Publications by authors named "Razieh Sheikhi"

8 Publications

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Municipal solid waste recycling: Impacts on energy savings and air pollution.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Jun 2;71(6):737-753. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

In recent years, recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been recognized as one of the most efficient methods of waste management in terms of environmental benefits. This study investigates the energy savings and other environmental benefits of recycling of dry MSW collected in Shiraz, Iran (2018). The impact of different recycling rates (current = 15%, desirable = 50%, ideal = 80%) on environmental benefits and energy savings were assessed. The annual quantity of recycled components were defined as glass (735 tons), plastic carrier bags (555 tons), cardboard (3,874 tons), paper (3,806 tons), disposable plastic containers (287 tons), other types of metals (785 tons), disposable metallic containers (aluminum) (171 tons), other types of plastics (812 tons) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (887 tons). The results confirmed that recycling of paper and glass in three different scenarios resulted in a reduction of 1.01, 2.14, and 3.43 million tons of air pollutant emissions, respectively. By improving the recycling rates from 15 to 80%, overall energy savings can improve by between a factor of 3.5 to 5.5. Also, a reduction of approximately 2-3.5% in air pollutant emissions can be achieved by upgrading the current recycling program (15% recycling rate) to favorable and ideal conditions.: In recent years, recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been recognized as one of the most efficient methods of waste management in terms of environmental benefits. This study investigates the energy savings and other environmental benefits of recycling of dry MSW collected in Shiraz, Iran (2018). According to available data, there has been little effort for recycling in developing countries, and waste landfilling is recognized as the most favorable option in MSW management. The aim of this study was to characterize MSW components in Shiraz, Iran, and to quantify the environmental benefits and energy savings as result of paper, glass, and aluminum recycling. This work is novel in that there are no reports to our knowledge of the environmental benefits and energy savings resulting from different recycling scenarios including current (15%), desirable (50%), and ideal (80%) recycling for aluminum, paper, and glass. The results of this work have broad implications both for other regions owing to the pervasiveness of recycling facilities and also for developing countries that can strive towards the infrastructure needed to reach improved recycling scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2021.1883770DOI Listing
June 2021

Sugarcane molasses enhances TGF-β secretion and FOXP3 gene expression by Bifidobacterium Animalis Subsp. Lactis stimulated PBMCs of Ulcerative Colitis patients.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Dec 23;47:102210. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the inflammatory diseases of the gut with frequent bloody diarrhea leads to increased rates of anemia. Evidences indicate the immunomodulation disorders in the response to intestinal microbiota in UC. Although sugarcane molasses, rich in necessary minerals and vitamins, could be a good support nutrient but its effect on immune system of UC patients is unknown. To determine how the immune system of UC patients responds to molasses this study was planned. Bifidobacterium lactis were cultivated on MRS broth. PBMCs of 12 UC patients were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and co-cultured with different concentrations of UV killed bacteria and/or molasses in RPMI-1640 plus 10 % FCS. The gene expression of FoxP3 was measured by real-time PCR. TGF-β and TNF-α were measured in supernatant of PBMCs by ELISA. Sugarcane molasses and B. lactis significantly augmented TGF-β compared to control (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The secretion levels of TGF-β by B. lactis plus molasses compared to B. lactis stimulated PBMCs was significantly higher (p < 0.05) but the level of TNF-α by PBMCs after 2/4/12 h incubation with B. lactis plus molasses compared to B. lactis alone was not changed (p > 0.2). The level of FOXP3 expression after treatment with molasses was increased significantly (p < 0.05). These data show that if sugarcane molasses added to B. lactis, not only do not increase the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, but also augments the anti-inflammatory cytokine, TGF-β by PBMCs. Therefore, these results pave the way for further investigation to show sugarcane molasses as a safe support to compensate the lost nutrients in UC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102210DOI Listing
December 2019

A case study of BTEX characteristics and health effects by major point sources of pollution during winter in Iran.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 24;247:607-617. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study characterized spatio-temporal variations in the concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds in the vicinity of gas and compressed natural gas (CNG) stations in Tehran, Iran. Health risk assessment (HRA) was computed using Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) for evaluating inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR), the hazard quotient (HQ), and sensitivity analysis (SA) for BTEX exposure in different age groups (birth to <81) and as a function of distance (0-250 m) from the center of the stations. For all monitoring stations, the average values of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in winter were 466.09 ± 132.25, 873.13 ± 233.51, 493.05 ± 141.22, and 910.57 ± 145.40 μg m, respectively. The mean wintertime ratios of T/B for the 12 stations ranged from 1.69 to 2.04. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the concentration of BTEX with either the specific month or distance from the center of stations (p > 0.05). Factors promoting BTEX formation in the study region were fuel evaporation and gas/CNG station emissions. The LTCRs for the target compounds in the winter for different age groups and distances from the center of stations was limited to 2.11 × 10 to 1.82 × 10 and 2.30 × 10 to 2.01 × 10, respectively, which exceeded proposed values by U.S. EPA. Moreover, the HQs for BTEX for three age groups and distances were limited to between 2.89 × 10 and 9.33 × 10, which were lower than the acceptable limit (HQs < 1). The results of this work are applicable to similar areas that are heavily populated with vehicular traffic. This study motivates a closer look at mitigation strategies to limit the health effects of carcinogenic emissions such as benzene and ethylbenzene from gas/CNG stations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.070DOI Listing
April 2019

