Publications by authors named "Rebecca Greenwood"

5 Publications

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An outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 linked to a mud-based obstacle course, England, August 2018.

Zoonoses Public Health 2020 08 21;67(5):467-473. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Yorkshire and the Humber Health Protection Team, Public Health England, Leeds, UK.

In August 2018, Public Health England (PHE) was made aware of five probable cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 among individuals reporting participation in a mud-based obstacle race. An additional four cases, identified via routine whole-genome sequencing, were subsequently linked to the same event. Two of the nine cases were due to secondary household transmission. Despite an agreement between the event organizers and the local authority, to ensure that all livestock were removed from the site 28 days before the event, sheep were observed grazing on some of the routes taken by the runners 2 days prior to the race taking place. A retrospective review of incidents reported to PHE between 2015 and 2018 identified 41 cases of gastroenteritis associated with muddy assault course events. Of these, 25 cases were due to infection with STEC O157:H7, of which all but one were associated with outbreaks. Due to the environment in which such events take place, it is impossible to entirely remove the risk of exposure to potentially pathogenic zoonoses. However, race organizers should ensure that livestock are removed from the course 28 days before the event. They should also ensure that participants are made aware of the risk of contracting gastrointestinal disease from the environment, and to stress the importance of hand hygiene post-event and the risk of secondary transmission, particularly to children who are at risk of developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12744DOI Listing
August 2020

Creating innovative clinical nurse leader practicum experiences through academic and practice partnerships.

Nurs Educ Perspect 2013 May-Jun;34(3):186-91

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing, USA.

Introduction: The new Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) nursing role was developed to meet the complex health care needs of patients, families, and health care systems.

Case Presentation: This article describes the process used by nurse leaders at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing and Hospital to develop Model C CNL practicum courses, recruit and prepare clinical preceptors, prepare clinical microsystems for CNL students, and develop additional practice partnerships throughout the region. MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME: Critical to the success of the CNL role is a dynamic partnership between academic and practice leaders.The partnership allows faculty to develop curricula that are relevant and responsive to the rapidly changing health care system. Clinical leaders become more aware of trends and issues in nursing education.

Discussion: Continued growth and success of the CNL role is largely dependent on the ability of faculty and practice partners to collaborate on innovative educational programs and models of care delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5480/1536-5026-34.3.186DOI Listing
September 2013

Discovery of a novel and potent class of FabI-directed antibacterial agents.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 10;46(10):3118-24

Microbial, Musculoskeletal and Proliferative Diseases Center of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (FabI) catalyzes the final step in each elongation cycle of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and is an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents. High-throughput screening of the Staphylococcus aureus FabI enzyme identified a novel, weak inhibitor with no detectable antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Iterative medicinal chemistry and X-ray crystal structure-based design led to the identification of compound 4 [(E)-N-methyl-N-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-3-(7-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)acrylamide], which is 350-fold more potent than the original lead compound obtained by high-throughput screening in the FabI inhibition assay. Compound 4 has exquisite antistaphylococci activity, achieving MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited more than 500 times lower than those of nine currently available antibiotics against a panel of multidrug-resistant strains of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Furthermore, compound 4 exhibits excellent in vivo efficacy in an S. aureus infection model in rats. Biochemical and genetic approaches have confirmed that the mode of antibacterial action of compound 4 and related compounds is via inhibition of FabI. Compound 4 also exhibits weak FabK inhibitory activity, which may explain its antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis, which depend on FabK and both FabK and FabI, respectively, for their enoyl-ACP reductase function. These results show that compound 4 is representative of a new, totally synthetic series of antibacterial agents that has the potential to provide novel alternatives for the treatment of S. aureus infections that are resistant to our present armory of antibiotics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC128775PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aac.46.10.3118-3124.2002DOI Listing
October 2002

Confirmation of the antibacterial mode of action of SB-219383, a novel tyrosyl tRNA synthetase inhibitor from a Micromonospora sp.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2002 Apr;55(4):423-6

Department of Microbiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

The compound designated SB-219383 is a potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial tyrosyl tRNA synthetases. It exhibits an IC50 of < 1 nM against Staphylococcus aureus tyrosyl tRNA synthetase and weak in vitro activity against Staphylococci and Streptococci. Here we present data consistent with SB-219383 eliciting an amino acid starvation in both S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, supporting the conclusion that the antibacterial activity of SB-219383 is due to tyrosyl tRNA synthetase inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7164/antibiotics.55.423DOI Listing
April 2002

The effect of antibiotic treatment on the intracellular nucleotide pools of Staphylococcus aureus.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2002 Mar;208(2):203-6

GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S. Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA 19426-0989, USA.

In an assessment of antibiotic action on Staphylococcus aureus, we found that distinct changes in intracellular nucleotide pools occur depending on the antibiotic mode of action. In particular, we have quantitated the effect of antibiotics on pools of the nucleotide guanosine 3'-diphosphate, 5'-triphosphate (pppGpp). Intracellular pppGpp levels increased in response to treatment with the isoleucyl tRNA synthetase inhibitor mupirocin, the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and rifampicin. These compounds were distinguishable by the degree in which they increased the pppGpp pool and by their differential effect on the pools of other nucleotides. This technique has been used to confirm and to refute the expected mode of action of several compounds identified as possible inhibitors of tRNA synthetases. Our results provide the framework for using nucleotide analysis in the assessment of novel antimicrobial compounds with unknown modes of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11082.xDOI Listing
March 2002