Publications by authors named "Rebecca L Goldstein"

8 Publications

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AMG 701 induces cytotoxicity of multiple myeloma cells and depletes plasma cells in cynomolgus monkeys.

Blood Adv 2020 09;4(17):4180-4194

Amgen Research, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, CA.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Patient outcome may be improved with BiTE (bispecific T-cell engager) molecules, which redirect T cells to lyse tumor cells. B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) supports PC survival and is highly expressed on MM cells. A half-life extended anti-BCMA BiTE molecule (AMG 701) induced selective cytotoxicity against BCMA-expressing MM cells (average half-maximal effective concentration, 18.8 ± 14.8 pM), T-cell activation, and cytokine release in vitro. In a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model, at all doses tested, AMG 701 completely inhibited tumor formation (P < .001), as well as inhibited growth of established tumors (P ≤ .001) and extended survival in an orthotopic MM model (P ≤ .01). To evaluate AMG 701 bioactivity in cynomolgus monkeys, a PC surface phenotype and specific genes were defined to enable a quantitative digital droplet polymerase chain reaction assay (sensitivity, 0.1%). Dose-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior was observed, with depletion of PC-specific genes reaching 93% in blood and 85% in BM. Combination with a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-blocking antibody significantly increased AMG 701 potency in vitro. A model of AMG 701 binding to BCMA and CD3 indicates that the distance between the T-cell and target cell membranes (ie, the immunological synapse) is similar to that of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule binding to a T-cell receptor and suggests that the synapse would not be disrupted by the half-life extending Fc domain. These data support the clinical development of AMG 701.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479952PMC
September 2020

Characterization of a Novel FLT3 BiTE Molecule for the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Mol Cancer Ther 2020 09 9;19(9):1875-1888. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Amgen Research, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, California.

Despite advances in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), novel therapies are needed to induce deeper and more durable clinical response. Bispecific T-cell Engager (BiTE) molecules, which redirect patient T cells to lyse tumor cells, are a clinically validated modality for hematologic malignancies. Due to broad AML expression and limited normal tissue expression, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is proposed to be an optimal BiTE molecule target. Expression profiling of FLT3 was performed in primary AML patient samples and normal hematopoietic cells and nonhematopoietic tissues. Two novel FLT3 BiTE molecules, one with a half-life extending (HLE) Fc moiety and one without, were assessed for T-cell-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (TDCC) of FLT3-positive cell lines , and FLT3 protein was detected on the surface of most primary AML bulk and leukemic stem cells but only a fraction of normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. FLT3 protein detected in nonhematopoietic cells was cytoplasmic. FLT3 BiTE molecules induced TDCC of FLT3-positive cells , reduced tumor growth and increased survival in AML mouse models Both molecules exhibited reproducible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in cynomolgus monkeys , including elimination of FLT3-positive cells in blood and bone marrow. In cultures of primary AML samples, patient T cells induced TDCC of FLT3-positive target cells. Combination with PD-1 blockade increased BiTE activity. These data support the clinical development of an FLT3 targeting BiTE molecule for the treatment of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-19-1093DOI Listing
September 2020

EZH2 and BCL6 Cooperate to Assemble CBX8-BCOR Complex to Repress Bivalent Promoters, Mediate Germinal Center Formation and Lymphomagenesis.

Cancer Cell 2016 08;30(2):197-213

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, 413 E 69(th) Street, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:

The EZH2 histone methyltransferase mediates the humoral immune response and drives lymphomagenesis through formation of bivalent chromatin domains at critical germinal center (GC) B cell promoters. Herein we show that the actions of EZH2 in driving GC formation and lymphoma precursor lesions require site-specific binding by the BCL6 transcriptional repressor and the presence of a non-canonical PRC1-BCOR-CBX8 complex. The chromodomain protein CBX8 is induced in GC B cells, binds to H3K27me3 at bivalent promoters, and is required for stable association of the complex and the resulting histone modifications. Moreover, oncogenic BCL6 and EZH2 cooperate to accelerate diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) development and combinatorial targeting of these repressors results in enhanced anti-lymphoma activity in DLBCLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2016.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5000552PMC
August 2016

Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

J Clin Invest 2016 09 2;126(9):3351-62. Epub 2016 Aug 2.

Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI85795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004937PMC
September 2016

Combinatorial targeting of nuclear export and translation of RNA inhibits aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

Blood 2016 Feb 24;127(7):858-68. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Hematology and Oncology Division.

