Publications by authors named "Raul Zamora-Ros"

97 Publications

Polyphenol Intake and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 4;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Despite some epidemiological evidence on the protective effects of polyphenol intake on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk from case-control studies, the evidence is scarce from prospective studies and non-existent for several polyphenol classes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the intake of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and EOC risk in a large prospective study. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 309,129 adult women recruited mostly from the general population. Polyphenol intake was assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1469 first incident EOC cases (including 806 serous, 129 endometrioid, 102 mucinous, and 67 clear cell tumours) were identified. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile of total polyphenol intake compared with the lowest quartile (HR) was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94-1.39; -trend = 0.11). Similarly, the intake of most classes and subclasses of polyphenols were not related to either overall EOC risk or any EOC subtype. A borderline statistically significant positive association was observed between phenolic acid intake (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; -trend = 0.02) and EOC risk, especially for the serous subtype and in women with obesity, although these associations did not exceed the Bonferroni correction threshold. The current results do not support any association between polyphenol intake and EOC in our large European prospective study. Results regarding phenolic acid intake need further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389235PMC
August 2021

Food frequency questionnaire is a valid assessment tool of quercetin and kaempferol intake in Iranian breast cancer patients according to plasma biomarkers.

Nutr Res 2021 Jun 24;93:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Biomedicine Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biochemistry and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

In epidemiological and clinical studies, the most common nutritional tool to assess dietary flavonol intake is the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which needs to contain a detailed list of plant-based foods and be previously validated. Our study aimed to assess the accuracy of dietary flavonol (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) compared to fasting plasma flavonol concentrations, as biomarkers of exposure, in breast cancer patients. In a consecutive case series, newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer (n = 140) were recruited at Nour-Nejat Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Flavonol intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Plasma flavonol concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The accuracy of dietary status was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Dietary status was shown in dichotomous using ROC-cutoff point. The plasma concentrations of quercetin were moderately correlated with dietary intake of quercetin (Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) = 0.188, P < .05; r= 0.330, P < .01) and plasma concentrations of isorhamnetin (r = 0.337, P < .001). A linear correlation between dietary levels and plasma concentrations of kaempferol was attained (r = 0.240, P < .05). Using a ROC-cutoff of 61.9 nmol/L for plasma quercetin (test reference), we were able to differentiate between lower and higher consumers of quercetin with an AUC =0.65 (P < .01, sensitivity = 61.8%, and specificity = 60.0%). Using a plasma kaempferol concentration of 60.1 nmol/L (ROC-cutoff), it was possible to detect significant differences between higher and lower intakes of kaempferol (AUC = 0.64, P < .05). The correlations and diagnostic performance with plasma concentrations could present a significant accuracy rate (validity), which seems acceptable for a nutritional questionnaire (FFQ) to assess intakes intake levels of quercetin and kaempferol. An improvement in the accuracy of the flavonol exposure can provide more precise relationship with health outcomes, which may increase their clinical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2021.06.004DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of Cycling With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Persons With Diabetes: The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 Sep;181(9):1196-1205

University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Importance: Premature death from all causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes is higher among persons with diabetes.

Objective: To investigate the association between time spent cycling and all-cause and CVD mortality among persons with diabetes, as well as to evaluate the association between change in time spent cycling and risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study included 7459 adults with diabetes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Questionnaires regarding medical history, sociodemographic, and lifestyle information were administered in 10 Western European countries from 1992 through 2000 (baseline examination) and at a second examination 5 years after baseline. A total of 5423 participants with diabetes completed both examinations. The final updated primary analysis was conducted on November 13, 2020.

Exposures: The primary exposure was self-reported time spent cycling per week at the baseline examination. The secondary exposure was change in cycling status from baseline to the second examination.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively, adjusted for other physical activity modalities, diabetes duration, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

Results: Of the 7459 adults with diabetes included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 55.9 (7.7) years, and 3924 (52.6%) were female. During 110 944 person-years of follow-up, 1673 deaths from all causes were registered. Compared with the reference group of people who reported no cycling at baseline (0 min/wk), the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.61-0.99), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82), and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.91) for cycling 1 to 59, 60 to 149, 150 to 299, and 300 or more min/wk, respectively. In an analysis of change in time spent cycling with 57 802 person-years of follow-up, a total of 975 deaths from all causes were recorded. Compared with people who reported no cycling at both examinations, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.71-1.14) in those who cycled and then stopped, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46-0.92) in initial noncyclists who started cycling, and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80) for people who reported cycling at both examinations. Similar results were observed for CVD mortality.

Conclusion And Relevance: In this cohort study, cycling was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality risk among people with diabetes independent of practicing other types of physical activity. Participants who took up cycling between the baseline and second examination had a considerably lower risk of both all-cause and CVD mortality compared with consistent noncyclists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.3836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290339PMC
September 2021

Novel Biomarkers of Habitual Alcohol Intake and Associations with Risk of Pancreatic and Liver Cancers and Liver Disease Mortality.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed due to measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk.

