Publications by authors named "Ravindranath Vineetha"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sex Assessment by Morphological Analysis of Palatal Rugae Patterns in a South Indian Adult Population.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2021 17;13:77-81. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

Background: Palatal rugae are asymmetric and irregular ridges on the anterior palatal region, which have proven to be useful in the field of forensic dentistry. This study aims to use morphological analysis of palatal rugae patterns to assess sex in a South Indian adult population.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate a total of 300 maxillary dental casts (150 males and 150 females). The rugae patterns were marked by one observer and classified as per Thomas and Kotze criteria by another observer. The rugae patterns were classified based on the total number of rugae, shape, predominant direction of rugae, and unification of rugae.

Results: The palatal rugae in female participants showed a higher incidence of circular rugae and backward directed rugae, while male participants showed more forward-directed rugae. The logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of with circular (OR=1.48; 95% CI= 1.02-2.13), forward (OR=0.87; 95% CI= 0.78-0.97) and backward (OR=1.23; 95% CI= 1.08-1.41) palatal rugae with sex.

Conclusion: Certain palatal rugae patterns can be used for the assessment of sex with limited accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S304599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982778PMC
March 2021

Bilateral Bell's palsy in a young female: a rare case report.

Med Pharm Rep 2021 Jan 29;94(1):118-120. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Bell's palsy is described as a type of facial paralysis, which is unilateral in 70% of the cases. Bell's palsy accounts for about 23% of bilateral facial paralysis. Here, we present a rare case of bilateral Bell's palsy in a 15-year-old female who developed sudden facial weakness with no associated symptoms. The patient was subjected to thorough clinical, laboratory, and necessary radiological investigations. As there was no conclusive evidence from any of the investigations, this could be a case of idiopathic bilateral Bell's palsy. This is the first ever case of bilateral Bell's palsy in a young female which has been reported in the Indian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/mpr-1389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880067PMC
January 2021

Occupation-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals.

Med Pharm Rep 2020 Oct 25;93(4):405-409. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Background And Aim: Dentists are exposed to a wide range of work-related factors that may result in various occupational diseases of which musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of MSDs among dental professionals of our institution and to compare the prevalence of MSDs among the various dental specialists.

Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, which included basic demographic details, work experience in dentistry, and work profile related questions along with the Standard Nordic Questionnaire, was administered to the study participants. Statistical analysis for the data obtained was performed using SPSS Version 16.0 (Chicago, SPSS Inc.). The chi-square test was applied to test the association between MSD and variables such as gender, designation, type of dentistry and usage of computers. The Mann Whitney U test was used to assess the relationship between MSD and age, experience, sick leave, number of patients attended per day. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: 151 subjects participated in the study, and the prevalence of MSD in the last 12 months among dental professionals was 58.3% (88 out of 151 subjects). The most common site affected by MSD was the neck (66.7%). Also, it was noted that among various dental specialists, the Endodontists suffered the maximum (88.02%) musculoskeletal pain. Fifty individuals (33.11%) suffered from pain in multiple sites.

Conclusion: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and pain can be reduced through proper operator-patient positioning, taking adequate breaks between patients, maintaining good physical health through regular exercises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/mpr-1581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664727PMC
October 2020

Unilateral buccal space masses: a case series.

Med Pharm Rep 2020 Jul 22;93(3):310-313. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

The head and neck region consists of several potential tissue spaces that are formed by the fascial layer. The buccal space is an area of anatomic significance due to its small size and distribution of adipose tissue. Unilateral buccal space masses often pose a diagnostic challenge owing to the diversity of tissues in the area. Here, we report four such cases of buccal space masses arising from different tissues, which presented as unilateral buccal space swelling. This report also highlights the various causes and the differential diagnoses of unilateral buccal space masses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/mpr-1427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418832PMC
July 2020

Email and instant messaging applications as platforms for remote oral radiology consultation in maxillofacial fractures.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021 Feb 22;131(2):241-246. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Objective: The present study aimed to test the reliability and diagnostic efficacy of the evaluation of radiographs transmitted by email and through instant messaging in the diagnosis of maxillofacial fractures.

Study Design: Screening of radiographs of 150 patients by a senior maxillofacial radiologist was performed as the gold standard method for the assessment of fractures by using a workstation monitor. The radiographs were sent to the Gmail accounts of 2 observers, who used their laptop computers to independently evaluate the radiographs for fractures. The same radiographs were sent to the smartphones of the observers via WhatsApp Messenger and were evaluated on the smartphone screens. Intra- and interobserver reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated.

