Publications by authors named "Ravi R Kasliwal"

71 Publications

Normal Values of Aortic Root Size According to Age, Sex, and Race: Results of the World Alliance of Societies of Echocardiography Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Accurate measurements of the aortic annulus and root are important for guiding therapeutic decisions regarding the need for aortic surgery. Current echocardiographic guidelines for identification of aortic root dilatation are limited because current normative values were derived predominantly from white individuals in narrow age ranges, and based partially on M-mode measurements. Using data from the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography study, the authors sought to establish normal ranges of aortic dimensions across sexes, races, and a wide range of ages.

Methods: Adult individuals free of heart, lung, and kidney disease were prospectively enrolled from 15 countries, with even distributions among sexes and age groups: young (18-40 years), middle aged (41-65 years) and old (>65 years). Transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiograms of 1,585 subjects (mean age, 47 ± 17 years; 50.4% men; mean body surface area [BSA], 1.77 ± 0.22 m) were analyzed in a core laboratory following American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. Measurements, indexed separately by BSA and by height, included the aortic annulus, sinuses of Valsalva, and sinotubular junction. Differences among age, sex, and racial groups were evaluated using unpaired two-tailed Student's t tests.

Results: All aortic root dimensions were larger in men compared with women. After indexing to BSA, all measured dimensions were significantly larger in women, whereas men continued to show larger dimensions after indexing to height. Of note, the upper limits of normal for all aortic dimensions were lower across all age groups, compared with the guidelines. Aortic dimensions were larger in older age groups in both sexes, a trend that persisted regardless of BSA or height adjustment. Last, differences in aortic dimensions were also observed according to race: Asians had the smallest nonindexed aortic dimensions at all levels.

Conclusions: There are significant differences in aortic dimensions according to sex, age, and race. Thus, current guideline-recommended normal ranges may need to be adjusted to account for these differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.09.011DOI Listing
October 2021

Normal Values of Left Atrial Size and Function and the Impact of Age: Results of the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Left atrial (LA) evaluation includes volumetric and functional parameters with an abundance of diagnostic and prognostic implications. Solid normal reference ranges are compulsory for accurate interpretation in individual patients, but previous studies have yielded mixed conclusions regarding the effects of age, sex, and/or race. The present report from the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography study focuses on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measures of LA structure and function, with subgroup analysis by age, sex, and race.

Methods: Transthoracic 2D and 3D echocardiographic images were obtained in 1,765 healthy individuals (901 men, 864 women) evenly distributed among age subgroups: 18 to 40 years (n = 745), 41 to 65 years (n = 618), and >65 years (n = 402); the racial distribution was 38.4% white, 39.9% Asian, and 9.7% black. Images were analyzed using dedicated LA analysis software to measure LA volumes and phasic function from 3D volume and 2D strain curves.

Results: Three-dimensional maximum and minimum LA volumes adjusted for body surface area were nearly identical for men and women, but women demonstrated higher 3D total and passive emptying fractions (EFs). Two-dimensional reservoir strain was similar for both sexes. Age was associated with an incremental rise in LA volumes alongside characteristic shifts in functional indices. Total 2D EF and reservoir and conduit strain varied inversely with age, counteracted by higher booster strain, with a greater magnitude of effect in women. Active 3D EF was significantly higher, while total and passive EFs decreased with age. Interracial differences were noted in LA volumes, without substantial differences in functional indices.

Conclusion: Although similar normal values for LA volumes and strain can be applied to both sexes, meaningful differences in LA size occur with aging. Indices of function also shift with age, with a compensatory rise in booster function, which may serve to counteract observed lower total and passive EFs. Defining age-associated normal values may help differentiate age-associated "healthy" LA aging from pathologic processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.08.008DOI Listing
August 2021

Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Right Ventricular Size and Systolic Function Measurements Stratified by Sex, Age, and Ethnicity: Results of the World Alliance of Societies of Echocardiography Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) systolic function is an important component of clinical decision making. Although professional societies have worked to define normal ranges of RV size and function, their guidelines have not included the impacts of age, sex, and ethnicity on these parameters, as they have for the left ventricle. The World Alliance of Societies of Echocardiography study was designed to investigate the effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on all cardiac chambers. The aim of this study was to explore whether these differences exist for RV systolic parameters.

Methods: Adequate two-dimensional RV-focused views for the measurement of systolic parameters, including fractional area change and global and free wall longitudinal strain, were available in 1,913 subjects (mean age, 47 ± 17 years; 51% men). Basal and mid-RV dimensions, length, tricuspid annular peak systolic excursion, tissue Doppler S' velocity, and myocardial performance index were also measured. Subjects were grouped by age (<40, 41-65, and >65 years), with results also stratified by sex and ethnicity (Asian, black, or white) and analyzed using vendor-independent software. Differences among groups were evaluated using analysis of variance.