Methods: Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify metabolites correlated with self-reported habitual alcohol intake in a discovery dataset from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n = 454). Statistically significant correlations were tested in independent datasets of controls from case-control studies nested within EPIC (n = 280) and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC; n = 438) study. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of alcohol-associated metabolites and self-reported alcohol intake with risk of pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cancer, and liver disease mortality in the contributing studies.

Results: Two metabolites displayed a dose-response association with self-reported alcohol intake 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid and an unidentified compound. A 1-SD (log2) increase in levels of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid was associated with risk of HCC (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.51-4.27) and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99) in EPIC and liver cancer (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.44-2.77) and liver disease mortality (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.63-2.86) in ATBC. Conversely, a 1-SD (log2) increase in questionnaire-derived alcohol intake was not associated with HCC or pancreatic cancer in EPIC or liver cancer in ATBC but was associated with liver disease mortality (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.60-2.98) in ATBC.

Conclusions: 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid is a candidate biomarker of habitual alcohol intake that may advance the study of alcohol and cancer risk in population-based studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab078DOI Listing
May 2021

Consumption of Sweet Beverages and Cancer Risk. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 4;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), 08908 Barcelona, Spain.

The consumption of sweet beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificial-sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juices (FJ), is associated with the risk of different cardiometabolic diseases. It may also be linked to the development of certain types of tumors. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at examining the association between sweet beverage intake and cancer risk. Suitable articles published up to June 2020 were sourced through PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. Overall, 64 studies were identified, of which 27 were selected for the meta-analysis. This was performed by analyzing the multivariable-adjusted OR, RR or HR of the highest sweet beverage intake categories compared to the lowest one. Random effects showed significant positive association between SSB intake and breast (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10-1.27) and also between FJs and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05). Although the statistically significant threshold was not reached, there tended to be positive associations for the following: SSBs and colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; FJs and breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; and ASBs and pancreatic cancer risk. This study recommends limiting sweet beverage consumption. Furthermore, we propose to establish a homogeneous classification of beverages and investigate them separately, to better understand their role in carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915548PMC
February 2021

A polyphenol-rich dietary pattern improves intestinal permeability, evaluated as serum zonulin levels, in older subjects: The MaPLE randomised controlled trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 05 18;40(5):3006-3018. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Università, degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), 20133 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background & Aim: Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can occur in older people and contribute to the activation of the immune system and inflammation. Dietary interventions may represent a potential strategy to reduce IP. In this regard, specific food bioactives such as polyphenols have been proposed as potential IP modulator due to their ability to affect several critical targets and pathways that control IP. The trial aimed to test the hypothesis that a polyphenol-rich dietary pattern can decrease serum zonulin levels, an IP surrogate marker involved in tight junction modulation, and can beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, and IP-associated biochemical and clinical markers in older subjects.

Methods: A randomised, controlled, cross-over intervention trial was performed. Sixty-six subjects (aged ≥ 60 y) with increased IP based on serum zonulin levels, were randomly allocated to one of the two arms of the intervention consisting of a control diet (C-diet) vs. a polyphenol-rich diet (PR-diet). Each intervention was 8-week long and separated by an 8-week wash out period. At the beginning and at the end of each intervention period, serum samples were collected for the quantification of zonulin and other biological markers. Faecal samples were also collected to investigate the intestinal microbial ecosystem. In addition, anthropometrical/physical/biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated.

Results: Fifty-one subjects successfully completed the intervention and a high compliance to the dietary protocols was demonstrated. Overall, polyphenol intake significantly increased from a mean of 812 mg/day in the C diet to 1391 mg/day in the PR-diet. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of treatment (p = 0.008) and treatment × time interaction (p = 0.025) on serum zonulin levels, which decreased after the 8-week PR-diet. In addition, a treatment × time interaction was observed showing a reduction of diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.028) following the PR-diet, which was strongest in those not using antihypertensive drugs. A decrease in both diastolic (p = 0.043) and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.042) was observed in women. Interestingly, a significant increase in fibre-fermenting and butyrate-producing bacteria such as the family Ruminococcaceae and members of the genus Faecalibacterium was observed following the PR intervention. The efficacy of this dietary intervention was greater in subjects with higher serum zonulin at baseline, who showed more pronounced alterations in the markers under study. Furthermore, zonulin reduction was also stronger among subjects with higher body mass index and with insulin resistance at baseline, thus demonstrating the close interplay between IP and metabolic features.

Conclusions: These data show, for the first time, that a PR-diet can reduce serum zonulin levels, an indirect marker of IP. In addition, PR-diet reduced blood pressure and increased fibre-fermenting and butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings may represent an initial breakthrough for further intervention studies evaluating possible dietary treatments for the management of IP, inflammation and gut function in different target populations. THIS STUDY WAS REGISTERED AT WWW.ISRCTN.