Results: The reliability of the observers' diagnoses for both modalities ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 compared with the gold standard. Intra- and interobserver reliability ranged from 0.85 to 0.98. Measures of diagnostic efficacy ranged from 93.5% to 100% for images sent by Gmail and from 95.2% to 99.9% for radiographs transmitted through WhatsApp Messenger.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that email and instant messaging applications can be reliable tools for the assessment of maxillofacial fractures by radiologists located at remote sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.07.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Oral manifestations in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis: a hospital-based study.

Minerva Stomatol 2020 Oct 14;69(5):302-308. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD-HD) patients undergoing routine hemodialysis have been reported to have oral signs and symptoms due to disease process or various comorbidities like diabetes mellitus (DM). Both CKD and DM can cause oral changes. Hence this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of oral symptoms and signs in CKD-HD patients and to rule out DM as possible confounding factor for the oral findings.

Methods: Oral manifestations were assessed in 102 CKD-HD patients, and compared with 100 DM patients and 101 non-diabetic patients with no renal impairment.

Results: Most common symptom reported by patients with CKD-HD were xerostomia, altered taste. The most prevalent objective findings were oral dryness. There was statistically significant difference in symptoms and signs between CKD-HD and non-CKD patients. However, no significant difference between CKD-HD with and without DM.

Conclusions: This study showed increased prevalence of oral findings in CKD patients. It also revealed that Diabetes mellitus cannot be a contributing factor for increased prevalence of oral manifestations in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4970.20.04300-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Awareness About Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Among Dental Professionals: A Multicentre Study.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2020;18(1):505-509

Purpose: Bisphosphonates and non-bisphosphonate antiangiogenic and antiresorptive agents are widely used in the management of bone diseases and cancer. A subset of patients receiving these drugs can manifest with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) and it is one of the major complications faced in dental practice. Dentoalveolar and periodontal surgery are the major risk factors associated with it. Therefore, a dentist must have adequate knowledge to promptly identify patients at risk and efficiently manage the condition. This multicentre study was designed with an aim to assess the level of knowledge and awareness regarding MRONJ among dentists from six dental schools.

Methods And Materials: An online self-administered questionnaire was sent to all the dentists from six dental schools through Google forms. The results obtained were statistically analysed. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to check for normality of data, while the Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square test were used to compare the responses to each question.

Results: The questionnaire was sent to 570 dentists, out of which 234 responses were obtained. The majority of participants were aware of the term 'MRONJ' (83.3%), clinical indications of bisphosphonates (61.5%) and its mechanism of action (72.2%). However, 68.4% and 61.5% of dentists had no knowledge about the 'drug holiday' concept and risk factors associated with MRONJ, respectively.

Conclusion: Although most of the participants had knowledge regarding certain aspects of MRONJ, such as mechanism of action and clinical indications of bisphosphonates, there was a lack of awareness about the drug holiday concept and drug-associated risk factors. This emphasises the need to spread awareness among the dental community, not only in tertiary healthcare centres, but also among private dentists and dental interns to prevent cases of MRONJ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.ohpd.a43361DOI Listing
June 2020

Medication related osteonecrosis of jaw in a leukemia patient undergoing systemic arsenic trioxide therapy: A rare case report.

Oral Oncol 2019 12 26;99:104343. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a potential side effect of certain pharmaceutical agents used in the field of medicine. Early diagnosis and effective management of this condition can be challenging to the clinicians. Bisphosphonates and other anti-angiogenic agents are the most common drugs that are attributed to cause medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In the past, arsenic-based compounds were commonly used local agents for pulp devitalization therapy. Arsenic is also one of the components of the chemotherapeutic regimen in the management of refractory leukemia. Although local diffusion of the arsenic compounds is known to cause osteonecrosis, there are no reports of the same caused by its systemic administration. Here, we present the first ever case of mandibular bone necrosis in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia who underwent systemic arsenic trioxide therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.06.024DOI Listing
December 2019

The influence of the mandibular gonial angle on the occurrence of mandibular angle fracture.

Dent Traumatol 2019 Jun 3;35(3):188-193. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Manipal College Of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy Of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Background/aims: Angle fractures represent the largest percentage of mandibular fractures. They pose as a unique entity because of their codependent morphological dynamic factors, rendering the understanding of the mechanism, and treatment challenging. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the mandibular gonial angle and the risk of mandibular angle fracture while highlighting its clinical relevance.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of radiographs of patients treated for mandibular fractures was done. The factors studied were as follows: the presence of a high gonial angle and an impacted third molar. The outcome was mandibular angle fracture. The gonial angle was measured using Planmeca Digital Software 3.7.0.R. Status of the third molar was also noted. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 22 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).