Results: Women had smaller absolute and indexed RV areas and absolute RV dimensions and higher magnitudes of fractional area change, free wall strain, and global longitudinal strain compared to men. With respect to age, most of the statistically significant differences were noted between the <40- and >65-year age groups, with RV areas and lengths smaller in older age groups and RV functional parameters (S', fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, global longitudinal strain, free wall strain, and myocardial performance index) showing minimal decreases or no changes with age. Although there were no meaningful differences in functional parameters among ethnic groups, RV size was smallest in Asians.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that although two-dimensional RV parameters are age and sex dependent, association with race is less apparent, excepting that the Asian population appears to have smaller chamber sizes compared with whites and blacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.06.013DOI Listing
July 2021

Normal Values of Cardiac Output and Stroke Volume According to Measurement Technique, Age, Sex, and Ethnicity: Results of the World Alliance of Societies of Echocardiography Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 10 25;34(10):1077-1085.e1. Epub 2021 May 25.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Assessment of cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) is essential to understand cardiac function and hemodynamics. These parameters can be examined using three echocardiographic techniques (pulsed-wave Doppler, two-dimensional [2D], and three-dimensional [3D]). Whether these methods can be used interchangeably is unclear. The influence of age, sex, and ethnicity on CO and SV has also not been examined in depth. In this report from the World Alliance of Societies of Echocardiography Normal Values Study, the authors compare CO and SV in healthy adults according to age, sex, ethnicity, and measurement techniques.

Methods: A total of 1,450 adult subjects (53% men) free of heart, lung, and kidney disease were prospectively enrolled in 15 countries, with even distributions among age groups and sex. Subjects were divided into three age groups (young, 18-40 years; middle aged, 41-65 years; and old, >65 years) and three main racial groups (whites, blacks, and Asians). CO and SV were indexed (cardiac index [CI] and SV index [SVI], respectively) to body surface area and height and measured using three echocardiographic methods: Doppler, 2D, and 3D. Images were analyzed at two core laboratories (one each for 2D and 3D).

Results: CI and SVI were significantly lower by 2D compared with both Doppler and 3D methods in both sexes. SVI was significantly lower in women than men by all three methods, while CI differed only by 2D. SVI decreased with aging by all three techniques, whereas CI declined only with 2D and 3D. CO and SV were smallest in Asians and largest in whites, and the differences persisted after normalization for body surface area.

Conclusions: The present results provide normal reference values for CO and SV, which differ by age, sex, and race. Furthermore, CI and SVI measurements by the different echocardiographic techniques are not interchangeable. All these factors need to be taken into account when evaluating cardiac function and hemodynamics in individual patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.05.012DOI Listing
October 2021

An unusual left ventricular outflow tract mass in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Natl Med J India 2020 Jan-Feb;33(1):19-21

Department of Cardiology, Cardiothoracic Surgery and Pathology, Medanta - The Medicity, Sector 38, Gurgaon 122001, Haryana, India.

A 25-year-old female, with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, presented with exertional dyspnoea. Echocardiography showed a large (2.0 cm × 1.1 cm), echogenic, heterogeneous mass in the left ventricular outflow tract, under the aortic valve, attached to the ventricular aspect of the anterior mitral leaflet. Tiny flagellar, frond-like structures were seen attached to the surface of the mass. There was mitral regurgitation. These echocardiographic features were suggestive of a papillary fibroelastoma, but the histopathology of the excised mass revealed it to be a thrombus, which was consistent with a diagnosis of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE). This case represents a rare histopathologically confirmed NBTE presenting as an unusually large mass in the left ventricular outflow tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-258X.308236DOI Listing
February 2021

Left Ventricular Thrombus and Cardioembolic Stroke in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report.

Saudi J Med Med Sci 2021 Jan-Apr;9(1):67-70. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pathology and Blood Bank, Medanta-The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Left ventricular (LV) thrombi usually occur in the setting of global or regional LV systolic dysfunction and are extremely rare in the absence of LV wall motion abnormalities. We report here a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with cardioembolic stroke due to ulcerative colitis. To determine the cause of stroke, several investigations and evaluations were carried out, but the results were mostly normal or unremarkable. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed an oscillating pedunculated globular mass, which was eventually resected due to recurrent transient ischemic attacks. The histopathology of the excised mass revealed it to be an organized thrombus with acute and chronic inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. The uncommon etiology combined with the unusual appearance of the thrombus presented a major diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for this exceedingly rare cause for intracardiac thrombus formation. Therefore, it would be useful to have a low threshold for screening patients with active inflammatory bowel disease for possible ventricular thrombosis before discharge, especially if other risk factors are present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_525_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839577PMC
December 2020

Predictors of Arterial Stiffness Amongst the 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Variables in Hypertensive Patients.

Cureus 2020 Dec 21;12(12):e12207. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Cardiology, Medanta Hospital, Gurgaon, IND.

