Publications by authors named "Ravi Mehrotra"

183 Publications

Role of integrative medicine in the continuum of care of breast cancer patients in the Indian context.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Open Health Systems Laboratory, Rockville, USA.

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in both transitioned and transitioning countries and has become a major women's health problem. Although recent advances in our understanding of the biological nature of cancer, improved awareness coupled with better early detection facilities, use of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy have significantly improved survival from cancer, there are many gaps in providing individual-centric, holistic care. Integrative medicine refers to the use of traditional medicine alongside conventional preventive or therapeutic interventions (allopathic medicine) as a comprehensive, individual-centered, evidence-based care. The three pillars of complementary medicine (lifestyle modifications, mind-body practices, and use of natural products) have the potential for cancer prevention and improving quality-of-life and even treatment response in cancer patients when combined with conventional oncology care. Therefore, continued research into integrative therapies is required to extend the benefits to a broader patient population and improve outcomes in breast and other common cancers. In the present review article, the possible role of integrative medicine across the breast cancer care continuum has been discussed along with the concept of integrating complementary practices into mainstream health delivery. We have focused on breast cancer as a model cancer that is well amenable to prevention, early detection and stage appropriate treatment. However, our observations are pertinent for other common cancers, for which there are several opportunities for improving the continuum of care, especially in developing countries like India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-021-01399-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Cancer immunotherapy: a promising dawn in cancer research.

Am J Blood Res 2020 15;10(6):375-385. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Division of Molecular Oncology and Cellular & Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR) Noida, India.

Cancer is a highly proliferative disease, which is caused due to the loss of regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, DNA damage, faulty repair system etc. The cancer microenvironment plays a pivotal role in disease progression as they contain different types of innate and adaptive immune cells. The most important molecules that establish a correlation between inflammation, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and cancer are the molecules released by inflammatory cells in cancer microenvironment. These molecules secreted by the immune cells, which might activate a pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic response in cancer. In inflammatory microenvironment, the equilibrium state of immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory signals are important in tumor suppression. The immunotherapeutic approaches could be more effective in cancer treatment. However, advancement in immunobiology and cancer are improving the prospects of immunotherapy alone and/or in combination with the conventional therapies. Thus, the review attempts to highlight a promising and futuristic immunotherapeutic approach in combination with conventional treatment modalities.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811907PMC
December 2020

Presence of High Level of Sugars, Humectants and their Toxic By-Products in Diverse Tobacco Products.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

India Cancer Research Consortium-ICMR, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntab010DOI Listing
January 2021

Global impact of tobacco control policies on smokeless tobacco use: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 12 24;10(12):e042860. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK.

Introduction: Smokeless tobacco (ST) was consumed by 356 million people globally in 2017. Recent evidence shows that ST consumption is responsible for an estimated 652 494 all-cause deaths across the globe annually. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was negotiated in 2003 and ratified in 2005 to implement effective tobacco control measures. While the policy measures enacted through various tobacco control laws have been effective in reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking, the impact of ST-related policies (within WHO FCTC and beyond) on ST use is under-researched and not collated.

Methods And Analysis: A systematic review will be conducted to collate all available ST-related policies implemented across various countries and assess their impact on ST use. The following databases will be searched: Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EconLit, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), African Index Medicus, LILACS, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region, Western Pacific Region Index Medicus and WHO Library Database, as well as Google search engine and country-specific government websites. All ST-related policy documents (FCTC and non-FCTC) will be included. Results will be limited to literature published since 2005 in English and regional languages (Bengali, Hindi and Urdu). Two reviewers will independently employ two-stage screening to determine inclusion. The Effective Public Health Practice Project's 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' will be used to record ratings of quality and risk of bias among studies selected for inclusion. Data will be extracted using a standardised form. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be used.

Ethics And Dissemination: Permission for ethics exemption of the review was obtained from the Centre for Chronic Disease Control's Institutional Ethics Committee, India (CCDC_IEC_06_2020; dated 16 April 2020). The results will be disseminated through publications in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented in national and international conferences.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020191946.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768955PMC
December 2020

Tobacco use as a well-recognized cause of severe COVID-19 manifestations.

