267 patients were randomly assigned, with 175 allocated to the 60 mg group and 92 to the discontinued 100 mg group. 48 patients assigned to the 60 mg group were excluded due to enrolment before version 6.0 of the protocol; the remaining 127 patients received selinexor 60 mg and were included in analyses of primary outcome and safety. The overall response rate was 28% (36/127; 95% CI 20·7-37·0); 15 (12%) achieved a complete response and 21 (17%) a partial response. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (n=58), neutropenia (n=31), anaemia (n=28), fatigue (n=14), hyponatraemia (n=10), and nausea (n=8). The most common serious adverse events were pyrexia (n=9), pneumonia (n=6), and sepsis (n=6). There were no deaths judged as related to treatment with selinexor.

Interpretation: Single-drug oral selinexor induced durable responses and had a manageable adverse events profile in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL who received at least two lines of previous chemoimmunotherapy. Selinexor could be considered a new oral, non-cytotoxic treatment option in this setting.

Funding: Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30120-4DOI Listing
July 2020

Checkpoint inhibition before haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1242-1249

Department of Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rozzano, Italy.

We report on 59 Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing haploidentical stem cell transplantation (SCT; haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, comparing outcomes based on pretransplant exposure to checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). Considering pretransplant characteristics, the 2 cohorts (CPI = 29 patients vs no-CPI = 30 patients) were similar, except for the number of prior lines of therapy (6 vs 4; P < .001). With a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 7.5-55 months), by univariate analysis, the 100-day cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was 41% in the CPI group vs 33% in the no-CPI group (P = .456), whereas the 1-year cumulative incidence of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 7% vs 8%, respectively (P = .673). In the CPI cohort, the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse appeared lower compared with the no-CPI cohort (0 vs 20%; P = .054). No differences were observed in terms of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (at 2 years, 77% vs 71% [P = .599], 78% vs 53% [P = .066], and 15% vs 21% [P = .578], respectively). By multivariable analysis, CPI before SCT was an independent protective factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; P = .037). Stable disease (SD)/progressive disease (PD) was an independent negative prognostic factor for both OS and PFS (HR, 14.3; P < .001 and HR, 14.1; P < .001, respectively) . In conclusion, CPI as a bridge to haplo-SCT seems to improve PFS, with no impact on toxicity profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160255PMC
April 2020

Phase I dose escalation study of BI 836826 (CD37 antibody) in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Invest New Drugs 2020 10 14;38(5):1472-1482. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Münster, Germany.

BI 836826 is a chimeric immunoglobulin G1 antibody targeting CD37, a tetraspanin transmembrane protein predominantly expressed on normal and malignant B cells. This phase I, open-label study used a modified 3 + 3 design to evaluate the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of BI 836826 in patients with relapsed/refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; NCT01403948). Eligible patients received up to three courses comprising an intravenous infusion (starting dose: 1 mg) once weekly for 4 weeks followed by an observation period of 27 (Course 1, 2) or 55 days (Course 3). Patients had to demonstrate clinical benefit before commencing treatment beyond course 2. Forty-eight patients were treated. In the dose escalation phase (1-200 mg) involving 37 Caucasian patients, the MTD was 100 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in four patients during the MTD evaluation period, and included stomatitis, febrile neutropenia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia. The most common adverse events were neutropenia (57%), leukopenia (57%), and thrombocytopenia (41%), and were commonly of grade 3 or 4. Overall, 18 (38%) patients experienced infusion-related reactions, which were mostly grade 1 or 2. Preliminary evidence of anti-tumor activity was seen; three patients responded to treatment, including one complete remission in a Korean patient with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. BI 836826 plasma exposure increased more than proportionally with increasing doses. BI 836826 demonstrated preliminary activity; the most frequent adverse events were hematotoxicity and infusion-related reactions which were manageable after amending the infusion schedule. Although BI 856826 will not undergo further clinical development, these results confirm CD37 as a valid therapeutic target in B cell NHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00916-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497676PMC
October 2020

EBV+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with chronic inflammation expands the spectrum of breast implant-related lymphomas.

Blood 2020 05;135(22):2004-2009

Department of Biopathology and Tumor Immunology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, INSERM U1068, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 7258, Aix-Marseille University, UM105, Marseille, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003408DOI Listing
May 2020

High total metabolic tumor volume at baseline predicts survival independent of response to therapy.