Org As: ISRCTN10214981.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.12.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Association between Polyphenol Intake and Gastric Cancer Risk by Anatomic and Histologic Subtypes: MCC-Spain.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 26;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Group of Investigation in Interactions Gene-Environment and Health (GIIGAS); Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain.

Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692577PMC
October 2020

Blood polyphenol concentrations and differentiated thyroid carcinoma in women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk in EPIC (the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition).

Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted on 273 female cases (210 papillary, 45 follicular, and 18 not otherwise specified TC tumors) and 512 strictly matched controls. Blood polyphenol concentrations were analyzed by HPLC coupled to tandem MS after enzymatic hydrolysis.

Results: Using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, caffeic acid (ORlog2: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93) and its dehydrogenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (ORlog2: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99), were inversely associated with differentiated TC risk. Similar results were observed for papillary TC, but not for follicular TC. Ferulic acid was also inversely associated only with papillary TC (ORlog2: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91). However, none of these relations was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No association was observed for any of the remaining polyphenols with total differentiated, papillary, or follicular TC.

Conclusions: Blood polyphenol concentrations were mostly not associated with differentiated TC risk in women, although our study raises the possibility that high blood concentrations of caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic, and ferulic acids may be related to a lower papillary TC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779226PMC
October 2020

Wholegrain Consumption and Risk Factors for Cardiorenal Metabolic Diseases in Chile: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 2016-2017 Health National Survey.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 14;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Biomarkers and Nutrimetabolomics Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, Food Technology Reference Net (XaRTA), Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute (INSA), Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Wholegrain (WG) consumption has been associated with reduced risk factors for cardiorenal metabolic diseases (CRMD). In Latin-America. WG intake is low and scarce studies on this subject have been found. We aimed to evaluate the association between WG consumption and risk factors for CRMD in the 2016-2017 Chilean-National Health Survey. This cross-sectional study included 3110 participants representative of a total population of 11,810,647 subjects > 18 y, not taking insulin and with complete data on CRMD risk factors. Outcomes were metabolic syndrome and its components, albuminuria, and impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR). WG consumption was categorized as regular (≥every two days), sporadic (≥once a month), and non-consumers. Associations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regressions adjusted for confounders taking into account the complex sample design of the survey. Regular WG consumers showed a lower risk of high blood pressure (OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41-0.91) compared to non-consumers in fully-adjusted models. Although inverse associations were noticed with other metabolic syndrome components and impaired GFR, none was statistically significant. The association between WG and BP remained robust in the sensitivity analysis. In conclusion regular WG consumption was associated with a 39% lower risk of high blood pressure in Chilean adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12092815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576471PMC
September 2020

Estimated Intakes of Nutrients and Polyphenols in Participants Completing the MaPLE Randomised Controlled Trial and Its Relevance for the Future Development of Dietary Guidelines for the Older Subjects.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 15;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy.

The evaluation of food intake in older subjects is crucial in order to be able to verify adherence to nutritional recommendations. In this context, estimation of the intake of specific dietary bioactives, such as polyphenols, although particularly challenging, is necessary to plan possible intervention strategies to increase their intake. The aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the nutritional composition of dietary menus provided in a residential care setting; (ii) estimate the actual intake of nutrients and polyphenols in a group of older subjects participating in the MaPLE study; and (iii) investigate the impact of an eight-week polyphenol-rich dietary pattern, compared to an eight-week control diet, on overall nutrient and polyphenol intake in older participants. The menus served to the participants provided ~770 mg per day of total polyphenols on average with small variations between seasons. The analysis of real consumption, measured using weighed food diaries, demonstrated a lower nutrient (~20%) and polyphenol intake (~15%) compared to that provided by the menus. The feasibility of dietary patterns that enable an increase in polyphenol intake with putative health benefits for age-related conditions is discussed, with a perspective to developing dietary guidelines for this target population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468770PMC
August 2020

Vegetable and Fruit Consumption and Prognosis Among Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Adv Nutr 2020 11;11(6):1569-1582

Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute at the University of Barcelona (INSA-UB), Barcelona, Spain.

The number of cancer survivors is growing rapidly worldwide, especially long-term survivors. Although a healthy diet with a high vegetable and fruit consumption is a key factor in primary cancer prevention, there is a lack of specific dietary recommendations for cancer survivors, except in the case of breast cancer [World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) report]. We have therefore carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies reporting on the associations between vegetable and fruit intake with cancer recurrence and mortality and all-cause mortality in cancer patients. After a comprehensive search of PubMed and Scopus databases, the results of 28 selected articles were analyzed. A high vegetable intake before diagnosis was inversely associated with overall mortality in survivors of head and neck (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.87) and ovarian cancer (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.91). In ovarian cancer patients, prediagnosis fruit intake was also inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96). The evidence was insufficient for survivors of other cancers, although these associations generally tended to be protective. Therefore, more studies are needed to clarify the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the prognosis of these different types of cancer. To date, the general recommendation to consume ≥5 servings of vegetables and fruit per day (∼400 g/d) could underestimate the needs of cancer survivors, particularly those with ovarian tumors, in which the recommendation could increase to ∼600 g/d (i.e., 300 g/d of vegetables and 300 g/d of fruit).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666913PMC
November 2020

The Effects of Polyphenol Supplementation in Addition to Calorie Restricted Diets and/or Physical Activity on Body Composition Parameters: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials.

