Publications by authors named "Raymond L Swetenburg"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Human Neural Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Improve Recovery in a Porcine Model of Ischemic Stroke.

Stroke 2018 05 12;49(5):1248-1256. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Regenerative Bioscience Center (R.L.W., E.E.K., B.J.J., S.S., F.D.W., S.L. Stice)

Background And Purpose: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model.

Methods: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO. NSC EV effects on tissue level recovery were evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging at 1 and 84 days post-MCAO. Effects on functional recovery were also assessed through longitudinal behavior and gait analysis testing.

Results: NSC EV treatment was neuroprotective and led to significant improvements at the tissue and functional levels in stroked pigs. NSC EV treatment eliminated intracranial hemorrhage in ischemic lesions in NSC EV pigs (0 of 7) versus control pigs (7 of 8). NSC EV-treated pigs exhibited a significant decrease in cerebral lesion volume and decreased brain swelling relative to control pigs 1-day post-MCAO. NSC EVs significantly reduced edema in treated pigs relative to control pigs, as assessed by improved diffusivity through apparent diffusion coefficient maps. NSC EVs preserved white matter integrity with increased corpus callosum fractional anisotropy values 84 days post-MCAO. Behavior and mobility improvements paralleled structural changes as NSC EV-treated pigs exhibited improved outcomes, including increased exploratory behavior and faster restoration of spatiotemporal gait parameters.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time that in a large animal model novel NSC EVs significantly improved neural tissue preservation and functional levels post-MCAO, suggesting NSC EVs may be a paradigm changing stroke therapeutic.
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May 2018

Human Neural Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Improve Tissue and Functional Recovery in the Murine Thromboembolic Stroke Model.

Transl Stroke Res 2018 10 28;9(5):530-539. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

ArunA Biomedical, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Over 700 drugs have failed in stroke clinical trials, an unprecedented rate thought to be attributed in part to limited and isolated testing often solely in "young" rodent models and focusing on a single secondary injury mechanism. Here, extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanometer-sized cell signaling particles, were tested in a mouse thromboembolic (TE) stroke model. Neural stem cell (NSC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) EVs derived from the same pluripotent stem cell (PSC) line were evaluated for changes in infarct volume as well as sensorimotor function. NSC EVs improved cellular, tissue, and functional outcomes in middle-aged rodents, whereas MSC EVs were less effective. Acute differences in lesion volume following NSC EV treatment were corroborated by MRI in 18-month-old aged rodents. NSC EV treatment has a positive effect on motor function in the aged rodent as indicated by beam walk, instances of foot faults, and strength evaluated by hanging wire test. Increased time with a novel object also indicated that NSC EVs improved episodic memory formation in the rodent. The therapeutic effect of NSC EVs appears to be mediated by altering the systemic immune response. These data strongly support further preclinical development of a NSC EV-based stroke therapy and warrant their testing in combination with FDA-approved stroke therapies.
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October 2018

Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets.

Sci Rep 2016 11 17;6:37247. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, Department of Animal and Dairy Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240-360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact. In the peeled epithelial sheets, taste buds labeled with antibodies against Vimentin and α-Gustducin were easily identified and counted under a light microscope and many more taste buds, patterned in rosette-like clusters, were found than previously reported with SEM. Broiler-type, female-line males have more taste buds than other groups and continue to increase the number of taste buds over stages after hatch. In addition to ovoid-shaped taste buds, big tube-shaped taste buds were observed in the chicken using 2-photon microscopy. Our protocol for labeling taste buds with molecular markers will factilitate future mechanistic studies on the development of chicken taste buds in association with their feeding behaviors.
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November 2016

Treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with once-daily compared with twice-daily amoxicillin: a noninferiority trial.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006 Sep;25(9):761-7

Eastover Pediatrics, Charlotte, NC 28204, USA.

Background: Two relatively small previous studies comparing once-daily amoxicillin with conventional therapy for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis reported similar rates of bacteriologic success for each treatment group. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate once-daily amoxicillin for GAS pharyngitis in a larger study.

Methods: In a single pediatric practice, from October through May for 2 consecutive years (2001-2003), we recruited children 3 to 18 years of age who had symptoms and signs suggestive of GAS pharyngitis. Patients with a positive rapid test for GAS were stratified by weight (<40 kg or >or=40 kg) and then randomly assigned to receive once-daily (750 mg or 1000 mg) or twice-daily (2 doses of 375 mg or 500 mg) amoxicillin for 10 days. We determined bacteriologic failure rates for GAS in the pharynx from subsequent swabs taken at 14 to 21 (visit 2) and 28 to 35 (visit 3) days after treatment initiation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, noninferiority trial to evaluate whether amoxicillin given once daily would have a bacteriologic failure rate no worse than that of amoxicillin given twice daily within a prespecified margin of 10%. GAS isolates were characterized to distinguish bacteriologic failures from new acquisitions. Adverse events were described and adherence was evaluated by review of returned daily logs and dosage bottles.

