Publications by authors named "Rebecca Herbert"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Transduction of skin-migrating dendritic cells by human adenovirus 5 occurs via an actin-dependent phagocytic pathway.

J Gen Virol 2016 10 15;97(10):2703-2718. Epub 2016 Aug 15.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey GU240NF, UK.

Dendritic cells (DC) are central to the initiation of immune responses, and various approaches have been used to target vaccines to DC in order to improve immunogenicity. Cannulation of lymphatic vessels allows for the collection of DC that migrate from the skin. These migrating DC are involved in antigen uptake and presentation following vaccination. Human replication-deficient adenovirus (AdV) 5 is a promising vaccine vector for delivery of recombinant antigens. Although the mechanism of AdV attachment and penetration has been extensively studied in permissive cell lines, few studies have addressed the interaction of AdV with DC. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bovine skin-migrating DC and replication-deficient AdV-based vaccine vectors. We found that, despite lack of expression of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known adenovirus receptors, AdV readily enters skin-draining DC via an actin-dependent endocytosis. Virus exit from endosomes was pH independent, and neutralizing antibodies did not prevent virus entry but did prevent virus translocation to the nucleus. We also show that combining adenovirus with adjuvant increases the absolute number of intracellular virus particles per DC but not the number of DC containing intracellular virus. This results in increased trans-gene expression and antigen presentation. We propose that, in the absence of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known receptors, AdV5-based vectors enter skin-migrating DC using actin-dependent endocytosis which occurs in skin-migrating DC, and its relevance to vaccination strategies and vaccine vector targeting is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5078831PMC
October 2016

Determination of the minimum fully protective dose of adenovirus-based DIVA vaccine against peste des petits ruminants virus challenge in East African goats.

Vet Res 2016 Jan 21;47:20. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of sheep and goats, primarily in developing countries. It is becoming the object of intensive international control efforts. Current vaccines do not allow vaccinated and infected animals to be distinguished (no DIVA capability). We have previously shown that recombinant, replication-defective, adenovirus expressing the PPRV H glycoprotein (AdH) gives full protection against wild type PPRV challenge. We have now tested lower doses of the vaccine, as well as AdH in combination with a similar construct expressing the PPRV F glycoprotein (AdF). We show here that, in a local breed of goat in a country where PPR disease is common (Kenya), as little as 10(7) pfu of AdH gives significant protection against PPRV challenge, while a vaccine consisting of 10(8) pfu of each of AdH and AdF gives apparently sterile protection. These findings underline the utility of these constructs as DIVA vaccines for use in PPR control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-016-0306-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721059PMC
January 2016

Efficacy of a virus-vectored vaccine against human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections.

Sci Transl Med 2015 Aug;7(300):300ra127

ReiThera Srl, Rome 00144, Italy.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and the elderly for which there is still no effective vaccine. We have previously shown that PanAd3-RSV, which is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate that expresses a secreted form of the HRSV F protein together with the N and M2-1 proteins of HRSV, is immunogenic in rodents and nonhuman primates, and protects mice and cotton rats from HRSV challenge. Because the extent to which protection demonstrated in rodent models will translate to humans is unclear, we have exploited the calf model of bovine RSV (BRSV) infection, which mimics HRSV disease in children more closely than do experimental models of unnatural laboratory hosts, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PanAd3-RSV vaccine. We show that PanAd3-RSV alone and in combination with a modified vaccinia Ankara expressing the same HRSV antigens (MVA-RSV) induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity in young seronegative calves and protected against upper and lower respiratory tract infection and pulmonary disease induced by heterologous BRSV challenge. There was no evidence either of enhanced pulmonary pathology or of enhanced respiratory disease in vaccinated calves after BRSV challenge. These findings support the continued evaluation of the vectored RSV vaccines in man.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aac5757DOI Listing
August 2015

Improving T cell-induced response to subunit vaccines: opportunities for a proteomic systems approach.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2015 Mar 23;67(3):290-9. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK; Mologic, Bedford Technology Park, Thurleigh, Bedfordshire, MK44 2YP.

Unlabelled: Prophylactic vaccines are an effective strategy to prevent development of many infectious diseases. With new and re-emerging infections posing increasing risks to food stocks and the health of the population in general, there is a need to improve the rationale of vaccine development. One key challenge lies in development of an effective T cell-induced response to subunit vaccines at specific sites and in different populations.

Objectives: In this review, we consider how a proteomic systems-based approach can be used to identify putative novel vaccine targets, may be adopted to characterise subunit vaccines and adjuvants fully.

Key Findings: Despite the extensive potential for proteomics to aid our understanding of subunit vaccine nature, little work has been reported on identifying MHC 1-binding peptides for subunit vaccines generating T cell responses in the literature to date.

Summary: In combination with predictive and structural biology approaches to mapping antigen presentation, proteomics offers a powerful and as yet un-tapped addition to the armoury of vaccine discovery to predict T-cell subset responses and improve vaccine design strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12383DOI Listing
March 2015

Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR.