Blood 2020 04;135(16):1396-1405

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hemato-Oncology, Paris, France; and.

Early identification of ultra-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients is needed to aid stratification to innovative treatment. Previous studies suggested high baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) negatively impacts survival of DLBCL patients. We analyzed the prognostic impact of TMTV and prognostic indices in DLBCL patients, aged 60 to 80 years, from the phase 3 REMARC study that randomized responding patients to R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) into maintenance lenalidomide or placebo. TMTV was computed on baseline positron emission tomography/computed tomography using the 41% maximum standardized uptake value method; the optimal TMTV cutoff for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was determined and confirmed by a training validation method. There were 301 out of 650 evaluable patients, including 192 patients classified as germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)/non-GCB and MYC/BCL2 expressor. Median baseline TMTV was 238 cm3; optimal TMTV cutoff was 220 cm3. Patients with high vs low TMTV showed worse/higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥2, stage III or IV disease, >1 extranodal site, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, International Prognostic Index (IPI) 3-5, and age-adjusted IPI 2-3. High vs low TMTV significantly impacted PFS and OS, independent of maintenance treatment. Although the GCB/non-GCB profile and MYC expression did not correlate with TMTV/survival, BCL2 >70% impacted PFS and could be stratified by TMTV. Multivariate analysis identified baseline TMTV and ECOG PS as independently associated with PFS and OS. Even in responding patients, after R-CHOP, high baseline TMTV was a strong prognosticator of inferior PFS and OS. Moreover, TMTV combined with ECOG PS may identify an ultra-risk DLBCL population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01122472.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162688PMC
April 2020

Avadomide monotherapy in relapsed/refractory DLBCL: safety, efficacy, and a predictive gene classifier.

Blood 2020 03;135(13):996-1007

Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Treatment options for relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are limited, with no standard of care; prognosis is poor, with 4- to 6-month median survival. Avadomide (CC-122) is a cereblon-modulating agent with immunomodulatory and direct antitumor activities. This phase 1 dose-expansion study assessed safety and clinical activity of avadomide monotherapy in patients with de novo R/R DLBCL and transformed lymphoma. Additionally, a novel gene expression classifier, which identifies tumors with a high immune cell infiltration, was shown to enrich for response to avadomide in R/R DLBCL. Ninety-seven patients with R/R DLBCL, including 12 patients with transformed lymphoma, received 3 to 5 mg avadomide administered on continuous or intermittent schedules until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or withdrawal. Eighty-two patients (85%) experienced ≥1 grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), most commonly neutropenia (51%), infections (24%), anemia (12%), and febrile neutropenia (10%). Discontinuations because of AEs occurred in 10% of patients. Introduction of an intermittent 5/7-day schedule improved tolerability and reduced frequency and severity of neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and infections. Among 84 patients with de novo R/R DLBCL, overall response rate (ORR) was 29%, including 11% complete response (CR). Responses were cell-of-origin independent. Classifier-positive DLBCL patients (de novo) had an ORR of 44%, median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 6 months, and 16% CR vs an ORR of 19%, mPFS of 1.5 months, and 5% CR in classifier-negative patients (P = .0096). Avadomide is being evaluated in combination with other antilymphoma agents. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01421524.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7099331PMC
March 2020

Bendamustine-EAM versus BEAM regimen in patients with mantle cell lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation in the frontline setting: a multicenter retrospective study from Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) centers.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 06 17;55(6):1076-1084. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Clinical Hematology, Caen University Hospital, F-14000, Caen, France.

