Publications by authors named "Rawan Faramand"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Conditioning Regimens in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative treatment option for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Both total body irradiation (TBI)-based and chemotherapy only-based myeloablative transplantation conditioning regimens have been applied, but the optimal regimen remains unclear. We performed a systematic review to assess the efficacy of TBI-based versus chemotherapy only-based myeloablative conditioning regimens. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases and meeting abstracts for all studies comparing TBI-based and chemotherapy only-based conditioning regimens in patients who underwent allo-HCT for ALL. Two authors independently reviewed all studies for inclusion and extracted data related to overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Eight studies were included in the final analysis. The overall methodological quality of the included studies was optimal. TBI-based regimens showed evidence of benefit compared with chemotherapy only-based conditioning regimens in terms of relapse (relative risk [RR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.94; 6 studies, 5091 patients), OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.89; 7 studies, 4727 patients), and PFS (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.85; 7 studies, 4727 patients). The TBI-based regimen did not increase the likelihood of grade II-IV acute GVHD (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.36; 5 studies, 4996 patients) or chronic GVHD (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.21; 5 studies, 4490 patients), or NRM (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.28; 6 studies, 4522 patients). However, TBI-based regimens were associated with an increased risk of grade III-IV acute GVHD (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.63; 3 studies, 3675 patients). A subgroup comparison of patients age ≥16 years showed similar results. This systematic review represents evidence supporting the use of TBI-based conditioning regimen in patients undergoing allo-HCT for ALL who are candidates for myeloablative conditioning, as it offers better OS, PFS, and less relapse with acceptable NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.026DOI Listing
March 2021

ELN 2017 Genetic Risk Stratification Predicts Survival of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 2;27(3):256.e1-256.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 risk stratification by genetics is prognostic of outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic impact of the 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is not well established. We examined the effect of 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification on alloHCT outcomes of AML. We included 500 adult (≥18 years) AML patients in first (n = 370) or second (n = 130) complete remission receiving alloHCT from 2005 to 2016. Patients were classified into favorable (12%), intermediate (57%), and adverse (32%) 2017 ELN risk groups. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to conduct the multivariable analyses of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS). Relapse and nonrelapse mortality were analyzed by the Fine-Gray regression model. OS at 2 years was 72% in the favorable versus 60% in the intermediate versus 45% in the adverse risk groups (P < .001). In multivariable analyses, the 2017 ELN classifier was an independent predictor of OS after alloHCT with significantly higher overall mortality in the intermediate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.68; P = .03) and adverse (HR = 2.50, 95% CI, 1.54-4.06; P < .001) risk groups compared to the favorable risk group. Similarly, LFS was worse in the intermediate (HR = 1.63, 95%, CI 1.06-2.53; P = .03) and adverse (HR 2.23, 95% CI, 1.41-3.54; P < .001) risk groups while relapse was higher in the adverse risk group (HR = 2.36, 95% CI, 1.28-4.35; P = .006) as compared to the favorable risk group. These data highlight the prognostic impact of the 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification on the survival of AML patients after alloHCT. Patients in the adverse risk group had the highest risk of relapse and worst survival. Thus the 2017 ELN prognostic system can help identify AML patients who may benefit from clinical trials offering relapse mitigation strategies to improve transplant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Incidence and Management of Effusions Before and After CD19-Directed Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy in Large B Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 27;27(3):242.e1-242.e6. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida; Department of Oncologic Sciences, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

