Publications by authors named "Rebecca R Mastey"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Retinal alterations in patients with Lafora disease.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Sep 15;23:101146. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA.

Purpose: Lafora disease is a genetic neurodegenerative metabolic disorder caused by insoluble polyglucosan aggregate accumulation throughout the central nervous system and body. The retina is an accessible neural tissue, which may offer alternative methods to assess neurological diseases quickly and noninvasively. In this way, noninvasive imaging may provide a means to characterize neurodegenerative disease, which enables earlier identification and diagnosis of disease and the ability to monitor disease progression. In this study, we sought to characterize the retina of individuals with Lafora disease using non-invasive retinal imaging.

Methods: One eye of three individuals with genetically confirmed Lafora disease were imaged with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). When possible, OCT volume and line scans were acquired to assess total retinal thickness, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness, and outer nuclear layer + Henle fiber layer thickness. OCT angiography (OCTA) scans were acquired in one subject at the macula and optic nerve head (ONH). AOSLO was used to characterize the photoreceptor mosaic and examine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL).

Results: Two subjects with previous seizure activity demonstrated reduced retinal thickness, while one subject with no apparent symptoms had normal retinal thickness. All other clinical measures, as well as parafoveal cone density, were within normal range. Nummular reflectivity at the level of the RNFL was observed using AOSLO in the macula and near the ONH in all three subjects.

Conclusions: This multimodal retinal imaging approach allowed us to observe a number of retinal structural features in all three individuals. Most notably, AOSLO revealed nummular reflectivity within the inner retina of each subject. This phenotype has not been reported previously and may represent a characteristic change produced by the neurodegenerative process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2021

Assessing Interocular Symmetry of the Foveal Cone Mosaic.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 12;61(14):23

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that foveal cone topography is symmetrical between contralateral eyes.

Methods: We used adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy to acquire images of the foveal cone mosaic in each eye of 58 subjects with normal vision (35 female, 23 male). Cones were semiautomatically identified over a 300 × 300-µm foveal area. From these cone coordinates, maps of cone density were derived, and we extracted estimates of peak cone density from each map. Mosaic regularity was assessed using Voronoi cell area regularity (VCAR). Average roundness and average area of the 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, and 90% of peak density isodensity contours were evaluated.

Results: The average peak cone density for right eyes was 180,286 cones/mm2 (n = 49) and for left eyes was 182,397 cones/mm2 (n = 45), with a mean absolute difference of 6363 cones/mm2 (n = 43). Peak density, cone spacing, VCAR, and average area within the isodensity contours of fellow eyes were not significantly different (P = 0.60, P = 0.83, P = 0.30, and P = 0.39, respectively). However, the average roundness of the isodensity contours was 2% more circular in the right eyes than in the left eyes (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: There is interocular symmetry of peak foveal cone density, mosaic regularity, and area encompassing the most densely packed cells in subjects with normal vision. The origin and significance of the observed interocular difference in average roundness of the isodensity contours are unclear.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
December 2020

Comparison of the Morphology of the Foveal Pit Between African and Caucasian Populations.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020 04 28;9(5):24. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Steele Center for Translational Medicine, John A. Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize foveal pit morphology in an African (Ghanaian) population, to compare it to that of a Caucasian group and to determine if it varied with age in the two populations.

Methods: The depth, diameter, slope, and volume of the foveal pit were interpolated from optical coherence tomography volume scans recorded in 84 Ghanaian and 37 Caucasian individuals. Their association with age, sex, and ethnicity was investigated using multilevel regression models.

Results: The foveal pit differed significantly in width, slope, and volume between Ghanaian men and women ( < 0.001), but only in width and volume between Caucasian men and women ( < 0.01). In Ghanaians, age was associated with a narrowing of the foveal depression and a reduction of its volume. Overall, these changes were more pronounced in women as compared to men and were largely absent from the Caucasian group. When controlled for age, the foveal pit of Ghanaians was significantly wider and larger in volume as compared to the Caucasian group ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: The morphology of the foveal pit differs between African and Caucasian individuals. These anatomic differences should be considered when examining differences in prevalence and clinical features of vitreoretinal disorders involving the fovea between the two populations.

Translational Relevance: Differences in retinal anatomy may partly explain variations in the prevalence and clinical features of retinal diseases between Africans and Caucasians. Such differences should be adequately considered in diagnoses and monitoring of ocular diseases in patients with African ancestry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2020

Longitudinal Assessment of Remnant Foveal Cone Structure in a Case Series of Early Macular Telangiectasia Type 2.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020 03 30;9(4):27. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Purpose: To determine the extent of remnant cone structure within early foveal ellipsoid zone (EZ) lesions in macular telangiectasia type 2 longitudinally using both confocal and split detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO).

