Publications by authors named "Ravninder Bahniwal"

5 Publications

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Primary Care Informatics Response to Covid-19 Pandemic: Adaptation, Progress, and Lessons from Four Countries with High ICT Development.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, UK.

Objective: Internationally, primary care practice had to transform in response to the COVID pandemic. Informatics issues included access, privacy, and security, as well as patient concerns of equity, safety, quality, and trust. This paper describes progress and lessons learned.

Methods: IMIA Primary Care Informatics Working Group members from Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States developed a standardised template for collection of information. The template guided a rapid literature review. We also included experiential learning from primary care and public health perspectives.

Results: All countries responded rapidly. Common themes included rapid reductions then transformation to virtual visits, pausing of non-COVID related informatics projects, all against a background of non-standardized digital development and disparate territory or state regulations and guidance. Common barriers in these four and in less-resourced countries included disparities in internet access and availability including bandwidth limitations when internet access was available, initial lack of coding standards, and fears of primary care clinicians that patients were delaying care despite the availability of televisits.

Conclusions: Primary care clinicians were able to respond to the COVID crisis through telehealth and electronic record enabled change. However, the lack of coordinated national strategies and regulation, assurance of financial viability, and working in silos remained limitations. The potential for primary care informatics to transform current practice was highlighted. More research is needed to confirm preliminary observations and trends noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1726489DOI Listing
April 2021

Two weeks of single-leg immobilization alters intramyocellular lipid storage characteristics in healthy, young women.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Apr 25;130(4):1247-1258. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Muscle disuse rapidly induces insulin resistance (IR). Despite a relationship between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and IR, during muscle-disuse IR develops before IMCL accumulation, suggesting that IMCL are not related to disuse-induced IR. However, recent studies show that it is not total IMCL content, but IMCL size and location that are related to IR. Changes in these IMCL parameters may occur prior to increases in IMCL content, thus contributing to disuse-induced IR. Omega-3 fatty acids may mitigate the effects of disuse on IR by preventing a decline in insulin signaling proteins. Twenty women (age 22 ± 3 yr) received either 5 g·day omega-3 fatty acid or isoenergetic sunflower oil for 4 wk prior to, throughout 2 wk of single-leg immobilization, and during 2 wk of recovery. Changes in IMCL characteristics and insulin signaling proteins were examined in vastus lateralis samples taken before supplementation and immobilization, and following immobilization and recovery. Omega-3 supplementation had no effect. IMCL area density decreased in the subsarcolemmal region during immobilization and recovery (-19% and -56%, respectively, = 0.009). IMCL size increased in the central intermyofibrillar region during immobilization (43%, = 0.007), returning to baseline during recovery. PLIN5 and AKT increased during immobilization (87%, = 0.002; 30%, = 0.007, respectively). PLIN 5 remained elevated and AKT increased further (15%) during recovery. IRS1, AS160, and GLUT4 decreased during immobilization (-35%, = 0.001; -44%, = 0.03; -56%, = 0.02, respectively), returning to baseline during recovery. Immobilization alters IMCL storage characteristics while negatively affecting unstimulated insulin signaling protein content in young women. We report that the subcellular storage location of IMCL is altered by limb immobilization, highlighting the need to evaluate IMCL storage location when assessing the effects of disuse on IMCL content. We also found that AKT content increased during immobilization in our female population, contrary to studies in males finding that AKT decreases during disuse, highlighting that men and women may respond differently to disuse and the necessity to include women in all research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00878.2019DOI Listing
April 2021

Potato Protein Isolate Stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis at Rest and with Resistance Exercise in Young Women.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada.

Skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) increases in response to protein feeding and to resistance exercise (RE), where each stimuli acts synergistically when combined. The efficacy of plant proteins such as potato protein (PP) isolate to stimulate MPS is unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of PP ingestion on daily MPS with and without RE in healthy women. In a single blind, parallel-group design, 24 young women (21 ± 3 years, = 12/group) consumed a weight-maintaining baseline diet containing 0.8 g/kg/d of protein before being randomized to consume either 25 g of PP twice daily (1.6 g/kg/d total protein) or a control diet (CON) (0.8 g/kg/d total protein) for 2 wks. Unilateral RE (~30% of maximal strength to failure) was performed thrice weekly with the opposite limb serving as a non-exercised control (Rest). MPS was measured by deuterated water ingestion at baseline, following supplementation (Rest), and following supplementation + RE (Exercise). Ingestion of PP stimulated MPS by 0.14 ± 0.09 %/d at Rest, and by 0.32 ± 0.14 %/d in the Exercise limb. MPS was significantly elevated by 0.20 ± 0.11 %/d in the Exercise limb in CON ( = 0.008). Consuming PP to increase protein intake to levels twice the recommended dietary allowance for protein augmented rates of MPS. Performance of RE stimulated MPS regardless of protein intake. PP is a high-quality, plant-based protein supplement that augments MPS at rest and following RE in healthy young women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281992PMC
April 2020

Supplementation with dietary ω-3 mitigates immobilization-induced reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in young women.

FASEB J 2019 07 10;33(7):8232-8240. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Omega-3 (ω-3) supplementation attenuates immobilization-induced atrophy; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Since mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in muscle atrophy, we examined whether ω-3 supplementation could mitigate disuse-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Healthy young women (age = 22 ± 3 yr) randomly received control ( = 9) or ω-3 supplementation ( = 11; 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid, 2 g docosahexaenoic acid) for 4 wk prior to and throughout 2 wk of single-limb immobilization. Biopsies were performed before and after 3 and 14 d of immobilization for the assessment of mitochondrial respiration, HO emission, and markers of ADP transport/lipid metabolism. In controls, immobilization rapidly (3 d) reduced (∼20%) ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration without altering ADP sensitivity or the abundance of mitochondrial proteins. Extending immobilization to 14 d did not further reduce mitochondrial coupled respiration; however, unlike following 3 d, mitochondrial proteins were reduced ∼20%. In contrast, ω-3 supplementation prevented immobilization-induced reductions in mitochondrial content and respiration throughout the immobilization period. Regardless of dietary supplement, immobilization did not alter mitochondrial HO emission in the presence or absence of ADP, markers of cellular redox state, mitochondrial lipid-supported respiration, or lipid-related metabolic proteins. These data highlight the rapidity of mitochondrial adaptations in response to muscle disuse, challenge the necessity for increased oxidative stress during inactivity, and establish that ω-3 supplementation preserves oxidative phosphorylation function and content during immobilization.-Miotto, P. M., McGlory, C., Bahniwal, R., Kamal, M., Phillips, S. M., Holloway, G. P. Supplementation with dietary ω-3 mitigates immobilization-induced reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in young women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201900095RDOI Listing
July 2019

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates skeletal muscle disuse atrophy during two weeks of unilateral leg immobilization in healthy young women.

FASEB J 2019 03 10;33(3):4586-4597. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation enhances muscle protein synthesis and muscle size. Whether n-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates human muscle disuse atrophy is unknown. We determined the influence of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on muscle size, mass, and integrated rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) following 2 wk of muscle disuse and recovery in women. Twenty women (BMI = 23.0 ± 2.3 kg/m, age = 22 ± 3 yr) underwent 2 wk of unilateral limb immobilization followed by 2 wk of return to normal activity. Starting 4 wk prior to immobilization, participants consumed either 5 g/d of n-3 fatty acid or an isoenergetic quantity of sunflower oil (control). Muscle size and mass were measured pre- and postimmobilization, and after recovery. Serial muscle biopsies were obtained to measure integrated (daily) MyoPS. Following immobilization, the decline in muscle volume was greater in the control group compared to the n-3 fatty acid group (14 vs. 8%, P < 0.05) and was not different from preimmobilization at recovery in the n-3 fatty acid group; however, it was still lower in the control group ( P < 0.05). Muscle mass was reduced in the control group only ( P < 0.05). MyoPS was higher in the n-3 group compared with the control group at all times ( P < 0.05). We conclude that n-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates skeletal muscle disuse atrophy in young women, which may be mediated by higher rates of MyoPS.-McGlory, C., Gorissen, S. H. M., Kamal, M., Bahniwal, R., Hector, A. J., Baker, S. K., Chabowski, A., Phillips, S. M. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates skeletal muscle disuse atrophy during two weeks of unilateral leg immobilization in healthy young women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801857RRRDOI Listing
March 2019