Results: The sample comprised 70 mandibular fractures (32 angle fractures and 38 non-angle fractures). The mean gonial angle in the angle fracture group was 128.5 ± 5.4º which was 10.2° larger than in the non-angle group (mean 118.5 ± 4.4º; P = 0.0001). Patients with a high gonial angle were 8.7 times more likely to sustain an angle fracture than those with normal or low gonial angles. A statistically significant relationship between the presence of impacted third molar and patients sustaining mandibular angle fractures was noted (P = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Subjects with a high gonial angle and an impacted third molar are at an increased risk for mandibular angle fracture due to direct and indirect morphological factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/edt.12468DOI Listing
June 2019

Chronic recurrent osteomyelitis: A surgeon's enigma.

J Oral Pathol Med 2019 Feb 4;48(2):180-184. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Background: Chronic recurrent forms of osteomyelitis of the mandible with their morbid clinical course have long been considered a challenge to maxillofacial surgeons in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. Various classifications and treatments have been established through the ages to define and manage the inflammatory symptoms occurring in adults and children. This paper discusses two such entities occurring in an adult and a child, highlighting the diagnostic and treatment challenges of recurrent osteomyelitis.

Methods: A thorough workup which included clinical, radiographic, blood investigations was done, followed by administration of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory with or without surgical debridement/adjuvant therapies. Correlation of our findings and treatment plan was done with evidence-based literature and practice.

Results: Complete resolution of symptoms with radiographic evidence was achieved in both the cases. In the recurrence period, long-term steroids, NSAIDs, antibiotics resulted in better outcomes.

Conclusion: The evidence-based protocol for osteomyelitis stresses on short inpatient stays predicated on efficient literature. Thorough clinical and radiographic evaluation with aggressive medical management and surgical intervention when necessary can result in longer symptom-free periods. Thus understanding the disease, recurrence pattern and response to therapy is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12814DOI Listing
February 2019

Diffuse gingival enlargement: an unusual diagnostic clue for pulmonary tuberculosis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 11 24;18(11):1288. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30229-9DOI Listing
November 2018

Oral hygiene and dentition status in children and adults with hemophilia: A case-control study.

Spec Care Dentist 2018 Nov 26;38(6):391-394. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India.

Background & Objectives: People with hemophilia constitute a significant proportion of the population and an oral health care professional faces a considerable challenge while treating them. This study aimed to assess the oral health and dentition status as well as fear of dental treatment in patients with hemophilia and compare it with age-matched healthy subjects.

Patients & Methods: This single-center, case-control cross-sectional study was performed on 100 subjects with hemophilia and 100 age-matched healthy controls. Oral health and dentition status was recorded for all the subjects and scored using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), plaque index, and the dmft/DMFT index.

Results: There were a total of 41 children and 59 adults in the hemophilia group and 36 children and 64 adults in the healthy group. When compared to healthy subjects it was observed that individuals with hemophilia had higher debris and calculus scores which was indicative of poor orodental status. There was no significant difference observed in the DMFT scores among the study groups.

Interpretation & Conclusions: The oral hygiene of the hemophilics was poorer when compared to the healthy controls. The findings highlight the need for establishing interdisciplinary care for such individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scd.12324DOI Listing
November 2018

Enhanced salivary secretion by interferential current stimulation in patients with dry mouth: a pilot study-a commentary.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Oct 19;122(4):519-20. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Professor and Head, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2016.05.025DOI Listing
October 2016

Maxillary pseudotumor as initial manifestation of von Willebrand disease, type 2: report of a rare case and literature review-a commentary.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Aug 24;122(2):259-60. Epub 2016 May 24.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2016.05.011DOI Listing
August 2016

Salivary Glucose as a Diagnostic Marker for Diabetes Mellitus.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2016 07;10(4):991-992

3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1932296816637619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928231PMC
July 2016

Role of salivary malondialdehyde in assessment of oxidative stress among diabetics.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2016 Jan-Apr;6(1):41-4. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India.

Aims: To evaluate and compare the salivary content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 30 freshly diagnosed subjects of diabetes mellitus and 30 volunteers with no diabetes mellitus. Serum and salivary MDS levels were evaluated among all the subjects.

Results: The mean serum MDA in group controls and diabetics was 0.95 ± 0.13 and 3.11 ± 0.42. The mean salivary MDA in group controls and diabetics was 0.26 ± 0.05 μmol/l and 0.81 ± 0.07 μmol/l. The mean serum and salivary MDA levels were significantly higher in group diabetics than control group (p < 0.001 and <0.001) respectively. There was significant positive strong correlation between serum and salivary MDA levels in both controls and diabetics groups (r = 0.857, p < 0.001 and r = 0.891, p < 0.001) respectively.