The combination of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) as conditioning regimen prior to autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the standard of care for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who are eligible for transplantation. The replacement of carmustine with bendamustine (BeEAM) was described as a promising alternative in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the BeEAM with the BEAM regimen in MCL patients in the frontline setting. Sixty and 108 patients were included in the BeEAM and the BEAM groups, respectively. At 3 years, progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly higher in the BeEAM than in the BEAM group (84% [73-96] vs. 63% [51-79], p = 0.03). The overall survival was not statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.2). In multivariable analysis, BeEAM regimen remained associated with higher PFS (HR = 0.377, 95% CI, 0.146-0.970; p = 0.043). Subgroup analyses in patients treated with prior rituximab-aracytine induction alone showed that BeEAM improved the PFS compared with BEAM regimen (p = 0.04). Despite the high rate of acute renal failure KDIGO III (32%), treatment-related mortality was not increased with the BeEAM regimen. A prospective randomized trial will be necessary to confirm the beneficial effect of the BeEAM regimen in MCL patients undergoing ASCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0783-yDOI Listing
June 2020

Gene alterations in epigenetic modifiers and JAK-STAT signaling are frequent in breast implant-associated ALCL.

Blood 2020 01;135(5):360-370

Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, INSERM U955, Université Paris-Est, Créteil, France.

The oncogenic events involved in breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) remain elusive. To clarify this point, we have characterized the genomic landscape of 34 BI-ALCLs (15 tumor and 19 in situ subtypes) collected from 54 BI-ALCL patients diagnosed through the French Lymphopath network. Whole-exome sequencing (n = 22, with paired tumor/germline DNA) and/or targeted deep sequencing (n = 24) showed recurrent mutations of epigenetic modifiers in 74% of cases, involving notably KMT2C (26%), KMT2D (9%), CHD2 (15%), and CREBBP (15%). KMT2D and KMT2C mutations correlated with a loss of H3K4 mono- and trimethylation by immunohistochemistry. Twenty cases (59%) showed mutations in ≥1 member of the JAK/STAT pathway, including STAT3 (38%), JAK1 (18%), and STAT5B (3%), and in negative regulators, including SOCS3 (6%), SOCS1 (3%), and PTPN1 (3%). These mutations were more frequent in tumor-type samples than in situ samples (P = .038). All BI-ALCLs expressed pSTAT3, regardless of the mutational status of genes in the JAK/STAT pathway. Mutations in the EOMES gene (12%) involved in lymphocyte development, PI3K-AKT/mTOR (6%), and loss-of-function mutations in TP53 (12%) were also identified. Copy-number aberration (CNA) analysis identified recurrent alterations, including gains on chromosomes 2, 9p, 12p, and 21 and losses on 4q, 8p, 15, 16, and 20. Regions of CNA encompassed genes involved in the JAK/STAT pathway and epigenetic regulators. Our results show that the BI-ALCL genomic landscape is characterized by not only JAK/STAT activating mutations but also loss-of-function alterations of epigenetic modifiers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019001904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059458PMC
January 2020

Lenalidomide maintenance for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients responding to R-CHOP: quality of life, dosing, and safety results from the randomised controlled REMARC study.

Br J Haematol 2020 04 8;189(1):84-96. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Hematology, INSERM U1052 Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre-Bénite, France.

Lenalidomide maintenance therapy prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) responding to induction chemotherapy in the phase 3 REMARC study. This subpopulation analysis assessed the impact of lenalidomide maintenance and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Global health status (GHS), and physical functioning and fatigue subscales were evaluated in patients who completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire-C30 v3.0. The impact of TEAEs classified post hoc as subjective (patients can feel) or observable (only measurable by physicians) on dose reductions and discontinuations was assessed. Among 457 patients (lenalidomide, n = 229; placebo, n = 228), mean (standard deviation) GHS was similar between treatment arms [68·2 (20·7) Versus 72·0 (17·8)] at randomisation and remained similar during maintenance. Patients receiving lenalidomide experienced no meaningful changes in GHS, physical functioning, or fatigue. Observable TEAEs were more common (81·1% Versus 66·3%) and more likely to lead to dose reductions, than subjective TEAEs in both arms. PFS was superior in the lenalidomide arm regardless of dose reduction. Lenalidomide maintenance prolonged PFS and did not negatively impact HRQOL in patients with DLBCL despite TEAEs being more common, when compared with placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154674PMC
April 2020

Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide vs. antithymocyte globulin as GVHD prophylaxis for mismatched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 18;55(2):349-355. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is an efficient GVHD prophylaxis but has not been extensively evaluated in mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) allo-HSCT, for which antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is still considered as a standard. Thus, we evaluated the outcome of MMUD allo-HSCT with PT-Cy (n = 22) and performed a historical comparison with a control group receiving ATG (n = 40) in a single center experience. Compared with the ATG group, the risk of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was significantly lower in the PT-Cy group (HR = 0.12, 95% CI = [0.03-0.48], p = 0.002). No difference was observed in the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD. The risk of both NRM and relapse was significantly lower in the PT-Cy group (NRM: HR = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.00-0.63], p = 0.021; relapse: HR = 0.31; 95% CI = [0.09-1.10], p = 0.07). Thus, we observed significantly better PFS (HR = 0.22, 95% CI = (0.07-0.65); p = 0.006), OS (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = (0.07-0.84); p = 0.026), and GRFS (HR = 0.37, 95% CI = (0.17-0.80); p = 0.011) in the PT-Cy group. We conclude that PT-Cy is an effective GVHD prophylaxis in the setting of MMUD allo-HSCT, resulting in a better outcome compared with standard prophylaxis using ATG. This suggests that as it was shown in the setting of haploidentical allo-HSCT, the use of PT-Cy can overcome the impact of HLA disparity, leading to promising survivals that approach those observed after HLA matched allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0682-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Obinutuzumab combined with lenalidomide for relapsed or refractory follicular B-cell lymphoma (GALEN): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Aug 8;6(8):e429-e437. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Haematology Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes, France.

Background: Lenalidomide plus rituximab is approved to treat patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Obinutuzumab has been shown to enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and direct B-cell killing better than rituximab. Our aim was to determine the activity and safety of lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma.

Methods: In this multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 24 Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation centres in France. Eligible patients (age ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed CD20-positive relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma of WHO grade 1, 2, or 3a; an ECOG performance status of 0-2; and received at least one previous rituximab-containing therapy. Patients received oral lenalidomide (20 mg) plus intravenously infused obinutuzumab as induction therapy (1000 mg; six 28-day cycles), 1-year maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg; 12 28-day cycles; days 2-22) plus obinutuzumab (1000 mg; alternate cycles), and 1-year maintenance with obinutuzumab (1000 mg; six 56-day cycles; day 1). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response at induction end as per investigator assessment using the 1999 international working group criteria. The secondary endpoints were event-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Analyses were per-protocol; the efficacy population included all patients who received at least one dose of both obinutuzumab and lenalidomide, and the safety population included all patients who received one dose of either investigational drug. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01582776, and is ongoing but closed to accrual.

Findings: Between June 11, 2014, and Dec 18, 2015, 89 patients were recruited and 86 patients were evaluable for efficacy and 88 for safety. Median follow-up was 2·6 years (IQR 2·2-2·8). 68 (79%) of 86 evaluable patients (95% CI 69-87) achieved an overall response at induction end, meeting the prespecified primary endpoint. At 2 years, event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 51-72), progression-free survival 65% (95% CI 54-74), duration of response 70% (95% CI 57-79), and overall survival 87% (95% CI 78-93). Complete response was achieved by 33 (38%, 95% CI 28-50) of 86 patients at induction end, and the proportion of patients achieving a best overall response was 70 (81%, 95% CI 72-89) and 72 (84%, 74-91) of 86 patients during induction and treatment, respectively. The most common adverse events were asthenia (n=54, 61%), neutropenia (n=38, 43%), bronchitis (n=36, 41%), diarrhoea (n=35, 40%), and muscle spasms (n=34, 39%). Neutropenia was the most common toxicity of grade 3 or more; four (5%) patients had febrile neutropenia. 57 serious adverse events were reported in 30 (34%) of 88 patients. The most common serious adverse events were basal cell carcinoma (n=5, 6%), febrile neutropenia (n=4, 5%), and infusion-related reaction (n=3, 3%). One patient died due to treatment-related febrile neutropenia.

Interpretation: Our data shows that lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab is active in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, including those with early relapse, and has a manageable safety profile. Randomised trials of new immunomodulatory regimens, such as GALEN or using GALEN as a backbone, versus lenalidomide plus rituximab, are warranted.

Funding: Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation, and Celgene and Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30089-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Bone Marrow for T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 22;25(9):1810-1817. Epub 2019 May 22.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy.