Front Nutr 2020 3;7:84. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain.

Both, calorie restricted diets (CRD) and physical activity (PA) are conventional obesity therapies but their effectiveness is usually limited in the long-term. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds that have shown to possess some anti-obesity properties. The synergic effects between dietary polyphenols and CRD or PA on body weight and fat are supported by several animal studies, but evidence in human is still inconsistent. Thus, our aim was to review the combined effects of polyphenol supplementation with CRD and/or PA on body weight and fat, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in overweight or obese adults. Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane CENTRAL) were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCT) examining the combination of polyphenols with CRD and/or PA (up to December 31st, 2019). Articles were included if they had a duration of intervention ≥ 4 weeks. Both, quality and risk of bias of the included studies were assessed using the Cochrane RoB2 Tool. The review included 4 and 11 RCTs investigating the anti-obesity effects of polyphenol supplementation combined with CRD and PA, respectively. Isoflavone supplementation may increase fat loss during exercise among post-menopausal women in non-Asian studies. In the rest of RCTs regarding polyphenol supplementation and CRD or PA, no additive changes were found. The results do not yet support polyphenol supplementation as a complementary strategy for enhancing the effectiveness of CRD and PA on weight and fat loss. However, this review suggests that isoflavone and soy products combined with lifestyle changes, especially exercise, provide additional anti-obesity effects in postmenopausal women. The potential role of polyphenols alone or, especially, in addition to conventional therapies (CRD and PA) mostly remains uncertain; and therefore, larger and longer RCTs examining these effects are needed. PROSPERO CRD42020159890.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283923PMC
June 2020

Menstrual Factors, Reproductive History, Hormone Use, and Urothelial Carcinoma Risk: A Prospective Study in the EPIC Cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 08 28;29(8):1654-1664. Epub 2020 May 28.

Hellenic Health Foundation, Kaisareias 13 & Alexandroupoleos, Athens, Greece.

Background: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk.

Methods: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed.

Conclusions: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk.

Impact: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0184DOI Listing
August 2020

Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: Data From a Large Prospective European Cohort.

Mov Disord 2020 07 1;35(7):1258-1263. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology is not well understood. Reported inverse associations with smoking and coffee consumption prompted the investigation of alcohol consumption as a risk factor, for which evidence is inconclusive.

Objective: To assess the associations between alcohol consumption and PD risk.

Methods: Within NeuroEPIC4PD, a prospective European population-based cohort, 694 incident PD cases were ascertained from 209,998 PD-free participants. Average alcohol consumption at different time points was self-reported at recruitment. Cox regression hazard ratios were estimated for alcohol consumption and PD occurrence.

Results: No associations between baseline or lifetime total alcohol consumption and PD risk were observed. Men with moderate lifetime consumption (5-29.9 g/day) were at ~50% higher risk compared with light consumption (0.1-4.9 g/day), but no linear exposure-response trend was observed. Analyses by beverage type also revealed no associations with PD.

Conclusion: Our data reinforce previous findings from prospective studies showing no association between alcohol consumption and PD risk. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496254PMC
July 2020

Association between Polyphenol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk by Menopausal and Hormone Receptor Status.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 3;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Group of Investigation in Interactions Gene-Environment and Health (GIIGAS)/Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain.

There is limited evidence of phenolic compounds acting as protective agents on several cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). Nevertheless, some polyphenol classes have not been investigated and there is a lack of studies assessing the effect on menopausal status and hormone receptor status as influenced by these compounds. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of all polyphenol classes in relation to the BC risk by menopausal and hormone receptor status. We used data from a population-based multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) including 1472 BC cases and 1577 controls from 12 different regions of Spain. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were calculated using logistic regression of mixed effects by quartiles and log2 of polyphenol intakes (adjusted for the residual method) of overall BC, menopausal and receptor status. No associations were found between total intake of polyphenols and BC risk. However, inverse associations were found between stilbenes and all BC risk (OR: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.56-0.89, = 0.001), the consumption of hydroxybenzaldehydes (OR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.93, = 0.012) and hydroxycoumarins (OR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.57-0.93; = 0.005) were also inversely associated. The intake of stilbenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes and hydroxycoumarins can contribute to BC reduction risk on all menopausal and receptor statuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12040994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231201PMC
April 2020

Effect of a polyphenol-rich dietary pattern on intestinal permeability and gut and blood microbiomics in older subjects: study protocol of the MaPLE randomised controlled trial.