Objective The objective of the study is to identify the predominant determinants of arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse-wave-velocity (PVW) amongst various 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters in Indian hypertensive subjects. Method Subjects of both genders between 18-60 years with hypertension and who were either drug naïve or on stable anti-hypertensive treatment for at least three months were included in the study. All subjects underwent clinical evaluation with a medical history, biochemical investigations, and assessment of arterial stiffness by PWV along with 24-hour ABPM. Results We found the males were younger than females amongst hypertensive cohort (41.53 ± 10.89 years vs. 52.2 ± 5.17 years, respectively; p=0.001) and had shorter duration of hypertension (41.42 ± 49.14 months vs. 87.8 ± 74.55 months, respectively; p=0.012) and had lower 24-hour average pulse pressure (aPP; 49.1 ± 7.8 mm Hg vs. 57.83 ± 8.92 mm Hg, respectively; p=0.001) at baseline. Younger people (<40-years) as compared to those >40-years of age had the lower carotid-femoral (cf) PWV (972.8 ± 125.0 cm/sec vs. 1165.0 ± 208.4 cm/sec, respectively; p=0.001) and average brachial-ankle (ba) PWV (1413.7 ± 160.4 cm/sec and 1640.0 ± 227.1 cm/sec, respectively; p=0.001). Bivariate analysis revealed that amongst all the 24-hour ABPM parameters, 24-hour aPP had the strongest correlation (r=0.414, p=0.003) with arterial stiffness as assessed by PWV. Also, statistically significant correlation was found in age group <40 years between cf-PWV and both 24-hour aPP (r=0.54, p=0.025) as well as night-time aPP (r=0.59, p=0.013) Conclusion We conclude that 24-hour aPP showed the strongest correlation with arterial stiffness parameters and best correlated with arterial stiffness variables amongst 24-hour ABPM parameters, especially amongst subjects <40 years of age. The pulsatile blood pressure (BP) was a better predictor of aortic PWV than the continuous part of BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818675PMC
December 2020

Normal Values of Right Atrial Size and Function According to Age, Sex, and Ethnicity: Results of the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 03 17;34(3):286-300. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: The World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography study is a multicenter, international, prospective, cross-sectional study whose aims were to evaluate healthy adult individuals to establish age- and sex-normative values of echocardiographic parameters and to determine whether differences exist among people from different countries and of different ethnicities. The present report focuses on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) right atrial (RA) size and function.

Methods: Transthoracic 2D and 3D echocardiographic images were obtained in 2,008 healthy adult individuals evenly distributed among subgroups according to sex (1,033 men, 975 women) and age 18 to 40 years (n = 854), 41 to 65 years (n = 653), and >65 years (n = 501). For ethnicity, 34.9% were white, 41.6% Asian, and 9.7% black. Images were analyzed in a core laboratory according to current American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines. RA measurements included 2D dimensions, 2D and 3D RA volumes (RAVs) indexed to body surface area (BSA), emptying fraction (EmF), and global longitudinal strain, including total/reservoir, passive/conduit, and active/contractile phases. Differences among age and sex categories and among countries were also examined.

Results: RAVs were larger in men (even after BSA indexing), while 3D total EmF and global longitudinal strain magnitudes were higher in women. For both sexes, there were no significant age-related differences in 2D RAV measurements, but 3D RAV values differed minimally with age, remaining significant after BSA indexing. RA total EmF and reservoir strain and passive EmF and conduit strain magnitude were lower in older groups for both sexes. Interestingly, whereas RA active EmF increased with age, contractile strain magnitude decreased. Considerable geographic variations were identified: Asians of both sexes had significantly lower BSA than non-Asians, and their 2D and 3D end-systolic RAVs were significantly smaller even after BSA indexing. Of note, 2D end-systolic RAVs in this group were considerably lower than normal values provided in the current guidelines.

Conclusions: There is significant sex, age, and geographic variability in normal RA size and function parameters. Current guideline-recommended normal ranges for RA size and function parameters should be adjusted geographically on the basis of the results of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.11.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Aortic pulse wave velocity and its relationship with transaortic flow and gradients in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement.

Indian Heart J 2020 Sep - Oct;72(5):421-426. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Cardiology, Medanta-The Medicity, Gurgaon, India. Electronic address:

Background: Low-flow, low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LFLGAS) is a common clinical entity and is associated with poor prognosis. Increased left ventricular (LV) afterload is one of the mechanisms contributing to low LV stroke volume index (SVi) in these patients. Aortic stiffness is an important determinant of LV afterload, but no previous study has evaluated its relationship with LVSVi in patients with AS.

Methods: Fifty-seven patients (mean age 66 ± 8 years, 71.9% men) with severe AS [aortic valve area (AVA) < 1.0 cm] undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) were included in this study. Echocardiographic parameters of AS were correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a measure of aortic stiffness, derived using PeriScope® device.

Results: Mean AVA was 0.63 ± 0.17 cm with mean and peak transvalvular gradient 56.5 ± 18.8 mmHg and 83.2 ± 25.2 mmHg, respectively. Nearly half (26 of 57, 45.6%) of the subjects had SVi <35 mL/m, indicative of low-flow severe AS. These subjects had lower AVA, lower aortic valve gradient, and LV ejection fraction. CfPWV was numerically lower in these subjects [median 1467 (interquartile range 978, 2259) vs 1588 (1106, 2167)] but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.66). However, when analyzed as a continuous variable, cfPWV had significant positive correlation with SVi (Pearson's r 0.268, p = 0.048) and mean aortic valve gradient (Pearson's r 0.274, p = 0.043).

Conclusions: In patients with severe AS undergoing AVR, aortic stiffness measured using cfPWV is not a determinant of low-flow state. Instead, an increasing cfPWV tends to be associated with increasing transvalvular flow and gradient in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2020.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670240PMC
May 2021

Statins and SARS-CoV-2 disease: Current concepts and possible benefits.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Nov-Dec;14(6):2063-2067. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Cardiology, Medanta- the Medicity, Gurgaon, India.