In patients with lymphoma, third-space fluid accumulations may develop or worsen during cytokine release syndrome (CRS) associated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. Pre-existing symptomatic pleural effusions were excluded by the ZUMA-1 trial of axicabtagene ciloleucel for large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) and variants. The incidence and management of effusions during CAR T cell therapy for LBCL are unknown. We performed a single-center retrospective study evaluating 148 patients receiving CD19-directed CAR T cell therapy for LBCL between May 2015 and September 2019. We retrospectively identified patients who had radiographic pleural, pericardial, or peritoneal effusions that were present prior to the time of CAR T infusion (pre-CAR T) or that newly developed during the first 30 days after CAR T-cell infusion (post-CAR T). Of 148 patients, 19 patients had a pre-CAR T effusion, 17 patients without pre-existing effusion developed a new infusion after CAR T, and 112 patients had no effusions. Comparing pre-CAR T effusions to new effusions post-CAR T, pre-CAR T effusions were more often malignant (84% versus 12%), persistent beyond 30 days (95% versus 18%), and required interventional drainage after CAR T infusion (79% versus 0%). Compared to patients with no effusion, patients with pre-CAR T therapy effusions had a higher frequency of high-risk baseline characteristics, such as bulky disease and high International Prognostic Index. Similarly, patients with pre-CAR T therapy effusions had a higher rate of toxicity with grade 3 or higher CRS occurring in 32% of patients. On multivariate analysis adjusting for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status, bulky disease, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase, a pre-CAR T therapy effusion was associated with reduced overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 5.03; P = .03). Moreover, there was higher non-relapse mortality (11% versus 1%; P = .005). Post-CAR T effusions were not associated with significant difference in survival. Effusions commonly complicate CAR T cell therapy for lymphoma. Malignant effusions that occur prior to CAR T therapy are frequently persistent and require therapeutic intervention, and patients have a higher rate of toxicity and death. Effusions that newly occur after CAR T therapy can generally be managed medically and tend not to persist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.025DOI Listing
March 2021

Pacritinib Combined with Sirolimus and Low-Dose Tacrolimus for GVHD Prevention after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Preclinical and Phase I Trial Results.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: In this first-in-human, phase I, GVHD prevention trial (NCT02891603), we combine pacritinib (PAC), a JAK2 inhibitor, with sirolimus to concurrently reduce T-cell costimulation via mTOR and IL6 activity. We evaluate the safety of pacritinib when administered with sirolimus plus low-dose tacrolimus (PAC/SIR/TAC) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Patients And Methods: The preclinical efficacy and immune modulation of PAC/SIR were investigated in xenogeneic GVHD. Our phase I trial followed a 3+3 dose-escalation design, including dose level 1 (pacritinib 100 mg daily), level 2 (pacritinib 100 mg twice daily), and level 3 (pacritinib 200 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was to identify the lowest biologically active and safe dose of pacritinib with SIR/TAC ( = 12). Acute GVHD was scored through day +100. Allografts included 8/8 HLA-matched related or unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cells.

Results: In mice, we show that dual JAK2/mTOR inhibition significantly reduces xenogeneic GVHD and increases peripheral regulatory T cell (Treg) potency as well as Treg induction from conventional CD4 T cells. Pacritinib 100 mg twice a day was identified as the minimum biologically active and safe dose for further study. JAK2/mTOR inhibition suppresses pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, spares Tregs and antileukemia effector cells, and exhibits preliminary activity in preventing GVHD. PAC/SIR/TAC preserves donor cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunity and permits timely engraftment without cytopenias.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that PAC/SIR/TAC is safe and preliminarily limits acute GVHD, preserves donor CMV immunity, and permits timely engraftment. The efficacy of PAC/SIR/TAC will be tested in our ongoing phase II GVHD prevention trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4725DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of infused CD34+ stem cell dosing for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Bone Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

Higher infused total nucleated cell dose (TNC) in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is associated with improved overall survival. As many centers prefer peripheral blood stem cell grafts (PBSCT) with PTCy, the effect of cell dose on outcomes with this platform also requires elucidation. We retrospectively evaluated 144 consecutive adult patients who received allogeneic T-cell replete PBSCT with PTCy-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for a hematologic malignancy from 2012-2018. The infused CD34+ cell dose was stratified into low (<5 × 10/kg), intermediate (5-10 × 10/kg) and high (>10 × 10/kg) dose level groups. In multivariate analysis, the low CD34+ cell dose group had worse non-relapse mortality (HR = 4.51, 95% CI: 1.92-10.58, p < 0.001), progression- free survival (HR = 4.11, 95% CI: 2.07-8.15, p < 0.001), and overall survival (HR = 4.06, 95% CI: 2.00-8.25, p ≤ 0.001) compared to the intermediate group. Clinical outcomes between the intermediate and high CD34+ cell dose groups were similar. TNC and CD3+ cell dose had no significant impacts on outcomes. These findings suggest that, in patients receiving allogeneic PBSCT with PTCy, infused CD34+ cell doses >5 × 10 cells/kg may result in improved survival. Thus, this study supports targeting a CD34+ cell dose of >5 × 10 cells/kg for allogeneic PBSCT with PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01219-8DOI Listing
March 2021

A phase 2 trial of GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy, sirolimus, and MMF after peripheral blood haploidentical transplantation.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(5):1154-1163

Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, and.