BMC Geriatr 2020 02 26;20(1):77. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Background: During aging, alterations of the intestinal microbial ecosystem can occur contributing to immunosenescence, inflamm-aging and impairment of intestinal barrier function (increased intestinal permeability; IP). In the context of a diet-microbiota-IP axis in older subjects, food bioactives such as polyphenols may play a beneficial modulatory role.

Methods: MaPLE is a project centered on a randomized, controlled cross-over dietary intervention trial [polyphenol-rich diet (PR-diet) versus control diet (C-diet)] targeted to older people (≥ 60 y) living in a well-controlled setting (i.e. nursing home). The 8-week interventions are separated by an 8-week wash-out period. Three small portions per day of selected polyphenol-rich foods are consumed during intervention in substitution of other comparable products within the C-diet. Biological samples are collected before and after each treatment period to evaluate markers related to IP, inflammation, vascular function, oxidative stress, gut and blood microbiomics, metabolomics. A sample size of 50 subjects was defined based on IP as primary outcome.

Discussion: Evidence that increasing the consumption of polyphenol-rich food products can positively affect intestinal microbial ecosystem resulting in reduced IP and decreased translocation of inflammogenic bacterial factors into the bloodstream will be provided. The integration of data from gut and blood microbiomics, metabolomics and other IP-related markers will improve the understanding of the beneficial effect of the intervention in the context of polyphenols-microbiota-IP interactions. Finally, findings obtained will provide a proof of concept of the reliability of the dietary intervention, also contributing to future implementations of dietary guidelines directed to IP management in the older and other at risk subjects.

Trial Registration: The trial is registered at (ISRCTN10214981); April 28, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-1472-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045478PMC
February 2020

Urinary flavanone concentrations as biomarkers of dietary flavanone intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Br J Nutr 2020 03 3;123(6):691-698. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), 08908Barcelona, Spain.

In the present study, the aim was to investigate the correlation between the acute and habitual dietary intake of flavanones, their main food sources and the concentrations of aglycones naringenin and hesperetin in 24 h urine in a European population. A 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) and a 24-h urine sample were collected the same day from a subsample of 475 people from four different countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Acute and habitual dietary data were captured through a standardised 24-HDR and a country/centre-specific validated dietary questionnaire (DQ). The intake of dietary flavanones was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Urinary flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) were analysed using tandem MS with a previous enzymatic hydrolysis. Weak partial correlation coefficients were found between urinary flavanone concentrations and both acute and habitual dietary flavanone intakes (Rpartial = 0·14-0·17). Partial correlations were stronger between urinary excretions and acute intakes of citrus fruit and juices (Rpartial ∼ 0·6) than with habitual intakes of citrus fruit and juices (Rpartial ∼ 0·24). In conclusion, according to our results, urinary excretion of flavanones can be considered a good biomarker of acute citrus intake. However, low associations between habitual flavanone intake and urinary excretion suggest a possible inaccurate estimation of their intake or a too sporadic intake. For assessing habitual exposures, multiple urinary collections may be needed. These results show that none of the approaches tested is ideal, and the use of both DQ and biomarkers can be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519003131DOI Listing
March 2020

Perspective: Metabotyping-A Potential Personalized Nutrition Strategy for Precision Prevention of Cardiometabolic Disease.

Adv Nutr 2020 05;11(3):524-532

Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Diet is an important, modifiable lifestyle factor of cardiometabolic disease risk, and an improved diet can delay or even prevent the onset of disease. Recent evidence suggests that individuals could benefit from diets adapted to their genotype and phenotype: that is, personalized nutrition. A novel strategy is to tailor diets for groups of individuals according to their metabolic phenotypes (metabotypes). Randomized controlled trials evaluating metabotype-specific responses and nonresponses are urgently needed to bridge the current gap of knowledge with regard to the efficacy of personalized strategies in nutrition. In this Perspective, we discuss the concept of metabotyping, review the current literature on metabotyping in the context of cardiometabolic disease prevention, and suggest potential strategies for metabotype-based nutritional advice for future work. We also discuss potential determinants of metabotypes, including gut microbiota, and highlight the use of metabolomics to define effective markers for cardiometabolic disease-related metabotypes. Moreover, we hypothesize that people at high risk for cardiometabolic diseases have distinct metabotypes and that individuals grouped into specific metabotypes may respond differently to the same diet, which is being tested in a project of the Joint Programming Initiative: A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231594PMC
May 2020

Habitual Nut Exposure, Assessed by Dietary and Multiple Urinary Metabolomic Markers, and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: The InCHIANTI Study.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2020 01 7;64(2):e1900532. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Biomarkers and Nutrimetabolomics Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, Food Technology Reference Net (XaRTA), Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute (INSA), Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Scope: The association between self-reported dietary intake and urinary metabolomic markers of habitual nut exposure with cognitive decline over a 3-year follow-up in an older Italian population is prospectively evaluated.