Data on spot-kits versus titration method for iodine determination in salt: Performance and validity.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 4;21:92-96. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this data is comparison of achieved data from salt iodine measurement by titration method with using sodium thiosulfate in presence of lugol׳s reagent and commercial spot- kit. Titration measurement was carried out in two different laboratories using standard samples. 437 samples including 20 commercial brands were collected throughout Iran. The iodine contents of the samples were measured by both the titration method and two most frequently used spot-kit brands in Iran. There is no significant differences between the results obtained from the two brands of spot-kits (ICC = 0.797). The kits sensitivity for determination of negative samples was high (more than 0.9) but by increasing the iodine concentration up to 15 ppm, the kits' sensitivity was decreased. These findings indicate that the titration method is necessary for quantitative purposes, especially for concentrations higher than 30 ppm. However, spot-kits are suitable for qualitative and semi-quantitative measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6187014PMC
December 2018

Decay of free residual chlorine in drinking water at the point of use.

Iran J Public Health 2014 Apr;43(4):535-6

Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433738PMC
April 2014

In-vitro effects of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-lysate and its derived heat shock proteins on cytokines secretion by blood mononuclear cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison with healthy controls.

Int Immunopharmacol 2008 Jun 7;8(6):887-92. Epub 2008 Mar 7.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: Several studies have shown that heat shock protein (HSP)-reactive T cells have an immunoregulatory phenotype indicating that HSPs are able to trigger immunoregulatory pathways, which can suppress immune responses that occur in human inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Mycobacterium bovis strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is rich of HSPs which could be good resources of these regulatory proteins for modulation of immune response.

Purposes: To study the effects of BCG-lysate and BCG-derived HSPs on secretion of T regulatory cytokines by PBMCs of RA patients in comparison with healthy controls.

Methods: BCG was heat killed and sonicated to have BCG-lysate. BCG-derived HSP65/HSP70 were detected by immunoblotting and purified by preparative SDS-PAGE. PBMCs of 18 RA patients/16 controls collected by Ficoll-paque were stimulated with BCG-lysate/BCG-derived HSP-65/HSP-70. Supernatant of stimulated PBMCs was aspirated for measuring TGF-beta, IL-10, IL-4 and IFN-gamma with sandwich ELISA.

Results: BCG-lysate augmented the amounts of all the mentioned cytokines as dose dependent significantly. The level of TGF-beta in controls was higher than patients (P<0.05). HSP65 and HSP70 increased TGF-beta, IL-10 as dose dependent significantly. HSP65, but not HSP70, increased IL-4. HSP65 did not increase IFN-gamma but HSP70 augmented IFN-gamma significantly. BCG-lysate increased IFN-gamma and IL-4 in RA patients more than healthy controls (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Although BCG is able to provoke T helper 1 cell mediated immunity, its HSP proteins are able to trigger T regulatory cytokines. Healthy controls were under stronger immune regulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2008.01.034DOI Listing
June 2008

Positional relationship between natural killer cells and distribution of sympathetic nerves in decidualized mouse uterus.

Iran J Immunol 2007 Jun;4(2):79-84

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the most abundant leukocytes in pre-implantation endometrium and early pregnancy deciduas in humans and rodents. They are associated with structural changes in maternal spiral arteries but regulation of their recruitment and activation is incompletely understood. The major subpopulation of uNK cells in humans expresses CD56, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-1 while their counterpart in mouse expresses asialoGM1, a brain ganglioside. Sympathetic nerves express NCAM-1 which mediates homotypic binding. Sympathetic fibers innervate the mesometrial vasculature but their relationship to the myometrial and decidual uNK cell recruitment is unknown.

Objective: The present study aims to explore positional relationship between natural killer cells and distribution of nerves in decidualized mouse uterus.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression for the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase were used to map sympathetic nerve fibre distribution within C57BL/6 implantation sites and to address a relationship with uNK cells.

Results: Tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons were identified in the mesometrium closely associated with uterine arteries. Staining became gradually vanished as the nerves crossed the myometrium and entered the decidualized uterus. No neuronal stain was associated with the spiral arteries. Periodic Acid Schiff's reactive uNK cells were absent from the mesentery, but abundant in decidua basalis where they are associated with non-innervated vessels.

Conclusion: Data suggest that the recruitment of uNK progenitor cells to the uterus is unlikely to be dependent on signaling by the sympathetic nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv4i2A2DOI Listing
June 2007

Investigation and evaluation of ultrasound reactor for reduction of fungi from sewage.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2007 Jul;8(7):493-7

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, PO Box 14155-6145, Tehran, IR Iran.

The objective of the investigation was to study the application of ultrasound reactor technology (USRT) as a disinfectant for reduction of fungi from sewage effluent. Fungi are carbon heterotrophs that require preformed organic compounds as carbon sources. USRT is an attractive means to improve water quality because of the system simplicity and no production of toxic by-products. An ultrasound reactor produces strong cavitation in aqueous solution causing shock waves and reactive free radicals by the violent collapse of the cavitation bubble. These effects should contribute to the physical disruption of microbial structures and inactivation of organisms. There was significant reduction in fungal growth, with decreased fungal growth with increasing USRT. In this study, ultrasound irradiation at a frequency of 42 kHz was used to expose suspensions of fungi to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of the ultrasound reactor. Also, this study showed that in this system more than 99% reduction of sewage fungi was achieved after 60 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2007.B0493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1906595PMC
July 2007
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