Respir Med 2021 01 19;176:106233. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

ICMR-India Cancer Research Consortium, Department of Health Research, New Delhi, 11000, India; ASTRA, Adjunct Professor of Global Health, University of York, York, Great Britain, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection is caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affecting the lungs. All tobacco-related illnesses including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary artery disease are known to reduce the lung capacity and impair the immune system of the body and can greatly influence the ability to fight the novel coronavirus. The purpose of this state-of-the-art literature review is to summarize the evidence of the association of tobacco use with the severity of the COVID-19 manifestations.

Method: Articles describing the association of tobacco use with the severity of COVID-19 manifestations were searched on PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google. This review covers the relevant studies on the subject published from January 1, 2020 to September 10, 2020.

Results: Tobacco use in all forms, whether smoking or chewing, is significantly associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. Pre-existing comorbidities in tobacco users such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, respiratory diseases and hypertension were found to further aggravate the disease manifestations making the treatment of such COVID-19 patients more challenging due to their rapid clinical deterioration.

Conclusions: Current review indicates that nicotine exposure is linked to cardiopulmonary vulnerability to COVID-19 and tobacco use can be a potential risk factor for not only getting the viral infection but also its severe manifestations. The current pandemic provides a teachable moment to break the cycle of nicotine addiction and accelerate national tobacco control programs to achieve a tobacco-free world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674071PMC
January 2021

A systematic review with in silico analysis on transcriptomic profile of gallbladder carcinoma.

Semin Oncol 2020 12 24;47(6):398-408. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

India Cancer Research Consortium, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract. It is asymptomatic in its early stages, and often, characterized by a poor prognosis and worse treatment response. Distribution of GBC shows both geographical as well as ethnic variations. Several studies have elucidated the differential gene expression profile between the normal gallbladder and GBCs, with varied but inconsistent results. Thus, a deep understanding of the expression profile of GBC might aid in the identification of potential biomarkers, which would further help in better disease management and appropriate therapy selection. This review summarizes studies on the transcriptomic profile of GBC with emphasis on studies pertaining to coding (mRNA) and noncoding (micro and long noncoding) RNA along with aberrant promoter methylation studies, ranging from a single gene to global gene to high throughput RNA sequencing approaches, published between 2000 to May, 2019. In addition, data mining of GBC from the available public functional genomics data repository at Gene Expression Omnibus has been done to rule out potentially important dysregulated genes in this malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article to shed light on the RNA based gene regulatory network(s) along with bioinformatic analysis. Moreover, this review represents major research challenges and ambiguity, knowledge of which is a must for establishing molecular/ clinical biomarkers for early GBC diagnosis, management, and treatment protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2020.02.012DOI Listing
December 2020

Alarmingly High Levels of Nicotine and Carcinogenic Nitrosamines in Smokeless Tobacco Products Sold Worldwide.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Feb;23(3):621-622

Department of Health Research, India Cancer Research Consortium-ICMR, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa184DOI Listing
February 2021

A multinational review: Oesophageal cancer in low to middle-income countries.

Oncol Lett 2020 Oct 24;20(4):42. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

South African-Medical Research Council/University of Pretoria Precision, Prevention and Novel Drug Targets for HIV-Associated Cancers Extramural Unit, Cancer Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pretoria, Gauteng 0028, South Africa.

Oesophageal cancer (OC) is an aggressive neoplasm that manifests in the gastrointestinal tract and is the result of numerous factors that can contribute to the development of the disease. These may include old age, nutritional deficiencies, oesophageal obstruction and food ingestion difficulties. Environmental factors serve a large role in increasing the risk of developing OC. Two factors that serve an increasing risk of developing OC are the use of tobacco and the consumption of alcohol. Genetic factors also exhibit a large effect on the risk of developing OC, for example, the causative genes in Black Africans differ from other races. OC is 3-4 times more common among men than women. OC has been previously reported in >450 000 individuals worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. The current review compares OC in low to middle-income countries with developed countries. The incidence of OC, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is high in low and middle-income countries. In developed countries, the incidence of SCC is low compared with adenocarcinoma. The majority of OC cases are diagnosed in the late stages of the disease, leading to high mortality rates. The current review aimed to discuss factors that contribute to the development of this disease in different geographical areas and genetic mechanisms governing these findings. The current review also aims to discuss the preventative treatment options for the disease, and also discusses the diagnosis and surveillance in five LMICs, including South Africa, China, Tanzania, India and Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412736PMC
October 2020

Cervical cancer in low and middle-income countries.

