Publications by authors named "Raul G Nogueira"

323 Publications

The impact of COVID-19 on acute stroke care in Belgium.

Acta Neurol Belg 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Neurology, Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk, Belgium.

A worldwide decline in stroke hospitalizations during the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported. Information on stroke care during the pandemic in Belgium is lacking. This study aims to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on acute stroke care in eight Belgian stroke centers. This Belgian study is part of an international observational and retrospective study in 70 countries and 457 stroke centers. We compared volumes of COVID-19 and stroke hospitalizations, intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment rates, acute treatment time intervals and functional outcome at 90 days during the first wave of the pandemic to two control intervals (March-May 2019 and December-February 2020). From March 2020 to May 2020, 860 stroke patients were hospitalized. In the same time period, 2850 COVID-19 patients were admitted, of which 37 (1.3%) were diagnosed with a stroke. Compared to the months prior to the pandemic and the same time epoch one year earlier, stroke hospitalizations were reduced (relative difference 15.9% [p = 0.03] and 14.5% [p = 0.05], respectively). Despite a reduction in absolute volumes, there was no difference in the monthly proportion of thrombolysis or endovascular treatment provided to the overall stroke hospitalizations. Acute treatment time metrics did not change between COVID-19 pandemic and control time epochs. We found no difference in 90-day functional outcomes nor in mortality after stroke between patients admitted during the pandemic versus control periods. We found a decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium. Stroke care quality parameters remained unchanged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-021-01726-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Lack of Reperfusion Rather Than Number of Passes Defines Futility in Stroke Thrombectomy: A Matched Case-Control Study.

Stroke 2021 Jun 15:STROKEAHA120033539. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Marcus Stroke & Neuroscience Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (M.H.M., D.C.H., L.P., A.R.A., N.B., B.L., N.B., D.J., M.R.F., R.G.N.).

Background And Purpose: There is a robust relationship between the duration of ischemia and functional outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy. Higher number of mechanical thrombectomy passes strongly correlate with lower chances of favorable outcomes. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that after multiple passes the procedure may be futile. However, using uncontrolled thresholds to define thrombectomy futility might be misleading. We aim to compare the outcome of successful reperfusion after 4 to 5 passes and ≥6 passes with those of failed reperfusion.

Methods: A prospectively acquired mechanical thrombectomy database from January 2012 to October 2019 was reviewed. Patients were included if they had intracranial internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery-M1/M2 occlusions and either achieved successful reperfusion after ≥4 passes or failed reperfusion. Reperfused patients (mTICI2b-3) were divided into 2 subgroups; (1) 4 to 5 passes and (2) ≥6 passes. Each subgroup was compared with a matched group of mechanical thrombectomy failure (mTICI0-2a). The primary outcome was the shift in the degree of disability at 90-day as measured by the modified Rankin Scale.

Results: A total of 273 patients were included. As compared with matched failed reperfusion patients (n=62), those reperfused after 4 to 5 passes (n=62) had a favorable shift in the overall modified Rankin Scale score distribution (adjusted odds ratio, 3.992 [95% CI, 1.807-8.512], =0.001] and higher rates of functional independence (31% versus 8.9%, =0.004, adjusted odds ratio; 9.860 [95% CI, 2.323-41.845], =0.002) at 90 days. Similarly, when compared with a matched group of failed reperfusion (n=42), patients reperfused after ≥6 passes (n=42) demonstrated a favorable shift in the overall modified Rankin Scale score distribution (adjusted odds ratio, 2.640 [95% CI, 1.073-6.686], =0.037) and had higher rates of functional independence (36.8% vs 11.1%, =0.004, adjusted odds ratio, 5.392 [95% CI, 1.185-24.530], =0.029) at 90 day. Rates of parenchymal hematoma type-2 and 90-day mortality were comparable in the reperfused and nonreperfused groups.

Conclusions: Achieving reperfusion despite multiple passes leads to improved outcomes compared with failed procedures. Arbitrary uncontrolled thresholds for a maximum number of passes to predict futile recanalization may lead to inappropriate early termination of procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033539DOI Listing
June 2021

Novel selection paradigms for endovascular stroke treatment in the extended time window.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Background And Purpose: The optimal selection methodology for stroke thrombectomy beyond 6 hours remains to be established.