Methods: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), confocal and split detector AOSLO were acquired from seven patients (10 eyes) with small (early) EZ lesions on SDOCT secondary to macular telangiectasia type 2 at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The presence of cone structure on AOSLO in areas of EZ loss as well as cones at 1° eccentricity, and their change over time were quantified.

Results: By split detector AOSLO, remnant cone structure was identified within and on the borders of all foveal EZ lesions. Within the extent of these lesions, cone spacing ranged from 4.97 to 9.95 µm at baseline, 5.30 to 6.10 µm at 6 months, and 4.99 to 7.12 µm at 12 months. Four eyes with significantly smaller EZ lesions showed evidence of recovery of EZ reflectivity on SDOCT B-scans. Remnant cone structure was identified in some areas where EZ reflectivity recovered at the following time point. Eyes that showed recovery of EZ reflectivity had a continuous external limiting membrane.

Conclusions: Remnant cone structure can persist within small SDOCT-defined EZ lesions, which can wax and wane in appearance over time. AOSLO can help to inform the interpretation of SDOCT imaging.

Translational Relevance: The absence of EZ in early macular telangiectasia type 2 and other retinal conditions needs careful interpretation because it does not always indicate an absence of underlying cone structure. The integrity of the external limiting membrane may better predict the presence of remnant cone structure and recovery of EZ reflectivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
March 2020

Multiexon deletion alleles of ATF6 linked to achromatopsia.

JCI Insight 2020 04 9;5(7). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Achromatopsia (ACHM) is an autosomal recessive disease that results in severe visual loss. Symptoms of ACHM include impaired visual acuity, nystagmus, and photoaversion starting from infancy; furthermore, ACHM is associated with bilateral foveal hypoplasia and absent or severely reduced cone photoreceptor function on electroretinography. Here, we performed genetic sequencing in 3 patients from 2 families with ACHM, identifying and functionally characterizing 2 mutations in the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) gene. We identified a homozygous deletion covering exons 8-14 of the ATF6 gene from 2 siblings from the same family. In another patient from a different family, we identified a heterozygous deletion covering exons 2 and 3 of the ATF6 gene found in trans with a previously identified ATF6 c.970C>T (p.Arg324Cys) ACHM disease allele. Recombinant ATF6 proteins bearing these exon deletions showed markedly impaired transcriptional activity by qPCR and RNA-Seq analysis compared with WT-ATF6. Finally, RNAscope revealed that ATF6 and the related ATF6B transcripts were expressed in cones as well as in all retinal layers in normal human retina. Overall, our data identify loss-of-function ATF6 disease alleles that cause human foveal disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2020

Interocular Symmetry of Foveal Cone Topography in Congenital Achromatopsia.

Curr Eye Res 2020 10 13;45(10):1257-1264. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

: To determine the interocular symmetry of foveal cone topography in achromatopsia (ACHM) using non-confocal split-detection adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). : Split-detector AOSLO images of the foveal cone mosaic were acquired from both eyes of 26 subjects (mean age 24.3 years; range 8-44 years, 14 females) with genetically confirmed - or -associated ACHM. Cones were identified within a manually delineated rod-free zone. Peak cone density (PCD) was determined using an 80 × 80 μm sampling window within the rod-free zone. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of inter-cell distance (ICD) were calculated to derive the coefficient of variation (CV). Cone density difference maps were generated to compare cone topography between eyes. : PCD (mean ± SD) was 17,530 ± 9,614 cones/mm and 17,638 ± 9,753 cones/mm for right and left eyes, respectively ( = .677, Wilcoxon test). The mean (± SD) for ICD was 9.05 ± 2.55 µm and 9.24 ± 2.55 µm for right and left eyes, respectively ( = .410, paired -test). The mean (± SD) for CV of ICD was 0.16 ± 0.03 µm and 0.16 ± 0.04 µm for right and left eyes, respectively ( = .562, paired -test). Cone density maps demonstrated that cone topography of the ACHM fovea is non-uniform with local variations in cone density between eyes. : These results demonstrate the interocular symmetry of the foveal cone mosaic (both density and packing) in ACHM. As cone topography can differ between eyes of a subject, PCD does not completely describe the foveal cone mosaic in ACHM. Nonetheless, these findings are of value in longitudinal monitoring of patients during treatment trials and further suggest that both eyes of a given subject may have similar therapeutic potential and non-study eye can be used as a control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
October 2020

Noninvasive Imaging and Correlative Histology of Cone Photoreceptor Structure in the Pig Retina.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2019 Nov 18;8(6):38. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate different methods of studying cone photoreceptor structure in wild-type (WT) and transgenic pigs carrying the human rhodopsin P23H mutant gene (TgP23H).