Vet Res 2014 Feb 26;45:24. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-45-24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3941483PMC
February 2014

Early changes in cytokine expression in peste des petits ruminants disease.

Vet Res 2014 Feb 22;45:22. Epub 2014 Feb 22.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Peste des petits ruminants is a viral disease of sheep and goats that has spread through most of Africa as well as the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. Although, the spread of the disease and its economic impact has made it a focus of international concern, relatively little is known about the nature of the disease itself. We have studied the early stages of pathogenesis in goats infected with six different isolates of Peste des petits ruminants virus representing all four known lineages of the virus. No lineage-specific difference in the pathogenicity of the virus isolates was observed, although there was evidence that even small numbers of cell culture passages could affect the degree of pathogenicity of an isolate. A consistent reduction in CD4+ T cells was observed at 4 days post infection (dpi). Measurement of the expression of various cytokines showed elements of a classic inflammatory response but also a relatively early induction of interleukin 10, which may be contributing to the observed disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-45-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3941941PMC
February 2014

British pharmacy professionals' beliefs and participation in continuing professional development: a review of the literature.

Int J Pharm Pract 2011 Oct 9;19(5):290-317. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK.

OBJECTIVES  Continuing professional development (CPD) has potential to be useful in pharmacy revalidation but past uptake and attitudes to CPD in Great Britain (GB) need to be mapped. This review examines published literature to chart the participation and beliefs of pharmacy professionals towards CPD in GB in a decade that had seen a formal transition from continuing education to CPD. METHODS  A comprehensive review of the published literature was conducted to identify studies of the uptake of, or attitudes towards, CPD cross different sectors of pharmacy in GB from 2000 to 2010. KEY FINDINGS  Twenty-two studies were included and analysed, including 13 research papers, six conference papers, two news items reporting survey outcomes and one commissioned study. Eight barriers to CPD were identified as: time, financial costs and resource issues, understanding of CPD, facilitation and support for CPD, motivation and interest in CPD, attitudes towards compulsory CPD, system constraints, and technical problems. Pharmacy professionals on the whole agreed with the principle of engaging with CPD but there was little evidence to suggest widespread and wholehearted acceptance and uptake of CPD, essential for revalidation. CONCLUSIONS  If CPD is to succeed, people's beliefs and attitudes must be addressed by recognising and modifying perceived barriers through a combination of regulatory, professional, work-related and personal channels. A number of recommendations are made. Direct experience of effective CPD in the absence of perceived barriers could impact on personal development, career development and patient benefit thus strengthening personal beliefs in the value of CPD in an iterative manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00128.xDOI Listing
October 2011

Loss of interferon regulatory factor 3 in cells infected with classical swine fever virus involves the N-terminal protease, Npro.

J Virol 2005 Jun;79(11):7239-47

Department of Immunology, BBSRC Institute for Animal Health, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom.

We show that cells infected with the pestivirus classical swine fever virus (CSFV) fail to produce alpha/beta interferon not only following treatment with double-stranded RNA but also after superinfection with a heterologous virus, the alphavirus Sindbis virus, a virus shown to normally induce interferon. We investigated whether the inhibition of interferon synthesis by CSFV involved a block in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activity. Cells infected with CSFV exhibited a lack of translocation of green fluorescent protein-IRF3 to the nucleus; however, constitutive shuttling of IRF3 was not blocked, since it could still accumulate in the nucleus in the presence of leptomycin B. Interestingly subcellular fractionation analysis showed that IRF3 was lost from the cytoplasm of infected cells from 18 h postinfection onwards. Using IRF3 promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, we demonstrate that loss of IRF3 was due to an inhibition of transcription of the IRF3 gene in CSFV-infected cells. Further, we investigated which viral protein may be responsible for the inhibition of interferon and loss of IRF3. We used cell lines expressing the CSFV N-terminal protease (Npro) to show that this single viral protein, unique to pestiviruses, inhibited interferon production in response to Sindbis virus. In addition to being lost from CSFV-infected cells, IRF3 was lost from Npro-expressing cells. The results demonstrate a novel viral evasion of innate host defenses, where interferon synthesis is prevented by inhibiting transcription of IRF3 in CSFV-infected cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.79.11.7239-7247.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1112113PMC
June 2005

Site-specific recombination with the chromosomal tRNA(Leu) gene by the large conjugative Haemophilus resistance plasmid.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 May;46(5):1602-3

Interdepartmental Academic Unit of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.

Characterization of the sequences involved in recombination of the Haemophilus plasmid p1056 with the Haemophilus influenzae chromosome produced evidence indicating site-specific recombination with chromosomal tRNA(Leu). attP sequences identical to those of p1056 were found in six plasmids of diverse origin, suggesting that a family of Haemophilus plasmids recombines with chromosomal tRNA(Leu).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC127194PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aac.46.5.1602-1603.2002DOI Listing
May 2002