Background And Aims: Inflammation-mediated tissue injury is the major mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Statins have well-established anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and immuno-modulatory effects. They may also influence viral entry into human cells.

Methods: A literature search was done using PubMed and Google search engines to prepare a narrative review on this topic.

Results: Statins interact with several different signaling pathways to exert their anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective effects. They also variably affect cholesterol content of cell membranes and interfere with certain coronavirus enzymes involved in receptor-binding. Both these actions may influence SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells. Statins also upregulate expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors on cell surfaces which may promote viral entry into the cells but at the same time, may minimize tissue injury through production of angiotensin [1-7]. The net impact of these different effects on COVID-19 pathogenesis is not clear. However, the retrospective clinical studies have shown that statin use is potentially associated with lower risk of developing severe illness and mortality and a faster time to recovery in patients with COVID-19.

Conclusions: Early observations suggest beneficial effect of statin use on the clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Prospective randomized studies as well as well-designed laboratory studies are required to confirm these observations and to elucidate the mechanisms of such benefits, if proven.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582042PMC
January 2021

Cardiovascular risk Calculators and their Applicability to South Asians.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2020 Oct 1. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Chairman, Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, Medanta- The Medicity, Gurgaon,. India.

Background: Estimation of absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and tailoring therapies according to the estimated risk is a fundamental concept in the primary prevention of CVD. Numerous CVD risk scores are currently available for use in various populations but unfortunately, none exists for South Asians who have much higher CVD risk as compared to their western counterparts.

Methods: A literature search was done using PubMed and Google search engines to prepare a narrative review on this topic.

Results: Various currently available CVD risk scores and their pros and cons are summarized. The studies performed in native as well as migrant South Asians evaluating accuracy of these risk scores for estimation of CVD risk are also summarized. The findings of these studies have generally been inconsistent, but it appears that the British risk scores (e.g. QRISK versions) may be more accurate because of inclusion of migrant South Asians in the derivation of these risk scores. However, the lack of any prospective study precludes our ability to draw any firm conclusions. Finally, the potential solution to these challenges, including the role of recalibration and subclinical atherosclerosis imaging, are also discussed.

Conclusions: This review highlights the need to develop large, representative, prospectively followed databases of South Asians providing information on various CVD risk factors and their contribution to incident CVD. Such databases will not only allow development of validated CVD risk scores for South Asians but will also enable application of machine-learning approaches to provide personalized solutions to CVD risk assessment and management in these populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399816999201001204020DOI Listing
October 2020

Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Healthy Adult Individuals: Results of the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography Normal Values Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020 10 31;33(10):1223-1233. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

MedStar Health Research Institute, Washington, D.C.. Electronic address:

Background: The World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography (WASE) study was conducted to describe echocardiographic normal values in adults and to compare races and nationalities using a uniform acquisition and measurement protocol. This report focuses on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function.

Methods: WASE is an international, cross-sectional study. Participants were enrolled with equal distribution according to age and gender. Echocardiograms were analyzed in a core laboratory based on the latest American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines. Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed by E, E/A, e' velocities, E/e', left atrial volume index (LAVI), and tricuspid regurgitation velocity. Determination of LV diastolic function was made using the algorithm proposed by the guidelines.

Results: A total of 2,008 subjects from 15 countries were enrolled. The majority were of white or Asian race (42.8%, 41.8%, respectively). E and E/e' were higher in female patients, while LAVI was similar in both genders. Consistent increase in E/e' and decrease in E/A, E, and e' were found as age increased. The upper limit of normal for LAVI was higher in WASE compared with the guidelines. The lower limits of normal for e' were smaller in elder groups than those in the guidelines, while the upper limits of normal for E/e' were below the guideline values. These findings suggest that the cutoff value for LAVI should be shifted upward and age-specific cutoff values for e' should be considered. In WASE, <93.6% of patients were classified as normal LV diastolic function using the guidelines' algorithm, and the proportion increased to 97.4% when applying the revised cutoff values for LAVI obtained in our study.

Conclusions: Guideline-recommended normal values for e' velocities and LAVI should be reconsidered. The algorithm for the determination of LV diastolic function proposed by the guidelines is useful, but adjustments to LAVI could further improve it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.06.008DOI Listing
October 2020

A comparison of cardiovascular risk scores in native and migrant South Asian populations.

SSM Popul Health 2020 Aug 11;11:100594. Epub 2020 May 11.

Freeman Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

Background: South Asians have increased cardiovascular risk burden but little data exists comparing cardiovascular (CV) risk models in migrant and native South Asians. Our retrospective cohort study in patients presenting with first acute myocardial infarction(MI) compares the predictive value of CV risk scores in native and UK migrant South Asians.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 80 UK-based patients of South Asian origin admitted with first presentation MI, excluding patients with known coronary artery disease. A retrospective 10-year CV risk was calculated for each patient using four cardiovascular risk models: Framingham Risk Score(Risk), World Health Organisation(Risk), American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association(ACC/AHA) (Risk), and 3Joint British Societies'(Risk). Our aim was to assess agreement between these risk scores and conduct comparative analysis with native South Asians.