Oncol Lett 2020 Sep 19;20(3):2058-2074. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

SA-MRC/UP Precision Prevention and Novel Drug Targets for HIV-Associated Cancers Extramural Unit, Pan African Cancer Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Hatfield 0028, South Africa.

Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour that occurs in the cervix and is classified into two histological types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); SCC is more common and accounts for 70% of all cases. In 2018 there were ~569,000 new cases of cervical cancer diagnosed worldwide and ~311,000 deaths were attributed to cervical cancer. Of these, between 84 and 90% occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as South Africa, India, China and Brazil. The most common cause of cervical cancer is persistent infection caused by the sexually transmitted human papilloma virus. Other factors that contribute to the incidence of cervical cancer include geography, traditional practices and beliefs, the screening levels, socioeconomic status, healthcare access, public awareness, use of oral contraceptives, smoking and co-infection with HIV. An estimated 11 million women from LMICs will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the next 10-20 years. The aim of this review was to explore various types of genetic and epigenetic factors that influence the development, progression or suppression of cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400218PMC
September 2020

Perspectives of Healthcare Providers and the General Population on a Cancer Awareness Portal: a Qualitative Study.

J Cancer Educ 2020 Aug 1. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

This study was aimed at a qualitative assessment of a cancer informational website, "India Against Cancer," developed by the ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research with the dual purpose of promoting cancer awareness among the general population and providing comprehensive information to healthcare providers. We used the narrative qualitative approach (data collection using in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focused group discussions (FGDs)) and content analysis. Purposive sampling was undertaken for both IDIs and FGDs. Thematic analysis was done on four themes: general cancer awareness, ease of comprehension of the Web portal, the relevance of the website content, and general comments and suggestions. Readability assessment of content of the website was conducted using Flesch-Kincaid Readability methodology. The general cancer awareness was enhanced among the participants after visiting the website. Ease of comprehension of the Web portal content was reported to fare well. The sections on "risk factors," "warning signs," and "diet and cancer" were mentioned as most relevant by the general population, whereas "myths and facts" and "screening guidelines" were most relevant for the healthcare workers. Similarly, references and epidemiology sections were most useful for healthcare researchers/professionals. Readability scores of content in English were appropriate for high school pass audience. The content on "India Against Cancer" website was found to serve its intended purpose of promoting cancer awareness among the general population and providing authentic cancer-related information to the healthcare providers. The suggestions received would enable us to enhance the utility of our website by tailoring it to the needs of the target audience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01846-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of a Chip-Based, Point-of-Care, Portable, Real-Time Micro PCR Analyzer for the Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Uterine Cervix in India.

JCO Glob Oncol 2020 07;6:1147-1154

Indian Council of Medical Research-Indian Cancer Research Consortium, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Currently available human papillomavirus (HPV) detection devices are expensive, requiring a continuous power supply, high-priced reagents, skilled laboratory personnel, and infrastructure. These make it difficult to implement primary HPV screening in high-risk (HR) populations, particularly in low-income settings such as in India. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a point-of-care, portable, battery-operated device called Truenat, which detects 4 HR HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, and 45), as a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional HPV diagnostic tests.

Patients And Methods: This was a single-site, blinded, cross-sectional study that evaluated the performance of the Trunat HPV-HR using cervical samples collected from nonpregnant women > 30 years old via consecutive sampling. The comparison was conducted against the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) method. All the positive samples were validated by 14 Real-TM Quant Kit.

Results: Of 615 cervical samples, the HR-HPV DNA test was positive in 78 women (12.7%) by HC2 and in 49 (8%) by Truenat. With the consideration of limited genotype inclusivity, the sensitivity and specificity of Truenat HPV-HR were 97.7% and 98.9%, respectively.