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) represents a potential curative strategy for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) when a matched related or unrelated donor is not available. The role of graft source, either bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), in this setting has not been fully elucidated. We performed a retrospective study on 91 patients with HL to compare the outcome after BM (n = 53) or PBSC (n = 38) transplant. Eighty-nine patients engrafted with no difference between BM and PBSCs in terms of median time for neutrophil (20 versus 20 days, P = .405) and platelet (26 versus 26.5 days, P = .994) engraftment. With a median follow-up of 40.2 months, 100-day cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute graft-versus host disease (GVHD) and grades II to IV acute GVHD were 24% and 4%, respectively. Graft source was not associated with a different risk of acute GVHD both by univariate and multivariate analyses. Consistently, 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 7% with no differences between the 2 graft types (P = .761). Two-year rates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality, and GVHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 67%, 58%, 20%, and 52%, respectively. By univariate analysis, pretransplant disease status was the main variable affecting all outcomes. By multivariate analysis, PBSCs resulted in a protective factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], .29; P = .006), PFS (HR, .38; P = .001), and GRFS (HR, .44; P = .020). The other independent variables affecting the final outcome were pretransplant disease status and hematopoietic cell transplant-specific comorbidity index. In conclusion, when planning a haplo-SCT with PT-Cy for patients with poor-risk HL, graft type is an important variable to take into account when selecting the best available donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.017DOI Listing
September 2019

Peripheral blood stem cell for haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant high dose cyclophosphamide: detailed analysis of 181 consecutive patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 11 19;54(11):1730-1737. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Hematology Department, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France.

While bone marrow (BM) grafts were initially used for T-replete HLA-haploidentical related donors transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy), the use of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) remains debated. We thus conducted a detailed analysis evaluating the incidence, risk factors, and prevalence of GVHD after PBSC Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy. One hundred and eighty-one patients with hematological diseases were included. Median time for neutrophil and platelet recovery was 21 and 30 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD and severe chronic GVHD were 8% and 4%, respectively, approaching what was observed after BM Haplo-SCT. NRM at 2 years was 21%, and 41% of the non-relapse deaths were caused by GVHD. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 17% in the whole cohort, and 13% among AML patients (n = 54), suggesting a high GVL effect. As surrogate markers for good quality of life, we observed a 2-year GVHD-relapse-free survival probability of 50% and found that 6% and 2% of disease-free patients at 2 years were still living with GVHD and immunosuppressive treatments, respectively. Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy using PBSC grafts results in low incidence GVHD and promising disease control, making PBSCs a valuable alternative to BM graft in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0500-xDOI Listing
November 2019

PET-adapted treatment for newly diagnosed advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (AHL2011): a randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority, phase 3 study.

Lancet Oncol 2019 02 15;20(2):202-215. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

LYSA Imaging, Hôpital H Mondor, Creteil, France.

Background: Increased-dose bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) improves progression-free survival in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma compared with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD), but is associated with increased risks of haematological toxicity, secondary myelodysplasia or leukaemia, and infertility. We investigated whether PET monitoring during treatment could allow dose de-escalation by switching regimen (BEACOPP to ABVD) in early responders without loss of disease control compared with standard treatment without PET monitoring.

Methods: AHL2011 is a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 study done in 90 centres across Belgium and France. Eligible patients were aged 16-60 years and had newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma, excluding nodular lymphocyte predominant subtype, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score less than 3, a life expectancy of at least 3 months, an Ann Arbor disease stage III, IV, or IIB with mediastinum-to-thorax ratio of 0·33 or greater than or extranodal localisation, and had received no previous treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Randomisation was unmasked and done centrally by the permuted block method. Patients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (BEACOPP given every 21 days for six cycles) or PET-driven treatment. All patients received two cycles of upfront BEACOPP, after which PET assessment was done (PET2). In the standard treatment group, PET2 patients completed two additional cycles of BEACOPP induction therapy irrespective of PET2 findings. In the PET-driven treatment group, patients with positive PET2 scans received the further two cycles of BEACOPP and those with a negative PET2 scan switched to two cycles of ABVD for the remaining induction therapy. In both treatment groups, PET at the end of induction therapy was used to decide whether to continue with consolidation therapy in those with negative scans or start salvage therapy in patients with positive scans (either two cycles of ABVD in PET2-negative patients in the PET-driven arm or two cycles of BEACOPP). BEACOPP consisted of bleomycin 10 mg/m and vincristine 1·4 mg/m intravenously on day 8, etoposide 200 mg/m intravenously on days 1-3, doxorubicin 35 mg/m and cyclophosphamide 1250 mg/m intravenously on day 1, 100 mg/m oral procarbazine on days 1-7, and 40 mg/m oral prednisone on days 1-14. ABVD was given every 28 days (doxorubicin 25 mg/m, bleomycin 10 mg/m, vinblastine 6 mg/m, and dacarbazine 375 mg/m intravenously on days 1 and 15). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Non-inferiority analyses were done by intention to treat and per protocol. The study had a non-inferiority margin of 10%, to show non-inferiority of PET-guided treatment versus standard care with 80% power and an alpha of 2·5% (one-sided). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01358747.