Methods And Results: A total of 119 older participants are selected, based on self-referred nut intake: the non-nut consumer (n = 72) and the regular consumer (≥2.9 g d , n = 47). Nut exposure is measured at baseline either with the use of a validated food frequency questionnaire or with an HPLC-Q-ToF-MS metabolomic approach. Three years after, 28 from the nonconsumers and 10 from the consumers experienced cognitive decline. Dietary nut exposure is characterized by urinary metabolites of polyphenols and fatty acids pathways. Nut consumption estimated either by the dietary marker or by the urinary marker model is in both cases associated with less cognitive decline (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61,0.99; p = 0.043 and OR: 0.995, 95% CI: 0.991,0.999; p = 0.016, respectively) with AUCs 73.2 (95% CI: 62.9, 83.6) and 73.1 (62.5, 83.7), respectively.

Conclusions: A high intake of nuts may protect older adults from cognitive decline. Metabolomics provides accurate and complementary information of the nut exposure and reinforces the results obtained using dietary information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079683PMC
January 2020

Plasma polyphenols associated with lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations: a cross-sectional study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Br J Nutr 2020 01;123(2):198-208

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterise the association between plasma concentrations of thirty-five polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis, the OR and 95 % CI of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/l) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per standard deviation) was associated with 29 (95 % CI 50, 1) % lower odds of elevated hsCRP. In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·87), ferulic acid (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) and caffeic acid (OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·93). The present study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519002538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015881PMC
January 2020

Polyphenol intake and differentiated thyroid cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Int J Cancer 2020 04 7;146(7):1841-1850. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular, in a European population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort included 476,108 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 748 incident differentiated TC cases, including 601 papillary and 109 follicular tumors. Polyphenol intake was estimated at baseline using validated center/country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, no association between total polyphenol and the risks of overall differentiated TC (HR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.29), papillary (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41) or follicular TC (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.55-2.22) were found. No associations were observed either for flavonoids, phenolic acids or the rest of classes and subclasses of polyphenols. After stratification by body mass index (BMI), an inverse association between the intake of polyphenols (p-trend = 0.019) and phenolic acids (p-trend = 0.007) and differentiated TC risk in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 was observed. In conclusion, our study showed no associations between dietary polyphenol intake and differentiated TC risk; although further studies are warranted to investigate the potential protective associations in overweight and obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32589DOI Listing
April 2020

Recent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their Anthocyanins.

Adv Nutr 2020 03;11(2):224-236

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain.

Awareness of the human health benefits of blueberries is underpinned by a growing body of positive scientific evidence from human observational and clinical research, plus mechanistic research using animal and in vitro models. Blueberries contain a large number of phytochemicals, including abundant anthocyanin pigments. Of their various phytochemicals, anthocyanins probably make the greatest impact on blueberry health functionality. Epidemiological studies associate regular, moderate intake of blueberries and/or anthocyanins with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, death, and type 2 diabetes, and with improved weight maintenance and neuroprotection. These findings are supported by biomarker-based evidence from human clinical studies. Among the more important healthful aspects of blueberries are their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions and their beneficial effects on vascular and glucoregulatory function. Blueberry phytochemicals may affect gastrointestinal microflora and contribute to host health. These aspects have implications in degenerative diseases and conditions as well as the aging process. More evidence, and particularly human clinical evidence, is needed to better understand the potential for anthocyanin-rich blueberries to benefit public health. However, it is widely agreed that the regular consumption of tasty, ripe blueberries can be unconditionally recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442370PMC
March 2020

Systematic Review on Polyphenol Intake and Health Outcomes: Is there Sufficient Evidence to Define a Health-Promoting Polyphenol-Rich Dietary Pattern?

Nutrients 2019 06 16;11(6). Epub 2019 Jun 16.

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Growing evidence support association between polyphenol intake and reduced risk for chronic diseases, even if there is a broad debate about the effective amount of polyphenols able to exert such protective effect. The present systematic review provides an overview of the last 10-year literature on the evaluation of polyphenol intake and its association with specific disease markers and/or endpoints. An estimation of the mean total polyphenol intake has been performed despite the large heterogeneity of data reviewed. In addition, the contribution of dietary sources was considered, suggesting tea, coffee, red wine, fruit and vegetables as the main products providing polyphenols. Total flavonoids and specific subclasses, but not total polyphenols, have been apparently associated with a low risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, large variability in terms of methods for the evaluation and quantification of polyphenol intake, markers and endpoints considered, makes it still difficult to establish an evidence-based reference intake for the whole class and subclass of compounds. Nevertheless, the critical mass of data available seem to strongly suggest the protective effect of a polyphenol-rich dietary pattern even if further well targeted and methodologically sound research should be encouraged in order to define specific recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11061355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627994PMC
June 2019

Correlations between urinary concentrations and dietary intakes of flavonols in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Jun 22;59(4):1481-1492. Epub 2019 May 22.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Av Gran Via 199-203, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between acute and habitual intakes of flavonols, their main food sources and their 24-h urinary concentrations in an European population.