The introduction of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) made performing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA haplotype-incompatible donors possible. In a setting of PTCy and tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, a peripheral blood (PB) graft source as compared with bone marrow reduces the relapse rate but increases acute GVHD (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). This phase 2 trial assessed sirolimus and MMF efficacy following PTCy as a GVHD prophylaxis after PB haploidentical HCT (haplo-HCT). With 32 evaluable patients (≥18 years) enrolled, this study had 90% power to demonstrate a reduction in 100-day grade II-IV aGVHD to 20% from the historical benchmark of 40% after haplo-HCT using PTCy/tacrolimus/MMF. At a median follow-up of 16.1 months, the primary end point of the trial was met with a day-100 grade II-IV aGVHD cumulative incidence of 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5% to 34.0%). There were no graft-failure events and the 1-year probability of National Institutes of Health (NIH) moderate/severe cGVHD was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), nonrelapse mortality was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), relapse was 22.2% (95% CI, 9.6% to 38.2%), disease-free survival was 59.0% (95% CI, 44.1% to 79.0%), GVHD-free relapse-free survival was 49.6% (95% CI, 34.9% to 70.5%), and overall survival was 71.7% (95% CI, 57.7% to 89.2%) for the entire cohort. These data demonstrate that GVHD prophylaxis with sirolimus/MMF following PTCy effectively prevents grade II-IV aGVHD after PB haplo-HCT, warranting prospective comparison of sirolimus vs tacrolimus in combination with MMF following PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis after PB HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03018223.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948297PMC
March 2021

Tumor interferon signaling and suppressive myeloid cells associate with CAR T cell failure in large B cell lymphoma.

Blood 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States.

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for relapsed or refractory large B cell lymphoma (LBCL). Here, we evaluated whether immune dysregulation, present prior to CAR-T cell therapy, associated with treatment failure. Tumor expression of interferon (IFN) signaling, high blood levels of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), and high blood IL-6 and ferritin each associated with a lack of durable response. Similar to other cancers, we found that in LBCL tumor IFN signaling is associated with the expression of multiple checkpoint ligands including PD-L1, and these were higher in patients who lacked durable responses to CAR-T therapy. Moreover, tumor IFN signaling and blood M-MDSCs associated with decreased axi-cel expansion. Finally, patients with high tumor burden had higher immune dysregulation with increased serum inflammatory markers and tumor IFN signaling. These data support that immune dysregulation in LBCL promotes axi-cel resistance via multiple mechanistic programs: insufficient axi-cel expansion associated with both circulating M-MDSC and tumor IFN signaling, that also gives rise to expression of immune checkpoint ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007445DOI Listing
January 2021

Insight into next-generation CAR therapeutics: designing CAR T cells to improve clinical outcomes.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jan;131(2)

Department of Clinical Science, and.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown considerable promise for hematologic malignancies, leading to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of two CAR T cell-based therapies for the treatment of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and large B cell lymphoma. Despite success in hematologic malignancies, the treatment landscape of CAR T cell therapy for solid tumors has been limited. There are unique challenges in the development of novel CAR T cell therapies to improve both safety and efficacy. Improved understanding of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and resistance mechanisms has led to encouraging approaches to mitigating these obstacles. This Review will characterize challenges with current CAR T designs for hematologic malignancies and solid tumors and emphasize preclinical and clinical strategies to overcome them with novel CAR T cell therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI142030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810492PMC
January 2021

Sarcopenia and low muscle radiodensity associate with impaired FEV in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 12 29;11(6):1570-1579. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Quantification of skeletal muscle using computed tomography (CT) is accessible using cancer patients' standard oncologic images. Reduced muscle mass may be related to reduced respiratory muscle strength; however, the impact of this on lung functional parameters is not characterized in adult allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHCT) recipients.