Methods: Review of a prospectively collected database of thrombectomy patients with anterior circulation strokes, adequate CT perfusion (CTP) maps, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)≥10 and presenting beyond 6 hours from January 2014 to October 2018. Patients were categorised according to five selection paradigms: DAWN clinical-core mismatch (DAWN-CCM): between age-adjusted NIHSS and CTP core, DEFUSE 3 perfusion imaging mismatch (DEFUSE-3-PIM): between CTP-derived perfusion defect (Tmax >6 s lesion) and ischaemic core volumes and three non-contrast CT Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS)-based criteria: age-adjusted clinical-ASPECTS mismatch (aCAM): between age-adjusted NIHSS and ASPECTS, eloquence-adjusted clinical ASPECTS mismatch (eCAM): ASPECTS 6-10 and non-involvement of the right M6 and left M4 areas and standard clinical ASPECTS mismatch (sCAM): ASPECTS 6-10.

Results: 310 patients underwent analysis. DEFUSE-3-PIM had the highest proportion of qualifying patients followed by sCAM, eCAM, aCAM and DAWN-CCM (93.5%, 92.6%, 90.6%, 90% and 84.5%, respectively). Patients meeting aCAM, eCAM, sCAM and DAWN-CCM criteria had higher rates of 90-day good outcome compared with their non-qualifying counterparts(43.2% vs 12%,p=0.002; 42.4% vs 17.4%, p=0.02; 42.4% vs 11.2%, p=0.009; and 43.7% vs 20.5%, p=0.007, respectively). There was no difference between patients meeting DEFUSE-3-PIM criteria versus not(40.8% vs 31.3%,p=0.45). In multivariate analysis, all selection modalities except for DEFUSE-3-PIM were independently associated with 90-day good outcome.

Conclusions: ASPECTS-based selection paradigms for late presenting and wake-up strokes ET have comparable proportions of qualifying patients and similar 90-day functional outcomes as DAWN-CCM and DEFUSE-3-PIM. They also might lead to better outcome discrimination. These could represent a potential alternative for centres where access to advanced imaging is limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-325284DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of Age and Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score 0 to 5 on Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes: Analysis From the STRATIS Registry.

Stroke 2021 Jun 3:STROKEAHA120032430. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Advanced Neuroscience Network/Tenet South Florida, Boynton Beach (N.H.M.-K.).

Background And Purpose: This study investigates clinical outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy in adult patients with baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) of 0 to 5.

Methods: We included data from the STRATIS Registry (Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated With Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) from patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours of symptom onset and had available ASPECTS data adjudicated by an independent core laboratory. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were collected, including successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b), functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), 90-day mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 24 hours. Outcomes were stratified by ASPECTS scores and age.

Results: Of the 984 patients enrolled, 763 had available ASPECTS data. Of these patients, 57 had ASPECTS of 0 to 5 with a median age of 63 years (interquartile range, 28-100), whereas 706 patients had ASPECTS of 6 to 10 with a median age of 70 years of age (interquartile range, 19-100). Ten patients had ASPECTS of 0 to 3 and 47 patients had ASPECTS of 4 to 5 at baseline. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 85.5% (47/55) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 group. Functional independence was achieved in 28.8% (15/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 versus 59.7% (388/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). Mortality rates were 30.8% (16/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 13.4% (87/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). sICH rates were 7.0% (4/57) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 0.9% (6/682) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). No patients aged >75 years with ASPECTS of 0 to 5 (0/12) achieved functional independence versus 44.8% (13/29) of those age ≤65 (=0.005).

Conclusions: Patients <65 years of age with large core infarction (ASPECTS 0-5) have better rates of functional independence and lower rates of mortality compared with patients >75 years of age.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02239640.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032430DOI Listing
June 2021

Radiologic Patterns of Intracranial Hemorrhage and Clinical Outcome after Endovascular Treatment in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results from the ESCAPE-NA1 Trial.

Radiology 2021 Jun 1:204560. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

From the Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, 29th St NW, 1079 A, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 2T9 (J.M.O., W.Q., B.K.M., A.M., A.D., C.Z., M.A., M.D.H., M.G.); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (J.M.O.); Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada (B.K.M., A.D., M. Joshi, M.A., M.D.H., M.G.); Department of Interventional Radiology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (R.M., M. Jayaraman); Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga (R.G.N., D.H.); Department of Neurology (D.R.) and Neurosciences (A.Y.P.), Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Canada (B.B.); and NoNo, Toronto, Canada (M.T.).