Methods: A 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) and 24-h urine samples were collected on the same day from a convenience subsample of 475 men and women from four countries (France, Italy, Greece and Germany) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A standardized 24-HDR software and a country/centre-specific validated dietary questionnaire (DQ) were used to collect acute and habitual dietary data, respectively. The intake of dietary flavonols was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Urinary flavonols (quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol) were analysed using tandem mass spectrometry with a previous enzymatic hydrolysis.

Results: Weak partial Spearman correlations between both dietary acute and habitual intake and urinary concentrations of quercetin (both R ~ 0.3) and total flavonols (both R ~ 0.2) were observed. No significant correlations were found for kaempferol and isorhamentin. Regarding flavonol-rich foods, weak correlations were found between urinary concentrations of quercetin and total flavonols and the acute intake of onions and garlics, fruits, tea, and herbal tea (all R ~ 0.2). For habitual intake, statistically significant correlations were only found between urinary quercetin concentration and herbal tea (R = 0.345) and between urinary total flavonol concentration and tea, and herbal tea consumption (R ~ 0.2).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that urinary quercetin level can be used as potential concentration biomarkers of both acute and habitual quercetin intake, while urinary concentrations of flavonols are unlikely to be useful biomarkers of individual flavonol-rich foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02005-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Flavonoids and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: An Exploratory Case-Control Study in the MCC-Spain Study.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2019 Apr 27.

Grupo de Investigación en Interacciones Gen-Ambiente y Salud (GIIGAS)/Instituto de Biomedicina (IBIOMED), Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain.

Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. Investigating the relationship between the different classes of flavonoids and the histological types and origin of GC can be of interest to the research community. We used data from a population-based multi-case control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from 12 different regions of Spain. 2700 controls and 329 GC cases were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of flavonoid intakes and log2. Flavonoid intake was associated with a lower GC risk (ORlog2 = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; ORq4vsq1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.40-0.89; ptrend = 0.007). Inverse and statistically significant associations were observed with anthocyanidins, chalcones, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. The isoflavanoid intake was positively associated with higher cancer risk, but without reaching a statistical significance. In general, no differences were observed in the GC risk according to the location and histological type. The flavonoid intake seems to be a protective factor against GC within the MCC-study. This effect may vary depending on the flavonoid class but not by the histological type and location of the tumor. Broader studies with larger sample size and greater geographical variability are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11050967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566880PMC
April 2019

Gallstones and incident colorectal cancer in a large pan-European cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2019 09 11;145(6):1510-1516. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Cancer Registry and Histopathology Department, "Civic - M.P.Arezzo" Hospital, Ragusa, Italy.

Gallstones, a common gastrointestinal condition, can lead to several digestive complications and can result in inflammation. Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity, all of which are known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), as is inflammation. However, it is unclear whether gallstones are a risk factor for CRC. We examined the association between history of gallstones and CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a prospective cohort of over half a million participants from ten European countries. History of gallstones was assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. The analytic cohort included 334,986 participants; a history of gallstones was reported by 3,917 men and 19,836 women, and incident CRC was diagnosed among 1,832 men and 2,178 women (mean follow-up: 13.6 years). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gallstones and CRC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by sex, study centre and age at recruitment. The models were adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, alcohol intake and physical activity. A positive, marginally significant association was detected between gallstones and CRC among women in multivariable analyses (HR = 1.14, 95%CI 0.99-1.31, p = 0.077). The relationship between gallstones and CRC among men was inverse but not significant (HR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.63-1.04, p = 0.10). Additional adjustment for details of reproductive history or waist circumference yielded minimal changes to the observed associations. Further research is required to confirm the nature of the association between gallstones and CRC by sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32090DOI Listing
September 2019

Coffee and tea drinking in relation to the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Eur J Nutr 2019 Dec 10;58(8):3303-3312. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT, The Arctic University of Tromsø, Tromsö, Norway.

Purpose: Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study.

Methods: The study was conducted in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, which included 476,108 adult men and women. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 first incident differentiated TC cases (including 601 papillary and 109 follicular TC) were identified. Coffee consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated either with total differentiated TC risk (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04) or with the risk of TC subtypes. Tea consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated with the risk of total differentiated TC (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.02) and papillary tumor (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.03), whereas an inverse association was found with follicular tumor risk (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99), but this association was based on a sub-analysis with a small number of cancer cases.

Conclusions: In this large prospective study, coffee and tea consumptions were not associated with TC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1874-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850907PMC
December 2019

A new food-composition database for 437 polyphenols in 19,899 raw and prepared foods used to estimate polyphenol intakes in adults from 10 European countries.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 09;108(3):517-524

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Accurate assessment of polyphenol intakes is needed in epidemiologic research in order to study their health effects, and this can be particularly challenging in international study settings.