Findings: From May 19, 2011, to April 29, 2014, 823 patients were enrolled-413 in the standard care group and 410 in the PET-driven group. 346 (84%) of 410 patients in the PET-driven treatment group were assigned to receive ABVD and 51 (12%) to continue receiving BEACOPP after PET2. With a median follow-up of 50·4 months (IQR 42·9-59·3), 5-year progression-free survival by intention to treat was 86·2%, 95% CI 81·6-89·8 in the standard treatment group versus 85·7%, 81·4-89·1 in the PET-driven treatment group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·084, 95% CI 0·737-1·596; p=0·65) and per protocol the values were 86·7%, 95% CI 81·9-90·3 and 85·4%, 80·7-89·0, respectively (HR 1·144, 0·758-1·726; p=0·74). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were leucopenia (381 [92%] in the standard treatment group and 387 [95%] in the PET-driven treatment group), neutropenia (359 [87%] and 366 [90%]), anaemia (286 [69%] vs 114 [28%]), thrombocytopenia (271 [66%] and 163 [40%]), febrile neutropenia (145 [35%] and 93 [23%]), infections (88 [22%] and 47 [11%]), and gastrointestinal disorders (49 [11%] and 48 [11%]). Serious adverse events related to treatment were reported in 192 (47%) patients in the standard treatment group and 114 (28%) in the PET-driven treatment group, including infections (84 [20%] of 412 vs 50 [12%] of 407) and febrile neutropenia (21 [5%] vs 23 [6%]). Six (1%) patients in the standard care group died from treatment-related causes (two from septic shock, two from pneumopathy, one from heart failure, and one from acute myeloblastic leukaemia), as did two (<1%) in the PET-driven treatment group (one from septic shock and one from acute myeloblastic leukaemia).

Interpretation: PET after two cycles of induction BEACOPP chemotherapy safely guided treatment in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma and allowed the use of ABVD in early responders without impairing disease control and reduced toxicities. PET staging allowed accurate monitoring of treatment in this trial and could be considered as a strategy for the routine management of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma.

Funding: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30784-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based haploidentical versus Atg-based unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients younger than 60 years with hematological malignancies: a single-center experience of 209 patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 07 6;54(7):1067-1076. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by availability of HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs). The alternative use of unrelated donors (UDs) is currently challenged by haploidentical-related donors (HRDs). We retrospectively analyzed 209 consecutive patients younger than 60 years undergoing allo-HSCT from UDs (n = 128) or HRDs (n = 81). Cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 acute (17 vs. 2%, p = 0.003) and 2-year moderate and severe chronic (20 vs. 2%, p < 0.001) GVHD were significantly higher with UD. Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better with HRD (51 vs. 69%, p = 0.019), without significant difference in the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses confirmed the lower risk of acute and chronic GVHD (grade 2-4, HR = 0.43, p = 0.005; grade 3-4, HR = 0.20, p = 0.017; all grades, HR = 0.43, p = 0.012; moderate or severe, HR = 0.12, p = 0.004), better PFS (HR = 0.61, p = 0.046), and GRFS (HR = 0.47, p = 0.001) with HRD. This was confirmed in match-paired analysis. In the absence of MSDs, HRD could be considered as a suitable alternative for patients younger than 60 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0387-yDOI Listing
July 2019

Common origin of sequential cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferations with nodal involvement evidenced by genome-wide clonal evolution.