Results: Risk identified the largest proportion of migrant South Asians as 'high risk' with 65% of subjects having an estimated >20% 10-year CV risk. Risk provided the lowest 10-year CV risk estimates for South Asian migrants, identifying 21.25% of the migrant cohort as >20% risk of major CV event. Comparative analysis with the native South Asian cohort demonstrated Risk as the risk model most likely to identify patients as 'high'(>20%) risk(55.9%; p = 0.224).

Conclusions: This study represents the first analysis of predictive cardiovascular risk scores comparing migrant and native South Asian populations. Significant variation between the CV risk scores were observed, leading to inaccuracies in patient cardiovascular risk estimation. Given the growing burden of cardiovascular disease in Asian countries and different population characteristics, we highlight the need for population specific CV disease risk models whilst providing stimulus for further large-scale prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322355PMC
August 2020

Effect of ferric-carboxy maltose on oxygen kinetics and functional status in heart failure patients with iron deficiency.

Future Sci OA 2020 Mar 31;6(5):FSO467. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Chelsea & Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, West Middlesex University Hospital Site, Isleworth, UK.

There is a very high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in patients with systolic heart failure. The present study is a prospective, parallel, 1:1 randomized controlled trial of intravenous ferric-carboxy maltose compared with standard of care in patients with heart failure. A total of 70 patients who presented to us with symptomatic chronic heart failure were included and randomly assigned to either groups (35 per group). Post 12 weeks, there were improvements noticed in peak VO, New York Heart Association functional classification, 6-min walk test distance covered and reduction in Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score in the ferric-carboxy maltose as compared with standard of care group. However, no improvement in ejection fraction was noticed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/fsoa-2019-0156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273388PMC
March 2020

Prediction and early detection of cardiovascular disease in South Asians with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Jul - Aug;14(4):385-393. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, Medanta- the Medicity, Gurgaon, India.

Background: Although diabetes mellitus (DM) is no longer considered "coronary heart disease risk equivalent", the risk remains sufficiently high, necessitating early recognition and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in these patients. Despite this understanding, the optimum strategy for prediction and early detection of CVD in DM remains debatable.

Methods: Major societal guidelines for prediction and evaluation of CVD in subjects with or without DM were reviewed. Available evidence about various risk stratification strategies-their advantages, disadvantages and current role in clinical practice-were extensively reviewed. Special emphasis was placed on evidence from South Asian/Indian populations.

Results: The inconsistency and variability inherent to the clinical risk algorithms, lack of consensus regarding the incremental value of subclinical atherosclerosis imaging and the lack of sufficient data to demonstrate the benefits of recognizing asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease are some of the reasons underlying prevailing uncertainty about the optimum approach for cardiovascular risk assessment in DM. These challenges notwithstanding, an evidence-based cardiovascular risk stratification strategy incorporating clinical risk algorithms, biomarkers, atherosclerosis imaging, and cardiac stress testing is proposed.

Conclusions: The proposed algorithm should help clinicians in optimizing cardiovascular evaluation and management of their patients with DM. However, this remains a dynamic field; further research into different risk assessment tools, esp. focusing on their impact on improving clinical outcomes, should help refine the evaluation strategy in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.017DOI Listing
May 2021

Proposed low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals for secondary prevention and familial hypercholesterolemia in India with focus on PCSK9 inhibitor monoclonal antibodies: Expert consensus statement from Lipid Association of India.

J Clin Lipidol 2020 Mar - Apr;14(2):e1-e13. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Cardiac Care Centre, South Extension, Part-2, New Delhi, India.

Background: Rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are strikingly high in India compared to Western countries and are increasing. Moreover, ASCVD events occur at a younger age with only modest hypercholesterolemia, most commonly with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The course of ASCVD also appears to be more fulminant with higher mortality.

Objective: In light of these issues, the Lipid Association of India (LAI) endeavored to develop revised guidelines with more aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals in secondary prevention and for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia compared to guidelines in the United States and other countries.

Methods: Owing to the paucity of clinical outcomes data in India, it was necessary to place major emphasis on expert opinion as a complement to randomized placebo-controlled data generated mostly in non-Indian cohorts. To facilitate this process, the LAI conducted a series of 19 meetings among 162 lipid specialists in 13 cities throughout India over a period of 11 months before formulating this expert consensus statement.

Results: The LAI recommends an LDL-C goal <50 mg/dL in all patients in secondary prevention or very high-risk primary prevention but proposes an optional goal ≤30 mg/dL in category A extreme-risk patients (eg, coronary artery disease + familial hypercholesterolemia) and a recommended goal ≤30 mg/dL in category B extreme-risk patients [coronary artery disease + (1) diabetes and polyvascular disease/≥3 major ASCVD risk factors/end organ damage, or (2) recurrent acute coronary syndrome within 12 months despite LDL-C <50 mg/dL, or (3) homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia].

Conclusions: More aggressive LDL-C goals are needed for prevention of ASCVD in India, as described in this expert consensus statement. Use of statins and ezetimibe needs to increase in India in combination with improved control of other ASCVD risk factors. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors can improve LDL-C goal achievement in patients with refractory hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2020.01.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Similarities and Differences in Left Ventricular Size and Function among Races and Nationalities: Results of the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography Normal Values Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2019 11;32(11):1396-1406.e2

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: The World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography (WASE) Normal Values Study evaluates individuals from multiple countries and races with the aim of describing normative values that could be applied to the global community worldwide and to determine differences and similarities among people from different countries and races. The present report focuses specifically on two-dimensional (2D) left ventricular (LV) dimensions, volumes, and systolic function.