Methods: A consecutive retrospective series (n = 296) of patients who had alloHCT at a comprehensive cancer centre between March 2005 and April 2015 were included. Pre-transplant CT scans were used to quantify skeletal muscle and adipose tissue at the fourth thoracic (T4) and/or third lumbar (L3) level. Tumour and patient characteristics were recorded, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV ) by spirometry. Regression models were created to characterize predictive relationships.

Results: A total of 296 patients (♂n = 161; ♀n = 135) were included, all of whom had chest CT as part of standard care; a subset of these (n = 215, 72.6%) also had abdominal CT. Diagnoses were non-Hodgkins lymphoma (n = 165), acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 66), Hodgkin's disease (n = 14), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 14), myelodysplastic syndromes (n = 18), and other (n = 19). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for sex (P < 0.0001), age (P < 0.0001), haematopoietic cell transplantation-specific co-morbidity index (P = 0.010), and parameters of pulmonary function testing (defined by spirometry, P < 0.0001), both T4 muscle index [β 0.127 (95% confidence interval 0.019; 0.252), P < 0.0001] and T4 muscle radiodensity [β 0.132 (95% confidence interval 0.087; 0.505), P = 0.006] were independently associated with FEV ; disease risk index (P = 0.877) and Karnofsky performance status (P = 0.548) were not associated with FEV . Similar conclusions were obtained when L3 muscle index and radiodensity were considered. Unlike T4, L3 muscle index values can be compared with published cut-off values for sarcopenia. Overall rates of sarcopenia were uniformly higher in the HCT population than in age-matched and sex-matched patients with solid tumours [alloHCT ♂64.7% vs. solid tumour ♂56.6% (P < 0.001); alloHCT ♀57.6% vs. solid tumour ♀36.0% (P < 0.001)]. Significant but moderate correlations (P < 0.001) were found for muscle area and radiodensity between L3 and T4, for both men and women; adipose tissue quantity also correlated significantly (P < 0.001) between L3 and T4 for both men and women.

Conclusions: Lumbar or thoracic CT images are useful for body composition assessment in this population and reveal high rates of sarcopenia, similar to those reported in very elderly patients. Reduced muscle mass and radiodensity associate with impaired FEV even after adjustment for clinical covariables including co-morbidities, performance status, disease risk, and mild intrinsic pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) defined by spirometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749567PMC
December 2020

Tumor Microenvironment Composition and Severe Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) Influence Toxicity in Patients with Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with Axicabtagene Ciloleucel.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Sep 15;26(18):4823-4831. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Purpose: One of the challenges of adoptive T-cell therapy is the development of immune-mediated toxicities including cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity (NT). We aimed to identify factors that place patients at high risk of severe toxicity or treatment-related death in a cohort of 75 patients with large B-cell lymphoma treated with a standard of care CD19 targeted CAR T-cell product (axicabtagene ciloleucel).

Experimental Design: Serum cytokine and catecholamine levels were measured prior to lymphodepleting chemotherapy, on the day of CAR T infusion and daily thereafter while patients remained hospitalized. Tumor biopsies were taken within 1 month prior to CAR T infusion for evaluation of gene expression.

Results: We identified an association between pretreatment levels of IL6 and life-threatening CRS and NT. Because the risk of toxicity was related to pretreatment factors, we hypothesized that the tumor microenvironment (TME) may influence CAR T-cell toxicity. In pretreatment patient tumor biopsies, gene expression of myeloid markers was associated with higher toxicity.

Conclusions: These results suggest that a proinflammatory state and an unfavorable TME preemptively put patients at risk for toxicity after CAR T-cell therapy. Tailoring toxicity management strategies to patient risk may reduce morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7501265PMC
September 2020

Immune reconstitution and associated infections following axicabtagene ciloleucel in relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma.

Haematologica 2021 Apr 1;106(4):978-986. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Dept. of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, USA.