Objective: The purpose of this work is to describe the procedures to prepare a comprehensive polyphenol food-composition database that was used to calculate standardized polyphenol intakes from 24-h diet recalls (24HDRs) and dietary questionnaires (DQs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Design: With the use of the comparable food classification and facet-descriptor system of the computerized 24HDR program EPIC-Soft (renamed GloboDiet), foods reported in the 24HDR (n = 74,626) were first aggregated following a stepwise process. Multi-ingredient and generic foods were broken down into ingredients or more-specific foods with consideration of regional consumption habits before matching to foods in the Phenol-Explorer database. Food-composition data were adjusted by using selected retention factors curated in Phenol-Explorer. DQ foods (n = 13,946) were matched to a generated EPIC 24HDR polyphenol-composition database before calculation of daily intakes from the 24HDR and DQ.

Results: Food matching yielded 2.0% and 2.7% of foods with missing polyphenol content in the 24HDR and DQ food data sets, respectively. Process-specific retention factors for 42 different polyphenol compounds were applied to adjust the polyphenol content in 35 prioritized Phenol-Explorer foods, thereby adjusting the polyphenol content in 70% of all of the prepared 24 food occurrences. A detailed food-composition database was finally generated for 437 polyphenols in 19,899 aggregated raw and prepared foods reported by 10 EPIC countries in the 24HDR.

Conclusions: An efficient procedure was developed to build the most-comprehensive food-composition database for polyphenols, thereby standardizing the calculations of dietary polyphenol intakes obtained from different dietary assessment methods and European populations. The whole database is accessible online. This procedure could equally be used for other food constituents and in other cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy098DOI Listing
September 2018

Moderate egg consumption and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in the Spanish European Prospective into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) study.

Eur J Nutr 2019 Aug 15;58(5):2003-2010. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Avda Gran Via 199-203, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Dietary guidelines for egg consumption for general population differ among public health agencies. Our aim was to investigate the association between egg intake and both all-cause and specific-cause of mortality in a Mediterranean population.

Methods: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort included 40,621 men and women aged 29-69 years old in the nineties from 5 Spanish regions. After a mean of 18 years of follow-up, 3,561 deaths were recorded, of which 1,694 were from cancer, 761 from CVD, and 870 from other causes. Data on egg consumption was collected using a validated diet history at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders, were used in the analyses.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) egg consumption was 22.0 g/day (15.8) and 30.9 g/day (23.1) in women and men, respectively. No association was observed between egg consumption and all-cause mortality for the highest vs the lowest quartile (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.91-1.11; P trend = 0.96). Likewise, no association was observed with cancer and cardiovascular diseases mortality. However, an inverse association was found between egg consumption and deaths for other causes (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.63-0.93; P trend = 0.003), particularly for deaths from the nervous system (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.35-1.00; P trend = 0.036). No interaction was detected with the adherence to Mediterranean diet.

Conclusions: This study shows no association between moderate egg consumption, up to 1 egg per day, and main causes of mortality in a large free-living Mediterranean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1754-6DOI Listing
August 2019

Dietary polyphenol intake and their major food sources in the Mexican Teachers' Cohort.

Br J Nutr 2018 08 4;120(3):353-360. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

2Nutrition and Metabolism Unit, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC),69372 Lyon,France.

Several descriptive studies on the intake of polyphenols, mostly flavonoids, have been published, especially in Europe and the USA, but insufficient data are still available in Latin-American countries, where different types of foods are consumed and different dietary habits are observed. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to estimate dietary intakes of polyphenols, including grand total, total per classes and subclasses and individual compounds, and to identify their main food sources in Mexican women. The Mexican Teachers' Cohort includes 115 315 female teachers, 25 years and older, from twelve states of Mexico, including urban and rural areas. Dietary data were collected in the period 2008-2011 using a validated FFQ, and individual polyphenol intake was estimated using food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Median total polyphenol intake was the highest in Baja California (750 mg/d) and the lowest in Yucatan (536 mg/d). The main polyphenols consumed were phenolic acids (56·3-68·5 % total polyphenols), followed by flavonoids (28·8-40·9 %). Intake of other polyphenol subclasses (stilbenes, lignans and others) was insignificant. Coffee and fruits were the most important food sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Intake of a total of 287 different individual polyphenols could be estimated, of which forty-two were consumed in an amount ≥1 mg/d. The most largely consumed polyphenols were several caffeoylquinic acids (ranging from 20 and 460 mg/d), ferulic acid, hesperidin and proanthocyanidins. This study shows a large heterogeneity in intakes of individual polyphenols among Mexican women, but a moderate heterogeneity across Mexican states. Main food sources were also similar in the different states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114518001381DOI Listing
August 2018
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