Results: Of 2139 potential study patients during the 2-year period, we enrolled 652 patients, 326 into each treatment group. Children in the 2 groups were comparable with respect to all demographic and clinical characteristics except that children <40 kg more often presented with rash in each treatment group. At visit 2, failure rates were 20.1% (59 of 294) for the once-daily group and 15.5% (46 of 296) for the twice-daily group (difference, 4.53%; 90% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to 9.7). At visit 3, failure rates were 2.8% (6 of 216) for the once-daily group and 7.1% (16 of 225) for the twice-daily group (difference, -4.33; 90% CI, -7.7 to -1.0). Gastrointestinal and other adverse events occurred in the once-daily treatment group with a frequency comparable to that in the twice-daily treatment group. Presumed allergic reactions occurred in 0.9% (6 of 635). More than 95% (516 of 541) of patients complied with 10 days of therapy with no significant differences between groups.

Conclusions: We conclude that amoxicillin given once daily is not inferior to amoxicillin given twice daily. Gastrointestinal and other events did not occur significantly more often in the once-daily treatment group. From the data in this large, investigator-blinded, controlled study, once-daily amoxicillin appears to be a suitable regimen for treatment of GAS pharyngitis.
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September 2006

A vascular gene trap screen defines RasGRP3 as an angiogenesis-regulated gene required for the endothelial response to phorbol esters.

Mol Cell Biol 2004 Dec;24(24):10515-28

Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Department of Biology, CB#3280, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

We identified Ras guanine-releasing protein 3 (RasGRP3) as a guanine exchange factor expressed in blood vessels via an embryonic stem (ES) cell-based gene trap screen to identify novel vascular genes. RasGRP3 is expressed in embryonic blood vessels, down-regulated in mature adult vessels, and reexpressed in newly formed vessels during pregnancy and tumorigenesis. This expression pattern is consistent with an angiogenic function for RasGRP3. Although a loss-of-function mutation in RasGRP3 did not affect viability, RasGRP3 was up-regulated in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, placing RasGRP3 regulation downstream of VEGF signaling. Phorbol esters mimic the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) in activating both protein kinase C (PKC) and non-PKC phorbol ester receptors such as RasGRP3. ES cell-derived wild-type blood vessels exposed to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) underwent extensive aberrant morphogenesis that resulted in the formation of large endothelial sheets rather than properly branched vessels. This response to PMA was completely dependent on the presence of RasGRP3, as mutant vessels were refractory to the treatment. Taken together, these findings show that endothelial RasGRP3 is up-regulated in response to VEGF stimulation and that RasGRP3 functions as an endothelial cell phorbol ester receptor in a pathway whose stimulation perturbs normal angiogenesis. This suggests that RasGRP3 activity may exacerbate vascular complications in diseases characterized by excess DAG, such as diabetes.
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December 2004

Extrapharyngeal group A Streptococcus infection: diagnostic accuracy and utility of rapid antigen testing.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003 Aug;22(8):726-31

Department of Pediatrics, Eastover Pediatrics, Presbyterian Hospital, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Background: Antigen tests have been well-studied and are widely used in pediatric practice for rapid detection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in the throat, but they have not been examined sufficiently for the detection of infection of skin sites, such as the perineal region or impetiginous lesions.

Methods: During the 3-year period 1999 to 2002, we evaluated 239 patients with suspected GAS skin infection, in 5 pediatric practices, using 3 Dacron swabs for each site. The first swab was tested in the pediatric office laboratory with an antigen detection kit. For the first 91 patients, the Abbott Test Pack Plus antigen detection test (ADT) was used. The Abbott Signify Strep A ADT was used to test subsequent patients. The second swab was tested with BD Directigen 1-2-3 ADT in the hospital laboratory. The third swab was placed in modified Stuart's transport medium for comparison of recovery of GAS from culture in broth or on agar. A positive culture served as the reference standard. Test performance and test accuracy were determined for each ADT.

Results: Of the 247 ADTs and cultures performed on 239 patients, 91 with suspected skin infection were tested with the Test Pack Plus test, 149 with the Signify Strep A test and 247 with the Directigen test. Eighty-six (35%) cultures were positive, 73 from perineal sites (54 rectal, 13 vaginal, 6 penile) and 13 from impetiginous lesions. There was 100% concordance for the 86 cultures positive for GAS in a comparison between dry Dacron swabs and swabs that had been placed in modified Stuart's transport medium. Test Pack Plus and Signify Strep A ADTs had similar performance characteristics for skin infections: sensitivity, 92 and 88%; specificity, 99 and 97%; positive predictive value, 96 and 94%; and negative predictive value, 97 and 93%. Directigen ADT had sensitivity 78%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 89%. Accuracy for the tests varied from 92 to 97%.

Conclusion: Tests designed to detect GAS carbohydrate antigen in patients with pharyngitis can be used rapidly and accurately to detect GAS antigen in patients with cutaneous lesions suspected of GAS infection.
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August 2003