CD19 CAR T-cell therapy with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for relapsed or refractory (R/R) large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) may lead to durable remissions, however, prolonged cytopenias and infections may occur. In this single center retrospective study of 85 patients, we characterized immune reconstitution and infections for patients remaining in remission after axi-cel for LBCL. Prolonged cytopenias (those occurring at or after day 30 following infusion) were common with >= grade 3 neutropenia seen in 21/70 (30-0%) patients at day 30 and persisting in 3/31 (9-7%) patients at 1 year. B cells were undetectable in 30/34 (88-2%) patients at day 30, but were detected in 11/19 (57-9%) at 1 year. Median IgG levels reached a nadir at day 180. By contrast, CD4 T cells decreased from baseline and were persistently low with a median CD4 count of 155 cells/μl at 1 year after axi-cel (n=19, range 33 - 269). In total, 23/85 (27-1%) patients received IVIG after axi-cel, and 34/85 (40-0%) received G-CSF. Infections in the first 30 days occurred in 31/85 (36-5%) patients, of which 11/85 (12-9%) required intravenous antibiotics or hospitalization ("severe") and were associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS), neurotoxicity, tocilizumab use, corticosteroid use, and bridging therapy on univariate analyses. After day 30, 7 severe infections occurred, with no late deaths due to infection. Prolonged cytopenias are common following axi-cel therapy for LBCL and typically recover with time. Most patients experience profound and prolonged CD4 T cell immunosuppression without severe infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.238634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017820PMC
April 2021

Poor outcomes for double-hit lymphoma patients treated with curative-intent second-line immunochemotherapy following failure of intensive front-line immunochemotherapy.

Br J Haematol 2020 04 5;189(2):313-317. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

While patients with double-hit lymphoma (DHL) are now frequently treated with intensive front-line immunochemotherapy, outcomes for those who fail these regimens and subsequently receive curative-intent second-line immunochemotherapy are unknown. We identified 55 such patients who achieved an overall/complete response rate of 29%/11%, median progression-free/overall survival (PFS/OS) of 2/5·1 months and one-year PFS/OS of 10/19% following the start of second-line therapy. These outcomes may serve as a standard against which future second-line treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory DHL can be measured and justify investigation of non-cytotoxic therapies in the second-line setting for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16319DOI Listing
April 2020

Outcomes in patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma after intensive frontline treatment failure.

Cancer 2020 01 30;126(2):293-303. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Center for Lymphoid Malignancies, Department of Medicine, and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center , New York.

Background: Salvage immunochemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation is the standard-of-care second-line treatment for patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after first-line R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). Outcomes after receipt of second-line immunochemotherapy in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas who relapse or are refractory to intensive first-line immunochemotherapy regimens (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab [R-EPOCH], rituximab, hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone alternating with methotrexate and cytarabine [R-HyperCVAD], rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with ifosfamide, etoposide, and cytarabine [R-CODOX-M/IVAC]) remain unknown.

Methods: Outcomes of patients with non-Burkitt, aggressive B-cell lymphomas and relapsed/refractory disease after first-line treatment with intensive immunochemotherapy regimens who received platinum-based second-line immunochemotherapy were reviewed retrospectively. Analyses were performed to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from the time of receipt of second-line immunochemotherapy.

Results: In total, 195 patients from 19 academic centers were included in the study. The overall response rate to second-line immunochemotherapy was 44%, with a median PFS of 3 months and a median OS of 8 months. Patients with early treatment failure (primary refractory or relapse <12 months from completion of first-line therapy) experienced inferior median PFS (2.8 vs 23 months; P < .001) and OS (6 months vs not reached; P < .001) compared with patients with late treatment failure. Although the 17% of patients with early failure who achieved a complete response to second-line immunochemotherapy experienced prolonged survival, this outcome could not be predicted by clinicopathologic features at the start of second-line immunochemotherapy.

Conclusions: Patients with early treatment failure after intensive first-line immunochemotherapy experience poor outcomes after receiving standard second-line immunochemotherapy. The use of standard-of-care or experimental therapies currently available in the third-line setting and beyond should be investigated in the second-line setting for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32526DOI Listing
January 2020