Background Intracranial hemorrhage is a known complication after endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion, but the association between radiologic hemorrhage severity and outcome is controversial. Purpose To investigate the prevalence and impact on outcome of intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhage severity after endovascular stroke treatment. Materials and Methods The Efficacy and Safety of Nerinetide for the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE-NA1) trial enrolled participants with acute large vessel occlusion stroke who underwent endovascular treatment from March 1, 2017, to August 12, 2019. Evidence of any intracranial hemorrhage, hemorrhage multiplicity, and radiologic severity, according to the Heidelberg classification (hemorrhagic infarction type 1 [HI1], hemorrhagic infarction type 2 [HI2], parenchymal hematoma type 1 [PH1], and parenchymal hematoma type 2 [PH2]) was assessed at CT or MRI 24 hours after endovascular treatment. Good functional outcome, defined as a modified Rankin score of 0-2 at 90 days, was compared between participants with intracranial hemorrhage and those without intracranial hemorrhage at follow-up imaging and between hemorrhage subtypes. Poisson regression was performed to obtain adjusted effect size estimates for the presence of any intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhage subtypes at good functional outcome. Results Of 1097 evaluated participants (mean age, 69 years ± 14 [standard deviation]; 551 men), any degree of intracranial hemorrhage was observed in 372 (34%). Good outcomes were less often achieved among participants with hemorrhage than among those without hemorrhage at follow-up imaging (164 of 372 participants [44%] vs 500 of 720 [69%], respectively; < .01). After adjusting for baseline variables and infarct volume, intracranial hemorrhage was not associated with decreased chances of good outcome (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.91 [95% CI: 0.82, 1.02], = .10), but there was a graded relationship of radiologic hemorrhage severity and outcomes, whereby PH1 (RR = 0.77 [95% CI: 0.61, 0.97], = .03) and PH2 (RR = 0.41 [95% CI: 0.21, 0.81], = .01) were associated with decreased chances of good outcome. Conclusion Any degree of intracranial hemorrhage after endovascular treatment was seen in one-third of participants. A graded association existed between radiologic hemorrhage severity and outcome. Hemorrhagic infarction was not associated with outcome, whereas parenchymal hematoma was strongly associated with poor outcome, independent of infarct volume. © RSNA, 2021 Clinical trial registration no. NCT01778335
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021204560DOI Listing
June 2021

Baseline Characteristics of Patients with Symptomatic Carotid Webs: A Matched Case Control Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 21;30(8):105823. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurology, Emory University Hospital / Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The baseline characteristics of patients with symptomatic carotid web (CaW) are unclear. We investigate demographic and cerebrovascular risk factors in patients with this overlooked stroke etiology.

Methods: We identified consecutive patients diagnosed with symptomatic CaW at a comprehensive stroke center from July 2014-December 2018. These patients were matched at a 1:4 ratio (based on age and NIHSS scores) to create a control group of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with non-CaW etiologies from the local GetWithTheGuidelines stroke database.

Results: Thirty patients with symptomatic CaW were compared to 120 AIS patients with non-CaW etiologies. Symptomatic CaW patients were more likely to be female (73.3 vs. 44.2%; p = 0.004) and black (86.7 vs. 64.2%; p = 0.02). Symptomatic CaWs patients had a fewer absolute number of modifiable cerebrovascular risk factors (1.7±1.1 vs. 2.5±1.2; p = 0.002), lower rates of hypertension (43.4 vs. 63.3%; p = 0.04), and a more favorable lipid profile with lower average LDL (89.5±30.3 vs. 111.2±43.7 mg/dL; p = 0.01) and higher average HDL (47.9±11.3 vs. 42.2±13.8 mg/dL; p = 0.01) as compared to strokes with non-CaW etiology. Symptomatic CaW patients were more likely to have a large vessel occlusion (80.0 vs. 51.7%; p = 0.005), despite similar e-ASPECTS between the groups (8.1±2.1 vs. 8.3±2.2; p = 0.30). On multivariable analysis, symptomatic CaW was an independent predictor of independence at discharge (OR 3.72; 95%CI 1.27-10.94).

Conclusion: A gender and racial predilection of symptomatic CaWs may exist as females and blacks were were found to be more likely affected. Symptomatic CaW patients have a more benign cerebrovascular risk factor profile corroborating the proposed mechanism of local stasis and thromboembolism. Despite presenting more commonly with LVO, symptomatic CaW was associated with good functional outcome, warranting further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105823DOI Listing
May 2021

Reliability of Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination Scale Use by Paramedics: Mobile Stroke Unit First-Year Experience.

Stroke 2021 May 20:STROKEAHA120033775. Epub 2021 May 20.

Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, and the Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (N.R.B., M.R.F., R.G.N., N.A.B., S.W.E., N.J., D.N., D.C.H.).

Background And Purpose: Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination (FAST-ED) scale is a helpful tool to triage patients with stroke in the field. However, data on its reliability in the prehospital setting are lacking. We aim to test the reliability of FAST-ED scale when used by paramedics in a mobile stroke unit covering a metropolitan area.