Conclusion: MDA was detectable in saliva in both diabetic and control groups. There was a positive significant correlation between salivary and serum MDA in diabetic and control subjects. Hence, salivary MDA appears to be an indicator of serum MDA concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2015.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756067PMC
March 2016

Re: "Five-year alveolar bone level changes in women of varying skeletal bone mineral density and bone trabeculation--a commentary".

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Mar 14;121(3):340. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Associate Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.10.026DOI Listing
March 2016

Postradiation trismus and its impact on quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer: a commentary.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Feb 10;121(2):196-7. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

Professor and Head, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.06.042DOI Listing
February 2016

"Role of intraoral color Doppler sonography in predicting delayed cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage tongue cancer"--a commentary.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Jan 28;121(1):106-7. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Associate Professor, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.06.041DOI Listing
January 2016

Generalised fibrotic gingival enlargement in a psoriatic patient: an association or a coincidence?

BMJ Case Rep 2015 Sep 21;2015. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Gingival fibromatosis is a rare, benign, slow progressive fibrous overgrowth of gingiva, with great genetic and clinical heterogeneity. It can be inherited as an isolated trait (hereditary/idiopathic gingival fibromatosis), and/or as a component of a syndrome. We report a case of a young girl suffering from psoriasis who also presented with an unusual generalised idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, of multifactorial origin, is characterised by keratinocyte hyperproliferation, dedifferentiation, neoangiogenesis and inflammation. T cell-mediated immunity is considered to be the key element in the disease process. The existence of oral mucosal alterations in patients with psoriasis is a controversial topic, as histopathological correlations are not clearly evident, and oral and cutaneous lesions do not follow a parallel course. However, this article highlights a possible association of T-lymphocyte stimulation inducing fibroblasts to undergo epidermal hyperproliferation and increased collagen production in the gingiva, which in turn may be responsible for inducing gingival hyperplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2015-211071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4577645PMC
September 2015

Usefulness of salivary alpha amylase as a biomarker of chronic stress and stress related oral mucosal changes - a pilot study.

J Clin Exp Dent 2014 Apr 1;6(2):e132-7. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

MPhil, PhD, Associate Professor and Head. Department of Clinical Psychology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Salivary biomarkers are suggested to provide a reliable, noninvasive and objective measurement of chronic psychosocial stress and helps in assessment of pivotal role of stress in causation or precipitation of multitude of health problems.

Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of salivary alpha amylase activity as an objective indicator of chronic stress and to find out any correlation between stress- related mucosal complaints and its levels.

Study Design: Study was conducted among 50 subjects suffering from chronic stress related problems and 50 non-stressed individuals who were screened with a psychometric questionnaire. Brief case history and oral examination was carried out and about one ml of unstimulated saliva was collected. Salivary alpha amylase levels estimated were compared between study and control group and between subjects with and without oral mucosal changes using non parametric Mann Whitney U test.

Results: There was statistically significant higher salivary alpha amylase levels in study group (p =.002) and salivary alpha amylase between the oral mucosal complaints group and without oral mucosal complaints group within the total study population were found to be statistically significant (p=0.045).

Conclusions: Salivary amylase activity increases in patients with chronic psychosocial stress and may be used as a biomarker of chronic stress, but it may not be an indicator to suggest the development of stress related oral mucosal changes. Key words:Salivary biomarker, salivary alpha amylase, psychosocial stress, sympathetic nervous system, oral mucosal changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.51355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4002342PMC
April 2014

Unilateral segmental odontomaxillary hypoplasia: an unusual case report.

Imaging Sci Dent 2011 Mar 26;41(1):39-42. Epub 2011 Mar 26.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India.

Facial asymmetry is not an uncommon occurrence in day to day dental practice. It can be caused by various etiologic factors ranging from facial trauma to serious hereditary conditions. Here, we report a rare case of non-syndromic facial asymmetry in a young female, who was born with this condition but was not aware of the progression of asymmetry. No relevant family history was recognized. She was also deficient in both deciduous and permanent teeth in the corresponding region of maxilla. Hence, the cause of this asymmetry was believed to be a segmental odontomaxillary hypoplasia of left maxilla accompanied by agenesis of left maxillary premolars and molars and disuse atrophy of corresponding facial musculature. This report briefly discussed the comparative features of segmental odontomaxillary hypoplasia, hemimaxillofacial dysplasia, and segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia and justified the differences between segmental odontomaxillary hypoplasia and the other two conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5624/isd.2011.41.1.39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174457PMC
March 2011

An unusual red lesion of the gingiva: differential diagnosis and management.

J Can Dent Assoc 2011 ;77:b77

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India.

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November 2011