Methods: The WASE Normal Values Study is a multicenter international, observational, prospective, cross-sectional study of healthy adult individuals. Participants recruited in each country were evenly distributed among six predetermined subgroups according to age and gender. Comprehensive 2D transthoracic echocardiograms were acquired and analyzed following strict protocols based on recent American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines. Analysis was performed at the WASE 2D core laboratory and included 2D LV dimensions, LV volumes, and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) by the biplane Simpson method and global longitudinal strain (GLS).

Results: Two thousand eight subjects were enrolled in 15 countries. The median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 32-65 years), 42.8% were white, 41.8% were Asian, and 9.7% were black. LV dimensions and volumes were larger in male subjects, while LVEF and GLS were higher in female subjects. Global WASE normal ranges for LV dimensions were smaller than those in the guidelines, but the upper limits of normal for LV volumes and the lower limits of normal for LVEF were higher in the WASE study. Significant intercountry variation was identified for all LV parameters reflecting LV size (dimensions, mass, and volumes) even after indexing to body surface area, with LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes having the highest variation. The largest volumes were noted in Australia, while the smallest were measured in India for both genders. This finding suggests that in addition to gender and body surface area, specific country should be considered when evaluating LV volumes. Intercountry variation for LVEF and GLS was smaller but still statistically significant (P < .05 for all).

Conclusions: LV dimensions and volumes are larger in men, while LVEF and GLS are higher in women. Current guideline-recommended normal ranges for LV volumes and LVEF should be adjusted. Intercountry variability is significant for LV volumes, and therefore nationality should be considered for defining ranges of normality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2019.08.012DOI Listing
November 2019

High-sensitivity troponin I for cardiovascular risk stratification in the general asymptomatic population: Perspectives from Asia-Pacific.

Int J Cardiol 2019 05 1;282:93-98. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, China.

Cardiac troponin is a sensitive and specific biomarker for acute myocardial injury and has been used in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes, and has emerged as a tool for identifying high risk individuals for primary preventive therapy. Recent evidence has emerged indicating that high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays, which allow robust detection of very low troponin concentrations, could detect subclinical injury in asymptomatic patients. On 24 March 2018, a group of cardiologists from the Asia Pacific region convened to review the data and discuss the potential utility of high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease in the general population. The group recognized the immense burden of cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific region, and the limitations of current risk stratification strategies. Data demonstrates that cardiac biomarkers like hsTnI could improve risk stratification, and thresholds for hsTnI in cardiovascular disease risk classification have been developed in Caucasian populations but not validated in Asian populations. There is an urgent need to improve cardiovascular risk assessment in the Asia Pacific general population, validate the Asian threshold of high risk and prove the utility of targeting these high-risk individuals for primary preventive strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.01.107DOI Listing
May 2019

A Study to derive distribution of carotid intima media thickness and to determine its COrrelation with cardiovascular Risk factors in asymptomatic nationwidE Indian population (SCORE-India).

Indian Heart J 2016 Nov - Dec;68(6):821-827. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Medical Affairs, AstraZeneca Pharma India Ltd., Bangalore, India.

Background: There is presently no data to describe normal distribution of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), an established measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in Indian subjects.

Methods: In this multi-centric study, 1229 subjects with age ≥30 years and no previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) underwent CVD risk factor assessment and CIMT measurement. Mean far wall common carotid artery IMT was measured on both sides and averaged.

Results: Mean age of the subjects was 48.0±12.0 years and 54.2% were men. CIMT measurement was feasible in 1157 subjects. Mean, median and 75th percentile values of CIMT for different age-groups were derived for men and women separately. There was a progressive increase in CIMT with increasing age (P<0.001) and men had higher CIMT values than women (0.608±0.12mm vs. 0.579±0.11mm, P<0.001). The CIMT values were also higher in diabetics (0.635±0.10mm) and hypertensives (0.624±0.10mm) as compared to non-diabetics (0.589±0.12mm, P<0.001) and non-hypertensives (0.592±0.12, P 0.02) respectively. Among continuous variables, age, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood glucose had strong to modest correlation with CIMT (Pearson's r 0.524, 0.282 and 0.192 respectively, all P values <0.001), whereas body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and serum triglycerides exhibited weak but still statistically significant relationship (Pearson's r 0.069, P 0.019; Pearson's r 0.065, P 0.026; and Pearson's r 0.094, P 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: This is the first study to provide age- and gender-specific distribution of CIMT in Indian subjects free from CVD. This information should help facilitate further research and clinical work involving CIMT in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2016.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5143805PMC
May 2017

Optimum cardiovascular risk prediction algorithm for South-Asians - Are WHO risk prediction charts really the right answer?

Indian Heart J 2016 Jul-Aug;68(4):581-2. Epub 2016 May 26.

Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon 122001, India. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2016.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4990747PMC
May 2017

ESSENS dyslipidemia: A placebo-controlled, randomized study of a nutritional supplement containing red yeast rice in subjects with newly diagnosed dyslipidemia.

Nutrition 2016 Jul-Aug;32(7-8):767-76. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon, Delhi NCR, India.