Histopathology 2019 Mar 31;74(4):654-662. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Aims: This study sought to clarify the molecular pathways underlying the putative evolution from lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) to cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (c-ALCL) and lymph node invasion (LNI).

Methods And Results: We analysed nine sequential tumours from the same patient presenting with parallel evolution of LyP (n = 3) and c-ALCL (n = 1) with LNI (n = 1), combined with systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (n = 4). Clonality analysis showed a common clonal T-cell origin in the five CD30+ lesions, and a common clonal B-cell origin in the four DLBCL relapses. Array-comparative genomic hybridisation and targeted next-generation sequencing analysis demonstrated relative genomic stability of LyP lesions as compared with clonally related anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) tumours, which showed 4q and 22q13 deletions involving the PRDM8 and TIMP3 tumour suppressor genes, respectively. The three analysed CD30+ lesions showed mostly private (specific to each sample) genetic alterations, suggesting early divergence from a common precursor. In contrast, DLBCL tumours showed progressive accumulation of private alterations, indicating late divergence.

Conclusions: Sequential cutaneous and nodal CD30+ tumours were clonally related. This suggests that LyP, c-ALCL and LNI represent a continuous spectrum of clonal evolution emerging from a common precursor of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferations. Therefore, nodal ALCL tumours in the context of LyP should be considered as a form of transformation rather than composite lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13783DOI Listing
March 2019

Rituximab plus Lenalidomide in Advanced Untreated Follicular Lymphoma.

N Engl J Med 2018 09;379(10):934-947

From Université Lille, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU), Groupe de Recherche sur les formes Injectables et les Technologies Associées, Lille (F.M.), CHU Régional de Nancy, Service d'Hématologie, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (P.F.), Institut Paoli-Calmettes (R.B.) and Department of Pathology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille Université (L.X.), Marseille, Centre Henri Becquerel, Unité 1245 and Département d'Hématologie, Université de Rouen, Rouen (H.T.), Institut d'Hématologie de Basse Normandie, Caen (C.F.), CHU Le Bocage Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Dijon (R.-O.C.), Hôpital Henri Mondor Unité Hémopathies Lymphoïdes, Créteil (C.H.), Centre Hospitalier Départemental Vendée Service d'Onco-Hématologie, La Roche sur Yon (H.M.), Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole Service d'Hématologie, Toulouse (L.Y.), CHU Bordeaux, Service d'Hématologie, Bordeaux (K.B.), Hôpital Saint Louis Service d'Onco-Hématologie, Paris (P.B.), Gustave Roussy Cancer, Villejuif (V.R.), Centre Hospitalier Annecy Genevois Service, Annecy (N.D.), CHU de Nantes-Hôtel Dieu Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie et Immunologie, INSERM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Nantes, Nantes (S.L.G.), Centre Hospitalier Métropole Savoie Service Hématologie, Chambery (G.M.P.), Department of Hematology, CHU Montpellier, University of Montpellier, Montpellier (G.C.), and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, University of Lyon, Pierre-Benite (G.A.S.) - all in France; the Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (N.H.F.); the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (M.L.P.); the Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle (E.N.L.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute-Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (I.W.F.); Washington University School of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis (N.L.B.); the Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca and Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Salamanca (A.M.G.-S.), and the Department of Hematology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona (A.L.-G.) - both in Spain; CHU de Québec, Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus, Quebec (J.-F.L.), and British Columbia Cancer Centre for Lymphoid Cancer, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (L.H.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Hematology and Oncology, Tokai University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan (K.A.); Instituto Português de Oncologia Lisboa Francisco Gentil Departamento de Hematologia, Lisbon (M.G.S.); the Department of Hematology, CHU Université Catholique de Louvain Namur, Yvoir (M.A.), and the Department of Hematology, Ziekenhuis Netwerk Antwerpen Stuivenberg, Antwerp (P.Z.) - both in Belgium; the Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan (K.T.); and Celgene, Summit, NJ (D.L., J.W.).