Aggressive double- and triple-hit (DH/TH) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) feature activation of Hsp90 stress pathways. Herein, we show that Hsp90 controls posttranscriptional dynamics of key messenger RNA (mRNA) species including those encoding BCL6, MYC, and BCL2. Using a proteomics approach, we found that Hsp90 binds to and maintains activity of eIF4E. eIF4E drives nuclear export and translation of BCL6, MYC, and BCL2 mRNA. eIF4E RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing in DLBCL suggests that nuclear eIF4E controls an extended program that includes B-cell receptor signaling, cellular metabolism, and epigenetic regulation. Accordingly, eIF4E was required for survival of DLBCL including the most aggressive subtypes, DH/TH lymphomas. Indeed, eIF4E inhibition induces tumor regression in cell line and patient-derived tumorgrafts of TH-DLBCL, even in the presence of elevated Hsp90 activity. Targeting Hsp90 is typically limited by counterregulatory elevation of Hsp70B, which induces resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Surprisingly, we identify Hsp70 mRNA as an eIF4E target. In this way, eIF4E inhibition can overcome drug resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Accordingly, rational combinatorial inhibition of eIF4E and Hsp90 inhibitors resulted in cooperative antilymphoma activity in DH/TH DLBCL in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-05-645069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760090PMC
February 2016

Pharmacoproteomics identifies combinatorial therapy targets for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

J Clin Invest 2015 Nov 3;125(12):4559-71. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

Rationally designed combinations of targeted therapies for refractory cancers, such as activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL), are likely required to achieve potent, durable responses. Here, we used a pharmacoproteomics approach to map the interactome of a tumor-enriched isoform of HSP90 (teHSP90). Specifically, we chemically precipitated teHSP90-client complexes from DLBCL cell lines with the small molecule PU-H71 and found that components of the proximal B cell receptor (BCR) signalosome were enriched within teHSP90 complexes. Functional assays revealed that teHSP90 facilitates BCR signaling dynamics by enabling phosphorylation of key BCR signalosome components, including the kinases SYK and BTK. Consequently, treatment of BCR-dependent ABC DLBCL cells with PU-H71 attenuated BCR signaling, calcium flux, and NF-κB signaling, ultimately leading to growth arrest. Combined exposure of ABC DLBCL cell lines to PU-H71 and ibrutinib, a BCR pathway inhibitor, more potently suppressed BCR signaling than either drug alone. Correspondingly, PU-H71 combined with ibrutinib induced synergistic killing of lymphoma cell lines, primary human lymphoma specimens ex vivo, and lymphoma xenografts in vivo, without notable toxicity. Together, our results demonstrate that a pharmacoproteome-driven rational combination therapy has potential to provide more potent BCR-directed therapy for ABC DLCBL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI80714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665772PMC
November 2015

Targeting the Hsp90-associated viral oncoproteome in gammaherpesvirus-associated malignancies.

Blood 2013 Oct 13;122(16):2837-47. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and.

PU-H71 is a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor that, in contrast to other Hsp90 inhibitors, displays unique selectivity for binding the fraction of Hsp90 that is preferentially associated with oncogenic client proteins and enriched in tumor cells (teHsp90). This property allows PU-H71 to potently suppress teHsp90 without inducing toxicity in normal cells. We found that lymphoma cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus or Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) are exquisitely sensitive to this compound. Using PU-H71 affinity capture and proteomics, an unbiased approach to reveal oncogenic networks, we identified the teHsp90 interactome in KSHV(+) primary effusion lymphoma cells. Viral and cellular proteins were identified, including many involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, apoptosis, and autophagy. KSHV vFLIP is a viral oncoprotein homologous to cFLIPs, with NF-κB-activating and antiapoptotic activities. We show that teHsp90 binds vFLIP but not cFLIPs. Treatment with PU-H71 induced degradation of vFLIP and IKKγ, NF-κB downregulation, apoptosis and autophagy in vitro, and more importantly, tumor responses in mice. Analysis of the interactome revealed apoptosis as a central pathway; therefore, we tested a BCL2 family inhibitor in primary effusion lymphoma cells. We found strong activity and synergy with PU-H71. Our findings demonstrate PU-H71 affinity capture identifies actionable networks that may help design rational combinations of effective therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-01-479972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3798998PMC
October 2013

Neuronal caspase 2 activity and function requires RAIDD, but not PIDD.

Biochem J 2012 Jun;444(3):591-9

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Caspase 2 was initially identified as a neuronally expressed developmentally down-regulated gene (HUGO gene nomenclature CASP2) and has been shown to be required for neuronal death induced by several stimuli, including NGF (nerve growth factor) deprivation and Aβ (β-amyloid). In non-neuronal cells the PIDDosome, composed of caspase 2 and two death adaptor proteins, PIDD (p53-inducible protein with a death domain) and RAIDD {RIP (receptor-interacting protein)-associated ICH-1 [ICE (interleukin-1β-converting enzyme)/CED-3 (cell-death determining 3) homologue 1] protein with a death domain}, has been proposed as the caspase 2 activation complex, although the absolute requirement for the PIDDosome is not clear. To investigate the requirement for the PIDDosome in caspase-2-dependent neuronal death, we have examined the necessity for each component in induction of active caspase 2 and in execution of caspase-2-dependent neuronal death. We find that both NGF deprivation and Aβ treatment of neurons induce active caspase 2 and that induction of this activity depends on expression of RAIDD, but is independent of PIDD expression. We show that treatment of wild-type or PIDD-null neurons with Aβ or NGF deprivation induces formation of a complex of caspase 2 and RAIDD. We also show that caspase-2-dependent execution of neurons requires RAIDD, not PIDD. Caspase 2 activity can be induced in neurons from PIDD-null mice, and NGF deprivation or Aβ use caspase 2 and RAIDD to execute death of these neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20111588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3365438PMC
June 2012