Objective: Evidence suggests prolonged exposure to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), starting at a younger age, substantially lowers cardiovascular (CV) risk. Accordingly, the CV pandemic affecting younger population in low- to low-middle-income countries, where statin usage is poor even in secondary prevention, may benefit from lipid-lowering nutritional products, as nutritional intervention is generally preferred in these cultures. However, the safety and efficacy of such preparations have not been systematically tested.

Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind study, 191 statin-free subjects with newly-diagnosed hyperlipidemia (LDL-C >120 mg/dL, 3.11 mmol/L) and no evidence of CV disease were randomized to one capsule of a proprietary bioactive phytonutrient formulation containing red yeast rice, grape-seed, niacinamide, and folic acid (RYR-NS) or matched placebo twice daily, along with lifestyle modification, for 12 wk.

Results: Mean baseline LDL-C levels were 148.5 ± 24.0 mg/dL (3.85 ± 0.62 mmol/L) and 148.6 ± 21.9 mg/dL (3.85 ± 0.57 mmol/L) in the RYR-NS and placebo groups respectively. Compared with placebo, RYR-NS resulted in a significant reduction in LDL-C (-29.4% versus -3.5%, P < 0.0001) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C; -29.8% versus -10.3%, P < 0.0001) at 12 wk. With RYR-NS, 43.4% individuals attained desirable LDL-C levels and 55.4% desirable non-HDL-C levels by week 12, compared to only 0% and 1.1%, respectively, at baseline. No safety issues were observed.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of RYR-NS in lowering LDL-C and non-HDL-C after 12 wk, with magnitude of LDL-C reduction being comparable to that seen with moderate-intensity statin therapy. Further long-term studies are required to determine the impact of RYR-NS on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.01.012DOI Listing
March 2017

Consensus statement on the management of dyslipidemia in Indian subjects: Our perspective.

Indian Heart J 2016 Mar-Apr;68(2):238-41. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Head, Nutrition Research Group, Centre for Nutrition & Metabolic Research (C-NET) & National Diabetes, Obesity and Cholesterol Foundation (N-DOC), New Delhi, India; Chief Project Officer, Diabetes Foundation (India), C-6/57, Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi 110016, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2016.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867022PMC
May 2017

Relationship between different cardiovascular risk scores and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in an Indian population.

Indian Heart J 2015 Jul-Aug;67(4):332-40. Epub 2015 May 15.

Chairman, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon, India.

Background: Relative accuracy of the various currently available cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment algorithms in Indian patients is not known.

Methods: This study included 194 consecutive patients (mean age 49.6 ± 10.3 years, 84.5% males) attending a CV disease prevention clinic at a tertiary center in north India. Four risk assessment models [Framingham Risk score (RiskFRS), American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (RiskACC/AHA), the 3rd iteration of Joint British Societies' risk calculator (RiskJBS) and the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts (RiskWHO)] were applied. The estimated risk scores were correlated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary calcium score (CCS) using nonparametric statistics (Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman rank correlation).

Results: Overall, RiskACC/AHA and RiskWHO significantly underestimated CV risk as compared to RiskJBS and RiskFRS, with RiskJBS being the least likely to underestimate the risk (patients with coronary artery disease who were found to have ≥20% CV risk- 21.4% with RiskACC/AHA, 17.9% with RiskWHO, 41.4% with RiskFRS, and 58.6% with RiskJBS). Further, only RiskJBS and RiskFRS, but not RiskACC/AHA and RiskWHO, demonstrated consistent relationship with CIMT and CCS (Spearman rho 0.45 and 0.46 for RiskJBS and 0.39 and 0.36 for RiskFRS for CIMT and CCS respectively, all p values < 0.001).

Conclusions: The present study shows that in Indian subjects RiskJBS appears to provide the most accurate estimation of CV risk. It least underestimates the risk and has the best correlation with CIMT and CCS. However, large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2015.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561851PMC
December 2016

Effect of pistachio nut consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness.

Nutrition 2015 May 7;31(5):678-85. Epub 2014 Nov 7.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medanta-The Medicity, Gurgaon, India.

Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of regular consumption of pistachio nuts on glycemic, lipid, and oxidative stress parameters. The aim of this study was to determine its effect on vascular health, which has not been adequately studied so far.

Methods: In this open label, randomized parallel-group study, 60 adults with mild dyslipidemia were randomized to lifestyle modification (LSM) alone or LSM with consumption of 80 g (in-shell) pistachios (equivalent to 40 g or 1.5 oz shelled pistachios) daily for 3 mo. Biochemical parameters, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (BAFMD), and carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and baPWV, respectively) were measured before and after the intervention.