Conclusion: The performance of Truenat HPV-HR test was comparable to that of HC2 in the 4 HPV genotypes and would be appropriate to consider for use in primary HR cervical cancer screening and particularly in low-income settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392761PMC
July 2020

Smokeless tobacco control in India: policy review and lessons for high-burden countries.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 07;5(7)

India Cancer Research Consortium, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

We examined the magnitude of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in India and identified policy gaps to ascertain the priorities for SLT control in India and other high SLT burden countries in the Southeast Asia region. We reviewed and analysed the legal and policy framework to identify policy gaps, options and priority areas to address the SLT burden in India and lessons thereof. In India, 21.4% adults, including 29.6% of men, 12.8% of women, use SLT while more than 0.35 million Indians die every year due to SLT use. SLT use remains a huge public health concern for other countries in the region as well. Priority areas for SLT control should include: constant monitoring, increasing taxes and price of SLT products, strengthening and strict enforcement of existing laws, integration of SLT cessation with all health and development programmes, banning of advertisement and promotion of SLT, increasing age of access to tobacco up to 21 years, introducing licensing for the sale of SLT, standardising of SLT packaging and preventing SLT industry interference in the implementation of SLT control policies besides a committed multistakeholder approach for effective policy formulation and enforcement. SLT control in India and the other high SLT burden countries, especially in the Southeast Asia region, should focus on strengthening and implementing the above policy priorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365431PMC
July 2020

An Overview on Betel Quid and Areca Nut Practice and Control in Selected Asian and South East Asian Countries.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 ;55(9):1533-1544

Department of Oral Pathology Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Selangor, Malaysia.

Areca nut (AN) and betel quid (BQ) chewing are ancient practices followed by an extensive proportion of the world's population. These practices are endemic in larger parts of South and Southeast Asia and selected Western Pacific countries. The prevalence of these habits varies across regions, age, gender, cultural practice, and socioeconomic status groups. Considerable variations exist between countries with respect to prevention/intervention programs, and policy guidelines of BQ usage. (1) To provide an overview of the BQ chewing prevalence, practices, preventive interventions and policies in selected Asian and Western Pacific countries. (2) To explore the different terminologies associated with BQ use. A narrative review of the current literature related to BQ, AN, and oral cancer was conducted by searching PUBMED, CINAHL, and GOOGLE databases. The literature review revealed that the prevalence of BQ was found to be highest in Papua New Guinea, followed by Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. While, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and Taiwan had comparatively lower prevalence. Smokeless tobacco, BQ with tobacco, BQ without tobacco, AN were some of the terminologies used for BQ in various studies. The prevalence, and the interventional policies related to BQ and AN chewing habits varies widely among the selected countries. With the increasing awareness and association of BQ with oral cancer, there is a need to have better awareness, prevention and interventional strategies in place. We also found considerable variation in the use of terminologies associated with BQ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2019.1657149DOI Listing
January 2020

Is India's public health care system prepared for cervical cancer screening?: Evaluating facility readiness from the fourth round of the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-4).

Prev Med 2020 09 28;138:106147. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

India's cervical cancer screening program was launched in 2016. We evaluated baseline facility readiness using nationally representative data from the 2012-13 District Level Household and Facility Survey on 4 tiers of the public health care system - 18,367 sub-health centres (SHCs), 8540 primary health centres (PHCs), 4810 community health centres and 1540 district/sub-divisional hospitals. To evaluate facility readiness we used the Improving Data for Decision Making in Global Cervical Cancer Programmes toolkit on six domains - potential staffing, infrastructure, equipment and supplies, infection prevention, medicines and laboratory testing, and data management. Composite scores were created by summing responses within domains, standardizing scores across domains at each facility level, and averaging across districts/states. Overall, readiness scores were low for cervical cancer screening. At SHCs, the lowest scores were observed in 'infrastructure' (0.55) and 'infection prevention' (0.44), while PHCs had low 'potential staffing' scores (0.50) due to limited manpower to diagnose and treat (cryotherapy) potential cases. Scores were higher for tiers conducting diagnostic work-up and treatment/referral. The highest scores were in 'potential staffing' except for PHCs, while the lowest scores were in 'infection & prevention' and 'medicines and laboratory'. Goa and Maharashtra were consistently among the top 5 ranking states for readiness. Substantial heterogeneity in facility readiness for cervical cancer screening spans states and tiers of India's public healthcare system. Infrastructure and staffing are large barriers to screening at PHCs, which are crucial for referral of high-risk patients. Our results suggest focus areas in cervical cancer screening at the district level for policy makers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783584PMC
September 2020

Author Correction: Cyclin D1 protein affecting global women's health by regulating HPV mediated adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 29;10(1):7453. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Division of Preventive Oncology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR), Noida, India.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63943-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190844PMC
April 2020

Breast cancer early detection: A phased approach to implementation.