Methods: For in vivo imaging, pigs were anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam and isoflurane and given lidocaine-bupivacaine retrobulbar injections. Stay sutures and a custom head mount were used to hold and steer the head for adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Six WT and TgP23H littermates were imaged at postnatal day 30 (P30), P90, and P180 with AOSLO and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and two additional sets of littermates were imaged at P3 and P15 with OCT only. AOSLO imaging and correlative differential interference contrast microscopy were performed on a P240 WT pig and on WT and TgP23H littermates at P30 and P180.

Results: AOSLO cone density generally underestimates histology density (mean difference ± SD = 24.8% ± 21.4%). The intensity of the outer retinal hyperreflective OCT band attributed to photoreceptors is attenuated in TgP23H pigs at all ages. In contrast, AOSLO images show cones that retain inner and outer segments through P180. At retinal locations outside the visual streak, TgP23H pigs show a heterogeneous degenerating cone mosaic by using two criteria: variable contrast on a split detector AOSLO and high reflectivity on a confocal AOSLO.

Conclusions: AOSLO reveals that the cone mosaic is similar to ex vivo histology. Its use as a noninvasive tool will enable observation of morphologic changes that arise in the cone mosaic of TgP23H pigs over time.

Translational Relevance: Pigs are widely used for translational studies, and the ability to noninvasively assess cellular changes in the cone mosaic will facilitate more detailed investigations of new retinal disease models as well as outcomes of potential therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2019

Assessing the Interocular Symmetry of Foveal Outer Nuclear Layer Thickness in Achromatopsia.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2019 Sep 2;8(5):21. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Purpose: We examine the interocular symmetry of foveal outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness measurements in subjects with achromatopsia (ACHM).

Methods: Images from 76 subjects with - or -associated ACHM and 42 control subjects were included in the study. Line or volume scans through the fovea of each eye were acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Image quality was assessed for each image included in the analysis using a previously-described maximum tissue contrast index (mTCI) metric. Three foveal ONL thickness measurements were made by a single observer and interocular symmetry was assessed using the average of the three measurements for each eye.

Results: Mean (± standard deviation) foveal ONL thickness for subjects with ACHM was 79.7 ± 18.3 μm (right eye) and 79.2 ± 18.7 μm (left eye) compared to 112.9 ± 15.2 (right eye) and 112.1 ± 13.9 μm (left eye) for controls. Foveal ONL thickness did not differ between eyes for ACHM ( = 0.636) or control subjects ( = 0.434). No significant relationship between mTCI and observer repeatability was observed for either control ( = 0.140) or ACHM ( = 0.351) images.

Conclusions: While foveal ONL thickness is reduced in ACHM compared to controls, the high interocular symmetry indicates that contralateral ONL measurements could be used as a negative control in early-phase monocular treatment trials.

Translational Relevance: Foveal ONL thickness can be measured using OCT images over a wide range of image quality. The interocular symmetry of foveal ONL thickness in ACHM and control populations supports the use of the non-study eye as a control for clinical trial purposes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2019

Characterization of Retinal Structure in ATF6-Associated Achromatopsia.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 06;60(7):2631-2640

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

Purpose: Mutations in six genes have been associated with achromatopsia (ACHM): CNGA3, CNGB3, PDE6H, PDE6C, GNAT2, and ATF6. ATF6 is the most recent gene to be identified, though thorough phenotyping of this genetic subtype is lacking. Here, we sought to test the hypothesis that ATF6-associated ACHM is a structurally distinct form of congenital ACHM.

Methods: Seven genetically confirmed subjects from five nonconsanguineous families were recruited. Foveal hypoplasia and the integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) band (a.k.a., IS/OS) were graded from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Images of the photoreceptor mosaic were acquired using confocal and nonconfocal split-detection adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Parafoveal cone and rod density values were calculated and compared to published normative data as well as data from two subjects harboring CNGA3 or CNGB3 mutations who were recruited for comparative purposes. Additionally, nonconfocal dark-field AOSLO images of the retinal pigment epithelium were obtained, with quantitative analysis performed in one subject with ATF6-ACHM.

Results: Foveal hypoplasia was observed in all subjects with ATF6 mutations. Absence of the EZ band within the foveal region (grade 3) or appearance of a hyporeflective zone (grade 4) was seen in all subjects with ATF6 using OCT. There was no evidence of remnant foveal cone structure using confocal AOSLO, although sporadic cone-like structures were seen in nonconfocal split-detection AOSLO. There was a lack of cone structure in the parafovea, in direct contrast to previous reports.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a near absence of cone structure in subjects harboring ATF6 mutations. This implicates ATF6 as having a major role in cone development and suggests that at least a subset of subjects with ATF6-ACHM have markedly fewer cellular targets for cone-directed gene therapies than do subjects with CNGA3- or CNGB3-ACHM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2019