Results: At 3 mo, there was no change in any of the clinical or biochemical parameters in the LSM group. However, the patients in the pistachio group had a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 35.7 ± 8.8 mg/dL versus 37.8 ± 10.1 mg/dL; P = 0.04) and a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (137.2 ± 32.6 mg/dL versus 127.6 ± 34.0 mg/dL; P = 0.02), total cholesterol (TC)-to-HDL-C ratio (5.8 ± 1.3 mg/dL versus 5.3 ± 1.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), and fasting blood sugar (88.8 ± 7.1 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 6.3 mg/dL; P = 0.05). Additionally, whereas LSM alone was associated with no improvement in BAFMD or PWV, individuals in the pistachio group had significant reduction in left baPWV (1261.7 ± 187.5 cm/sec versus 1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec; P = 0.02) and statistically nonsignificant improvement in most other parameters, including BAFMD. As a result, at 3 mo the patients in the pistachio group had lower cfPWV (770.9 ± 96.5 cm/sec versus 846.4 ± 162.0 cm/sec; P = 0.08), lower left baPWV (1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec versus 1326.3 ± 253.7 cm/sec; P = 0.05), and lower average baPWV (1208.2 ± 118.4 cm/sec versus 1295.8 ± 194.1 cm/sec; P = 0.08) compared with the LSM group. Two-way analysis of variance revealed significant treatment effect of pistachio consumption on cfPWV, left baPWV, average baPWV, and BAFMD (P = 0.037, 0.01, 0.07, and 0.046, respectively).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that regular consumption of pistachio nuts not only improves glycemic and lipid parameters, but also results in improvements in vascular stiffness and endothelial function. Importantly, these improvements were seen in apparently healthy individuals and with a diet (including pistachios) and exercise regimen that every adult individual is expected to follow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2014.10.019DOI Listing
May 2015

Comparative accuracy of different risk scores in assessing cardiovascular risk in Indians: a study in patients with first myocardial infarction.

Indian Heart J 2014 Nov-Dec;66(6):580-6. Epub 2014 Nov 10.

Chairman, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medanta - The Medicity, Sector 38, Gurgaon 122001, India.

Background: Although a number of risk assessment models are available for estimating 10-year risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in patients requiring primary prevention of CV disease, the predictive accuracy of the contemporary risk models has not been adequately evaluated in Indians.

Methods: 149 patients [mean age 59.4 ± 10.6 years; 123 (82.6%) males] without prior CV disease and presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) were included. The four clinically most relevant risk assessment models [Framingham Risk score (RiskFRS), World Health Organization risk prediction charts (RiskWHO), American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (RiskACC/AHA) and the 3rd Joint British Societies' risk calculator (RiskJBS)] were applied to estimate what would have been their predicted 10-year risk of CV events if they had presented just prior to suffering the acute MI.

Results: RiskWHO provided the lowest risk estimates with 86.6% patients estimated to be having <20% 10-year risk. In comparison, RiskFRS and RiskACC/AHA returned higher risk estimates (61.7% and 69.8% with risk <20%, respectively; p values <0.001 for comparison with RiskWHO). However, the RiskJBS identified the highest proportion of the patients as being at high-risk (only 44.1% at <20% risk, p values 0 < 0.01 for comparison with all the other 3 risk scores).

Conclusions: This is the first study to show that in Indian patients presenting with acute MI, RiskJBS is likely to identify the largest proportion of the patients as at 'high-risk' as compared to RiskWHO, RiskFRS and RiskACC/AHA. However, large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2014.10.399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310956PMC
October 2016

Consensus statement on management of dyslipidemia in Indian subjects.

Indian Heart J 2014 Dec 24;66 Suppl 3:S1-51. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Head, Nutrition Research Group, Center for Nutrition & Metabolic Research (C-NET) & National Diabetes, Obesity and Cholesterol Foundation (N-DOC), New Delhi, India; Chief Project Officer, Diabetes Foundation (India), C-6/57, Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi 110 016, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2014.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297876PMC
December 2014

Images in clinical medicine. Mobile large left atrial thrombus.

N Engl J Med 2015 Jan;372(1):e2

Medanta-The Medicity, Gurgaon, India

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMicm1310149DOI Listing
January 2015

Value of interactive scanning for improving the outcome of new-learners in transcontinental tele-echocardiography (VISION-in-Tele-Echo) study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2015 Jan 8;28(1):75-87. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Point-of-care (POC) echocardiography may be helpful for mass triage, but such a strategy requires adequately trained sonographers at the remote site. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of using a novel POC echocardiography training program for improving physicians' imaging skills during preanesthetic cardiac evaluations performed in a community camp organized for treating cataract blindness.

Methods: Seventeen physicians were provided 6 hours of training in the use of POC echocardiography; nine were taught on site and eight were taught online through a transcontinental tele-echocardiography system. The trained physicians subsequently scanned elderly patients undergoing cataract surgery. The quality of images was graded, and agreement between local physicians' interpretations and Web-based interpretations by worldwide experts was compared.

Results: A total of 968 studies were performed, with 660 used for validating physicians' competence. Major cardiac abnormalities were seen in 136 patients (14.2%), with 32 (3.3%) deemed prohibitive to surgery in unmonitored settings. Although good-quality images were obtained more frequently by physicians trained on site rather than online (P = .03), there were no differences between the two groups in agreement with expert interpretations. The majority of physicians (70.6%) expressed satisfaction with the training (average Likert-type scale score, 4.24 of 5), with no difference seen between the two groups. The training resulted in significant improvements in self-perceived competence in all components of POC echocardiography (P < .001 for all).

Conclusions: This study establishes the feasibility of using short-duration, one-on-one, personalized transcontinental tele-echocardiography education for wider dissemination of echocardiographic skills to local physicians in remote communities, essential for optimizing global cardiovascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2014.09.001DOI Listing
January 2015
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