Cancer 2020 May;126 Suppl 10:2379-2393

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

When breast cancer is detected and treated early, the chances of survival are very high. However, women in many settings face complex barriers to early detection, including social, economic, geographic, and other interrelated factors, which can limit their access to timely, affordable, and effective breast health care services. Previously, the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) developed resource-stratified guidelines for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. In this consensus article from the sixth BHGI Global Summit held in October 2018, the authors describe phases of early detection program development, beginning with management strategies required for the diagnosis of clinically detectable disease based on awareness education and technical training, history and physical examination, and accurate tissue diagnosis. The core issues address include finance and governance, which pertain to successful planning, implementation, and the iterative process of program improvement and are needed for a breast cancer early detection program to succeed in any resource setting. Examples are presented of implementation, process, and clinical outcome metrics that assist in program implementation monitoring. Country case examples are presented to highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing successful breast cancer early detection programs, and the complex interplay of barriers and facilitators to achieving early detection for breast cancer in real-world settings are considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237065PMC
May 2020

Social determinants of dual tobacco use in India: An analysis based on the two rounds of global adult tobacco survey.

Prev Med Rep 2020 Jun 4;18:101073. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

ICMR India Cancer Research Consortium, New Delhi, India.

This study examines the socioeconomic determinants of dual use of smoked and smokeless tobacco (SLT) in India between 2009-10 and 2016-17. Data from two rounds of the nationally representative cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-10 and 2016-17 was used. Complete sample size from both rounds of survey covering 143,333 individuals (GATS I: 69,296 and GATS II: 74,037) from 153,239 households (GATS I: 76,069 and GATS II: 77,170) included in the study. Dual use was assessed based on current smoked and SLT users in both rounds. Bivariate analysis was applied to assess differences in dual tobacco use by socioeconomic status (SES) and across regions, whereas, pooled sampled analysis was conducted to examine the determinants of dual use applying multinomial logistic regression model. Findings reveal that dual use has declined in India from nearly 5% in 2009-10 to 3.4% in 2016-17. Considerable regional and SES differences in dual use are evident. Multivariate results indicate, while age is positively associated with dual use, education and household wealth was negatively associated. Dual use of tobacco was found to be considerably higher among men as compared to women (RRR: 15.66, 95%CI 14.20-17.27). Awareness about the adverse health consequences of tobacco was also negatively associated with dual tobacco use (RRR: 0.56, 95%CI 0.50-0.64). Future awareness and enforcement efforts should focus on all forms of tobacco, especially targeting vulnerable SE groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2020.101073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125349PMC
June 2020

Why smokeless tobacco control needs to be strengthened?

Cancer Control 2020 Jan-Dec;27(1):1073274820914659

Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Tobacco menace is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smokeless tobacco (SLT) is consumed in more than 140 countries, thus is emerging as a global problem. Several adverse health outcomes like oropharyngeal, oesophageal, and pancreatic cancers; oral potentially malignant lesions; diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular diseases; mental illness; osteopenia; low birth weight; preterm births; small for gestation age babies; and stillbirths are attributed to SLT usage. Smokeless tobacco products vary greatly in types, constituents, packaging, forms, addiction, and harm potential, and thus are challenging to study and control. Involvement of both formal and informal sector in SLT production and sales further add to the complexities. The problem of SLT is usually understated and less researched upon. This paper summarizes the existing knowledge and provides evidence to strengthen the case against the SLT, stressing on the need to enhance the SLT control across the globe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073274820914659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158252PMC
October 2020

Association of metabolic NCD risk factors with oral, breast and cervical precancers and cancers in India.

Fam Med Community Health 2019 30;7(4):e000180. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Clinical Oncology, National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objective: To find an association between metabolic non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors (high blood pressure (BP), high random blood sugar (RBS) and overweight /obesity) and oral, breast, cervical cancers/precancerous or potentially malignant conditions.

Design: This is an observational study using convenience sampling. The participants were screened through opportunistic or population-based screening.