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is potentially curative in mantle cell lymphoma: results from a single institution study.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 02 2;60(2):309-316. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

c Blood and Marrow Transplantation , University of South Florida/Moffitt Cancer Center , Tampa , FL , USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is the only curative treatment for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 36 patients, median age of 54 (41-68) years, who underwent allo-HCT, mostly (66%) receiving a myeloablative (MAC) regimen. Median overall survival (OS) was 86 months and 5-year OS was 54%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 54 months and 5-year PFS was 49%. Cumulative incidence (CI) of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and 2-year progression were 20.1 and 22.1%, respectively. Day +100 CI of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 38.1%; 2-year CI of moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 31.7%. Seven patients received allo-HCT as frontline consolidation and had better OS (median = not reached versus 54 months, p = .045). Notwithstanding the small sample size and retrospective study design, our findings suggest a role for allo-HCT in selected MCL patients. Future prospective studies would be needed to better define the role of allo-HCT in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2018.1468894DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparative Analysis of Methods for Detecting Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 Mutations and Their Metabolic Consequence, 2-Hydroxyglutarate, in Different Neoplasms.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2017 May/Jun;25(5):334-337

*Marlene & Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD †Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations have been recognized in a few neoplasms including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia, chondrosarcoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. The direct methods to detect IDH mutations include DNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), or by measuring its byproduct, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), in the blood or urine. Moreover, conventional magnetic resonance imaging can be modified to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure 2-HG in tumor. By conducting a search in Medline/PubMed and ISI/Web of Science for the published articles in English related to the methods for detection of IDH mutations and its byproduct 2-HG, we compared different methodologies to detect these mutations and discuss advantages and limitations of each method. Studies in which a methodology of detection was compared with another modality were included. Multiple studies have shown that both DNA sequencing and IHC are reliable methods for detecting IDH mutations in glioma and other solid neoplasms. IHC appeared to be less costly, easier to perform, and may be slightly more accurate than DNA sequencing. 2-HG has also been measured in bone marrow aspirate, serum and urine of patients with mutant IDH acute myeloid leukemia, and correlated very well with sequencing and IHC. Lastly, in some glioma patients, MRS detected IDH mutations noninvasively and reliably with excellent correlations with other modalities such as IHC and sequencing. In conclusion, IHC, MRS, and 2-HG detection all are clinically useful and comparable with DNA sequencing in identifying IDH mutations in different neoplasms. 2-HG and MRS can be utilized for monitoring treatment response in a variety of neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000342DOI Listing
November 2017

Biochemical, Epigenetic, and Metabolic Approaches to Target IDH Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Semin Hematol 2015 Jul 17;52(3):165-71. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a lethal hematologic malignancy associated with poor clinical outcomes. In recent years, mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes have been discovered across a range of malignancies, including AML, raising hope for effective targeted therapies. An intriguing aspect of IDH1/2-mutant malignancies is the aberrant production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which likely play a pivotal oncogenic role. We recently reported that 2-HG is dramatically elevated in the sera, marrow and urine of IDH1/2-mutant AML patients, and that levels of this oncometabolite directly correlate with disease burden and therapeutic response. The discovery of IDH1/2 mutations and their impact on important proteomic and metabolic pathways has triggered intensive efforts to develop novel and targeted therapies. IDH1/2 inhibitors are currently under early phase clinical investigation, with promising suggestion of efficacy. Other therapeutic approaches under preclinical and clinical investigation in this population include DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and agents that target glutamine metabolism through inhibition of glutaminase or depletion of serum glutamine by asparaginase products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminhematol.2015.03.002DOI Listing
July 2015

Presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations may predict clinical response to hypomethylating agents in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Am J Hematol 2015 May 27;90(5):E77-9. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.

Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 occur in 15-20% of AML cases, resulting in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, which promotes aberrant hypermethylation of DNA in leukemic cells. Although these mutations have been shown to have prognostic implications for patients with AML, optimal treatment strategies have yet to be defined. We retrospectively identified forty-two patients with AML treated with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) decitabine (n = 36) or azacitidine (n = 6) and performed analysis of stored samples for the presence of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations. Of the forty-two samples analyzed, seven (16.7%) had IDH mutations. Thirteen patients (31%) achieved remission [(complete remission (CR)/complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi)/partial response (PR)] after treatment with a DNMTI, five of seven (71.4%) with IDH mutations and eight of thirty-five (22.9%) without IDH mutations (P = 0.01). When adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, bone marrow blast percentage and cytogenetic, the odds of achieving response after administration of a DNMTI among patients with an IDH mutation was 14.2 when compared to patients without an IDH mutation (95%CI: 1.3-150.4). IDH1 and IDH2 mutations may predict a favorable response to DNMTI in patients with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23965DOI Listing
May 2015