Publications by authors named "Rebecca Carman"

5 Publications

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Factors influencing the development and implementation of nurse practitioner candidacy programs: A scoping review.

Int J Nurs Stud 2022 Jan 8;125:104133. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: To meet the growing needs of a diverse population, it is critical that healthcare service provision is underpinned by innovative, cost-effective, and sustainable services and solutions. The role of the nurse practitioner creates an opportunity to meet the increasing demands of complex care and enables greater access to high quality care. Understanding how best to support nurse practitioner candidates to develop into the nurse practitioner role will create greater opportunities to transform service delivery and improve healthcare outcomes.

Aim: To identify key factors that support and positively impact the implementation of nurse practitioner candidacy programs and candidate experiences.

Methods: A scoping review of research and grey literature was conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. For the research literature, eight electronic databases (Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute, PubMed and PsycINFO) were searched followed by a hand search of the reference lists of published systematic reviews and relevant topical papers. A review of national and international grey literature sources was completed.

Findings: Identification of a service gap, developing and promoting a clear role for the nurse practitioner candidate, integration into a multi-disciplinary team with strong mentorship/preceptorship support, continuing professional development, and evaluation of the program were identified as key factors in the research and grey literature.

Conclusion: A well-designed candidacy program can facilitate transition of the candidate into an autonomous, fully independent nurse practitioner. Recommendations to support the implementation of these roles into the clinical setting have been generated. Tweetable abstract: Key to nurse practitioner candidate programs: Identification of a service gap, clear role, integration, mentorship, training and evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.104133DOI Listing
January 2022

The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of midwives on the vaccination coverage rates in Perth's Aboriginal children.

BMC Public Health 2021 10 12;21(1):1845. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.

Background: Midwives are well placed to promote vaccination awareness throughout a women's pregnancy and strengthen childhood vaccination demand following hospital discharge. In Perth, Western Australia, Aboriginal children experience some of the lowest vaccination coverage rates across the nation. To identify factors preventing greater vaccination uptake amongst the target population, a theory-based study was conducted with midwives across two Perth maternity hospitals to explore behavioural attributes, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs surrounding vaccination provision and the vaccines administered to Aboriginal children.

Methods: A purpose-designed questionnaire was distributed to midwives working in two Perth public maternity hospitals. The proximal constructs of The Theory of Planned Behavior were used to frame the questionnaire to enable the barriers to greater vaccination coverage to be identified and behaviourally situated. Descriptive statistics described the demographics of the study sample. Chi-square and the Fisher's exact test were used to identify associations between midwife characteristics and awareness of the coverage rates. Significance was set at α = 0.05.

Results: Of the 58 midwives who completed the study questionnaire, 77.2% were unaware of the sub-optimal vaccination coverage in Perth's Aboriginal children. Level of education (p = 0.53) and years worked as a practising midwife (p = 0.47) were not found to be associated with an awareness of the coverage rates. Approximately, 50% of midwives reported some concern over the efficacy of childhood vaccines, 44.4% did not feel confident with their knowledge of vaccines, while 33.3% do not routinely discuss childhood vaccinations with parents prior to hospital discharge.

Conclusions: Key findings in the study identified that a range of educational, leadership and system-based issues are affecting midwives' capacity to play a more substantial role in influencing vaccination coverage in Perth's Aboriginal children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11907-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507363PMC
October 2021

Barriers to vaccination service delivery within general practice: opportunity to make a sustainable difference in Aboriginal child health?

Aust N Z J Public Health 2019 Dec 18;43(6):563-569. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia.

Objective: To identify behavioural barriers of service provision within general practice that may be impacting the vaccination coverage rates of Aboriginal children in Perth, Western Australia (WA).

Methods: A purposive developed survey was distributed to 316 general practices across Perth and three key informant interviews were conducted using a mixed-methods approach.

Results: Of the surveyed participants (n=101), 67.4% were unaware of the low vaccination coverage in Aboriginal children; 64.8% had not received cultural sensitivity training in their workplace and 46.8% reported having inadequate time to follow up overdue child vaccinations. Opportunistic vaccination was not routinely performed by 30.8% of participants. Key themes identified in the interviews were awareness, inclusion and cultural safety.

Conclusion: Inadequate awareness of the current rates, in association with a lack of cultural safety training, follow-up and opportunistic practice, may be preventing greater vaccination uptake in Aboriginal children in Perth. Cultural safety is a critical component of the acceptability and accessibility of services; lack of awareness may restrict the development of strategies designed to equitably address low coverage.

Implications: The findings of this study provide an opportunity to raise awareness among clinicians in general practice and inform future strategies to equitably deliver targeted vaccination services to Aboriginal children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12937DOI Listing
December 2019

Identification and expression of a novel marsupial cathelicidin from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2009 Feb 1;127(3-4):269-76. Epub 2008 Nov 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

Cathelicidins are important components of the innate immune system and have been identified in skin and epithelia of a range of mammals. In this study molecular techniques, including RACE-PCR, were used to identify the full cDNA sequence of a cathelicidin gene, MaeuCath8, from the Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. This cathelicidin was not homologous to other such genes previously isolated from a tammar wallaby mammary gland EST library, however, it did contain 4 conserved cysteine residues which characterise the pre-propeptide and had 80% identity with a previously isolated bandicoot cathelicidin. Reverse transcriptase-PCR established the expression profile of MaeuCath8 in a range of tissues, including spleen, thymus, gastrointestinal tract, skin and liver, of the tammar wallaby from birth to adulthood. Expression of MaeuCath8 was observed in spleen and gastrointestinal tract of newborn animals and was observed in most tissues by 7 days post-partum. The results indicate that pouch young could synthesize their own antimicrobial peptides from an early age suggesting that this ability most likely plays a role in protecting the pouch young from infection prior to the development of immunocompetence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887693PMC
February 2009

Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to the cathelicidin LL37/hCAP18 in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii.

Tissue Cell 2008 Dec 2;40(6):459-66. Epub 2008 Jul 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

Antibodies to the human cathelicidin, hCAP18 have been used to examine epithelial tissues of adult and pouch young marsupials. Immunoreactivity was observed in skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung and mammary node of adults as well as skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung and bone marrow of pouch young. The locations of expression were similar to that reported in human tissues. Although the antibody to hCAP18 is primarily directed at the C-terminal antimicrobial peptide LL37, our observations suggest recognition of a common conserved element of this cathelicidin and lead us to conclude that the epithelial tissues of marsupials are sites of production of cathelicidin. This is consistent with observations in other mammals but is the first report of expression of these compounds in marsupials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2008.05.002DOI Listing
December 2008
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