Setting: The study was conducted at a health promotion clinic (HPC) located in Northern India under the Indian Council of Medical Research. HPC is a screening clinic where screening is done for hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, and oral, breast and cervical cancers. The study was conducted between December 2016 and January 2019.

Participant: The number of participants screened was 8352 (6712 women and 1640 men). All consenting men and women above 18 years were included. All participants were screened for oral cancer, DM, HT and obesity. All women were also screened for breast and cervical cancers. Cervical screening was done for non-pregnant women 21 years and above with history of sexual activity.

Result: Oral potentially malignant disease (OPMD) was the most prevalent, followed by breast cancer, oral cancer, cervical cancer and cervical precancer. High RBS had a strong association with oral cancer (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.82, p=0.03) and breast cancer (OR=1.95, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.76, p=0.05). High BP had a strong association with breast cancer (OR=2.50, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.35, p<0.0001). An inverse association was noted between oral cancer and overweight/obesity (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.48, p<0.0001). Current tobacco use was strongly associated with oral cancer (OR=6.51, 95% CI 3.63 to 11.67, p<0.0001) and OPMD (OR=9.82, 95% CI 8.13 to 11.86, p<0.0001). No association was elicited between the metabolic NCD risk factors and cervical cancer/precancer.

Conclusions: The study reaffirms that NCD metabolic risk factors determine oral and breast cancers. Besides NCD risk factors, current tobacco use was a strong determinant of OPMD and oral cancer. Hence, primary and primordial prevention measures to control NCD metabolic risk factors and tobacco use should move along with secondary prevention of breast and oral cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/fmch-2019-000180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910767PMC
October 2019

Leveraging Technology for Nation-Wide Training of Healthcare Professionals in Cancer Screening in India: a Methods Article.

J Cancer Educ 2020 Mar 4. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Clinical Oncology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, I - 7, Sector - 39, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 201 301, India.

The Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (ICMR-NICPR) has been conducting online cancer screening training certificate courses since 2017. Thereafter, multiple cohorts have been trained successfully in cancer screening using the Extensions for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) platform. A 14-week course was designed for various cadres of healthcare professionals (HCP), through which they were trained in cancer screening and their roles and responsibilities in implementing the population-based cancer screening, as per the operational framework released by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Then, a contact program was held to upskill the participants in cancer screening techniques. Eight cohorts have been successfully trained using the hybrid model of online training and hands-on training. Cancer screening conducted utilizing the hybrid model, consisting of the online ECHO model, followed by hands-on training is a suitable training model to train large cohorts, such as the one in populous countries like India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01720-6DOI Listing
March 2020

Dual Burden of Smoked and Smokeless Tobacco Use in India, 2009-2017: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Analysis Based on Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 12;22(12):2196-2202

Indian Cancer Research Consortium, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: The dual use of smoked and smokeless tobacco (SLT) poses a serious challenge to tobacco control efforts. This article examines the trends and patterns of this usage in India during the period 2009-2010 and 2016-2017.

Methods: Data from two rounds of nationally representative cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-2010 and 2016-2017 have been used. Dual use was assessed based on current smokers and SLT users in both rounds.

Results: Findings reveal that dual use in India has dropped from 5.3% during 2009-2010 to 3.4% during 2016-2017, a decline of nearly 10 million dual users. However, some states have added nearly 4.6 million new dual users during this period. While dual use continues to remain high in rural areas, there has been a manifold increase in urban areas. Findings revealed that intention to quit tobacco was lower among dual tobacco users as compared to single users with considerable difference between urban and rural areas.

Conclusion: Easy availability and affordability of SLT products compared to smoking products and restrictions on smoking in public places may have pushed current smokers and dual users to take to or intensify their SLT consumption. Measures relating to awareness, pricing, taxation, and enforcement of tobacco control laws should focus on all forms of tobacco, especially targeting high dual burden in rural and urban settings.