Background: Rituximab plus chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced-stage, previously untreated follicular lymphoma; nevertheless, most patients will have a relapse. Combination immunotherapy with lenalidomide and rituximab is an immunomodulatory regimen that has shown promising activity in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Methods: We conducted this multicenter, international, phase 3 superiority trial to evaluate rituximab plus lenalidomide, as compared with rituximab plus chemotherapy, in patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the two regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab. Treatment with rituximab plus lenalidomide consisted of 18 cycles of the two drugs, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy every 8 weeks for 12 cycles (six additional doses). Treatment with rituximab plus chemotherapy consisted of the investigator's choice of one of three rituximab-based regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab every 8 weeks for 12 cycles. The primary end points were complete response (confirmed or unconfirmed) at 120 weeks and progression-free survival.

Results: A total of 1030 patients were randomly assigned to receive rituximab plus lenalidomide (513 patients) or rituximab plus chemotherapy (517 patients). The rate of confirmed or unconfirmed complete response at 120 weeks was similar in the two groups: 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 53) in the rituximab-lenalidomide group and 53% (95% CI, 49 to 57) in the rituximab-chemotherapy group (P=0.13). The interim 3-year rate of progression-free survival was 77% (95% CI, 72 to 80) and 78% (95% CI, 74 to 82), respectively. A higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (32% vs. 50%) and febrile neutropenia of any grade (2% vs. 7%), and a higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-lenalidomide group had grade 3 or 4 cutaneous reactions (7% vs. 1%).

Conclusions: Among patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma, efficacy results were similar with rituximab plus lenalidomide and rituximab plus chemotherapy (with both regimens followed by rituximab maintenance therapy). The safety profile differed in the two groups. (Funded by Celgene; RELEVANCE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01476787 and NCT01650701 , and EudraCT number, 2011-002792-42 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1805104DOI Listing
September 2018

Lenalidomide in combination with R-CHOP (R2-CHOP) as first-line treatment of patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma: a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study.

Lancet Haematol 2018 Sep;5(9):e403-e410

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, INSERM1052, University of Lyon, Pierre-Benite, France.

Background: Immunochemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is a standard front-line treatment for follicular lymphoma. The combination of lenalidomide and rituximab has shown high efficacy in relapsed or refractory and untreated follicular lymphoma. We aimed to evaluate the safety and activity of the combination of lenalidomide and R-CHOP (R2-CHOP) in previously untreated patients with high burden follicular lymphoma.

Methods: This single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial was done in 16 hospitals in France, all of which were Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) sites. Eligible patients were aged 18-70 years and had previously untreated CD20-positive follicular lymphoma of grade 1, 2, or 3a; at least one high tumour burden criterion according to Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Folliculaires criteria; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or less; and a minimum life expectancy of more than 3 months. Patients received induction therapy with six cycles of R2-CHOP every 3 weeks (one cycle involved standard R-CHOP on days 1-5, and 25 mg oral lenalidomide per day on days 1-14), followed by two rituximab infusions at 3-week intervals. The total treatment schedule was 24 weeks. Patients who achieved a complete or partial response to induction therapy received maintenance therapy consisting of one rituximab infusion every 8 weeks for 2 years. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved a complete response (complete response and complete response unconfirmed), according to International Workshop to Standardize Response Criteria, at the end of induction treatment. Safety was assessed in all patients who completed treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01393756, and is closed to accrual.

Findings: Between Dec 21, 2010, and Jan 25, 2012, 80 patients were enrolled, and 68 (85%) completed six cycles of R2-CHOP. At the end of the induction phase, 59 patients achieved a complete response (74%, 95% CI 63-83). 55 patients achieved a complete response at 30 months from enrolment (69%, 57-78). The most frequent adverse event was grade 4 neutropenia in 52 (65%) patients. The most frequent non-haematological side-effects included grade 1-2 sensory neuropathy in 28 (35%) patients and grade 1-2 transient rash in 27 (34%) patients. Four patients died during the study period; none of these deaths were judged to be related to treatment.

Interpretations: Lenalidomide in combination with R-CHOP had an acceptable safety profile and showed anti-cancer activity in patients with previously untreated high burden follicular lymphoma. A future comparative study showing evidence of a survival advantage would be necessary for this combination to be proposed as a treatment for follicular lymphoma.

Funding: French Ministry of Health, Celgene Corporation, and Amgen France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(18)30131-5DOI Listing
September 2018