Implications: Dual form of tobacco users represent 12% of all tobacco users in the country. The study reveals that intention to quit tobacco among dual users is significantly lower than that among single tobacco product users. This requires improving public awareness about the morbidity and mortality that arises from the use of all forms of tobacco products. Efforts to restrict the availability of tobacco products should focus on licensing the sale of all tobacco products. Reduction in dual tobacco use will not only result in multiplied health benefits but also help in achieving the Non-Communicable Diseases targets under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa033DOI Listing
December 2020

Chemistry, metabolism and pharmacology of carcinogenic alkaloids present in areca nut and factors affecting their concentration.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Feb 2;110:104548. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

ICMR- India Cancer Research Consortium, Department of Health Research (Govt. of India), 1- Red Cross Road, New Delhi, 110001, India. Electronic address:

Areca Nut (AN), the seed of tropical palm tree Areca catechu, is a widely chewed natural product with estimated 600 million users across the world. Various AN products, thriving in the market, portray 'Areca nut' or 'Supari' as mouth freshener and safe alternative to smokeless tobacco. Unfortunately, AN is identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Wide variation in the level of alkaloids, broadly ranging from 2 to 10 mg/gm dry weight, is observed in diverse variety of AN sold worldwide. For the first time, various factors influencing the formation of carcinogenic alkaloids in AN at various stages, including during the growth, processing, and storage of the nut, are discussed. Current review illustrates the mechanism of cancer induction by areca alkaloids in humans and also compiles dose-dependent pharmacology and toxicology data of arecoline, the most potent carcinogenic alkaloid in AN. Careful monitoring of the arecoline content in AN can potentially be used as a tool in product surveillance studies to identify the variations in characteristics of various AN sample sold worldwide. The article will help to generate public awareness and sensitize the government bodies to initiate campaigns against AN use and addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.104548DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparative evaluation of conventional cytology and a low-cost liquid-based cytology technique, EziPREP™, for cervicovaginal smear reporting: A split sample study.

Cytojournal 2019 14;16:22. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Address: Division of Cytopathology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical cancer screening offers several advantages over conventional cytology. However, the extremely high cost of the current approved devices precludes widespread application of LBC technique in resource-constrained countries. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of an indigenous low-cost LBC technique, EziPREP™ (EP), against conventional preparations (CPs) for cervical cancer screening.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional split-sample study with consecutive cervical sampling was conducted on 515 women attending the clinic at our institute. CP smears were prepared as per the standard technique using spatula and endocervical brush followed by detaching the head of brush into the fixative vial of EP. The EP samples were processed as per the manufacturer's protocol. Both CP and EP smears were stained using standard Papanicolaou stain protocol. Both sets of smears were evaluated for staining quality, morphologic details, and cytologic diagnoses. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with cervical biopsy findings, wherever available. Performance characteristics of the two techniques were calculated.

Results: The unsatisfactory rate for CP was 1.0%, while on EP, 1.3% smears had inadequate cellular material. The staining quality and morphological details were comparable in both sets of smears. The detection of infections and epithelial cell abnormality was more, though not statistically significant in EP smears. There was a 98% concordance in cytologic diagnosis between CP and EP smears. Cytohistologic concordance was observed in 96% of cases for both CP and EP smears. Although the time taken for processing and staining of smears was higher for EP (2.5 min for EP per smear and 1.6 min for CP per smear), the screening time reduced from 6.5 min per smear for CP to 2.2 min in EP smears.

Conclusion: EP provides monolayered cervical smears with vivid morphological details, leading to reduced screening time and relatively higher pick-up of infections and low-grade cervical lesions as compared to conventional smears. The availability of such low-cost devices may enable wider application of cytology-based cervical cancer screening in low-resource countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_11_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883464PMC
November 2019

Current status of human papillomavirus vaccination in India's cervical cancer prevention efforts.

Lancet Oncol 2019 11;20(11):e637-e644

King's Health Partners Integrated Cancer Centre, King's College London, London, UK.

Efforts are being made to scale up human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for adolescent girls in India. Bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines were licensed in the country in 2008, and a nonavalent vaccine was licensed in 2018. Demonstration projects initiated in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat in 2009 introduced HPV vaccination in public health services in India. Following a few deaths in these projects, although subsequently deemed unrelated to vaccination, HPV vaccination in research projects was suspended. This suspension by default resulted in some participants in a trial evaluating two versus three doses receiving only one dose. Since 2016, the successful introduction of HPV vaccination in immunisation programmes in Punjab and Sikkim (with high coverage and safety), government-sponsored opportunistic vaccination in Delhi, prospects of a single dose providing protection, and future availability of an affordable Indian vaccine shows promise for future widespread implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30531-5DOI Listing
November 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

p16 promoter methylation, expression, and its association with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 subtype of breast carcinoma.

J Cancer Res Ther 2019 Jul-Sep;15(5):1147-1154

Division of Molecular Oncology, National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate p16 protein expression and promoter methylation of p16 gene and their association with molecular subtypes based on parameter such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).

Materials And Methods: A total of 114 breast cancer tissue biopsies were collected for methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis.

Results: Seven tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 protein expression was studied in 114 cases, of which 35/114 (30.7%) cases showed strong expression and the majority of them had ER-positive tumor (57.6%), and it was statistically significant (P < 0.0074). Similarly, p16 expression was reduced in the majority of PR-negative tumors (83.9%) and the association was statistically significant (P = 0.0026). p16 methylation was studied in 114 cases and was positive in 71.0% cases.

Conclusion: High p16 protein expression was associated with ER-positive, PR-negative, and HER2-negative tumors which is associated with poor prognosis. p16 protein expression may be used as a prognostic indicator to predict treatment response to hormonal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_472_18DOI Listing
July 2020

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Reappraisal of cytology-histology correlation in cervical cytology based on the recent American Society of Cytopathology guidelines (2017) at a cancer research centre.

Cytopathology 2020 01 23;31(1):53-58. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Division of Cytopathology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Noida, India.

Objective: To assess the impact of recently published American Society of Cytopathology (ASC) guidelines (2017) on the conduct of cervical cytology-histology correlation (CHC).

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for cervical biopsies with their corresponding conventional cervical smears over a 7.5-year period (January 2011-June 2018). As per the ASC guidelines, a discrepancy assessment grid was prepared. Major cytology-histology discordance was defined as a diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or CIN2+ in one of the tests with negative result in the other. Smears and biopsies of all discordant cases were reviewed for reasons of overcall and undercall.

Results: Of the 341 cervical biopsies with corresponding Papanicolaou smear, cytology-histology agreement was noted in 249 (73%) cases. Major discordance was observed in 22 cases (6.4%)-16 undercalls and six overcalls on cytology-while minor discrepancies were noted in 70 cases. Atypical metaplasia and repair changes were the main reasons for overcall while small HSIL cells in atrophic smear and scant HSIL cells were important causes of undercall on cytology review. Using the ASC guidelines, we could improvise upon the existing CHC methodology for categorisation of cyto-histological pairs of cases with a cytological diagnosis of atypical glandular cells.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the recent ASC guidelines facilitate cervical CHC, especially for categorisation of cases with atypical glandular cells on cytology. Uniform application of these guidelines would standardise the conduct of cervical CHC internationally and provide scope for inter-laboratory comparison of data as well as enhance self-learning and peer learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12774DOI Listing
January 2020

Socioeconomic determinants of chronic health diseases among older Indian adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional multilevel study.

BMJ Open 2019 09 6;9(9):e028426. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Division of Preventive Oncology, ICMR - National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Noida, India.

Objective: Study uses multilevel modelling to examine the effect of individual, household and contextual characteristics on chronic diseases among older Indian adults.

Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional study.

Participants: Data from the nationally representative, India Human Development Survey conducted in 2011-2012 was used in this study. The survey asked information related to the diagnosed chronic illnesses such as cataract, tuberculosis, hypertension, heart disease and others. The sample size of this study comprised 39 493 individuals who belonged to the age group 50 years and above.

Measures: Self-reported diagnosed chronic illness.

Method: Considering the hierarchal structure of the data multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to attain the study objective.

Results: Older adults aged 80 years and older were found with three times more chances (OR: 3.99, 95% CI 2.91 to 5.48) of suffering from a chronic ailment than 50-54 years old. Lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol and tobacco (smoked and smokeless) consumption were noted to be significantly associated with the presence of chronic illness whereas older adults who have never consumed smokeless tobacco stood 20% fewer chances (OR: 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.94) of having any chronic illness. Contextual level variables such as older adults residing in the rural areas were found with 17% fewer chances (OR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.97) of suffering from a chronic illness.

Conclusion: Even after controlling for various characteristics at the individual, household and contextual levels, significant variations in chronic illness remain unexplained at the community and state level, respectively. The findings of this study could effectively be utilised to consider more contextual variables to examine the chronic health status among the growing older population of India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731792PMC
September 2019