Methods: As part of standard operating mobile stroke unit procedures, paramedics initially evaluated patients. If the event characterized a stroke alert, the FAST-ED score was determined by the paramedic upon patient contact (in-person) and then independently by a vascular neurologist (VN) immediately after paramedic evaluation (remotely/telemedicine). This allowed testing of the interrater agreement of the FAST-ED scoring performance between on-site prehospital providers and remotely located VN.

Results: Of a total of 238 patients transported in the first 15 months of the mobile stroke unit's activity, 173 were included in this study. Median age was 63 (interquartile range, 55.5-75) years and 52.6% were females. A final diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made in 71 (41%), transient ischemic attack in 26 (15%), intracranial hemorrhage in 15 (9%), whereas 61 (35%) patients were stroke mimics. The FAST-ED scores matched perfectly among paramedics and VN in 97 (56%) instances, while there was 0 to 1-point difference in 158 (91.3%), 0 to 2-point difference in 171 (98.8%), and 3 or more point difference in 2 (1.1%) patients. The intraclass correlation between VN and paramedic FAST-ED scores showed excellent reliability, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.94 (95% CI, 0.92-0.96; <0.001). When VN recorded FAST-ED score ≥3, paramedics also scored FAST-ED≥3 in majority of instances (63/71 patients; 87.5%). A large vessel occlusion was identified in 16 (9.2%) patients; 13 occlusions were identified with a FAST-ED≥3 while 3 were missed. All of the latter patients had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤5.

Conclusions: We demonstrate excellent reliability of FAST-ED scale performed by paramedics when compared with VN, indicating that it can be accurately performed by paramedics in the prehospital setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033775DOI Listing
May 2021

Stent-retriever alone vs. aspiration and stent-retriever combination in large vessel occlusion stroke: A matched analysis.

Int J Stroke 2021 May 27:17474930211019204. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Three randomized clinical trials have reported similar safety and efficacy for contact aspiration and stent-retriever thrombectomy.

Aim: We aimed to determine whether the combined technique (stent-retriever + contact aspiration) was superior to stent-retriever alone as first-line thrombectomy strategy in a patient cohort where balloon guide catheter was universally used.

Methods: A prospectively maintained mechanical thrombectomy database from January 2018 to December 2019 was reviewed. Patients were included if they had anterior circulation proximal occlusion ischemic stroke (intracranial ICA or MCA-M1/M2 segments) and underwent stent-retriever alone thrombectomy or stent-retriever + contact aspiration as first-line therapy. The primary outcome was the first-pass effect (mTICI2c-3). Secondary outcomes included modified first-pass effect (mTICI2b-3), successful reperfusion (mTICI2b-3) prior to and after any rescue strategy, and 90-day functional independence (mRS ≤ 2). Safety outcomes included rate of parenchymal hematoma type-2 and 90-day mortality. Sensitivity analyses were performed after dividing the overall cohort according to first-line modality into two matched groups.

Results: A total of 420 patients were included in the analysis (mean age 64.4 years; median baseline NIHSS 16 (11-21)). As compared to first-line stent-retriever alone, first-line stent-retriever + contact aspiration resulted in similar rates of first-pass effect (53% vs. 51%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.122, 95%CI (0.745-1.691), p = 0.58), modified first-pass effect (63% vs. 60.4%, aOR1.250, 95%CI (0.782-2.00), p = 0.35), final successful reperfusion (97.6% vs. 98%, p = 0.75), and higher chances of successful reperfusion prior to any rescue strategy (81.8% vs. 72.5%, aOR 2.033, 95%CI (1.209-3.419), p = 0.007). Functional outcome and safety measures were comparable between both groups. Likewise, the matched analysis (148 patient-pairs) demonstrated comparable results for all clinical and angiographic outcomes except for significantly higher rates of successful reperfusion prior to any rescue strategies with the first-line stent-retriever + contact aspiration treatment (81.8% vs. 73.6%, aOR 1.881, 95%CI (1.039-3.405), p = 0.037).

Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the findings of ASTER-2 trial in that the first-line thrombectomy with a combined technique did not result in increased rates of first-pass reperfusion or better clinical outcomes. However, the addition of contact aspiration after initial stent-retriever failure might be beneficial in achieving earlier reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211019204DOI Listing
May 2021

Access to Mechanical Thrombectomy for Ischemic Stroke in the United States.

Stroke 2021 May 13:STROKEAHA120033485. Epub 2021 May 13.

Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Unit, Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute and Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY. (H.K., N.S.P., A.C., B.B.N.).

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy helps prevent disability in patients with acute ischemic stroke involving occlusion of a large cerebral vessel. Thrombectomy requires procedural expertise and not all hospitals have the staff to perform this intervention. Few population-wide data exist regarding access to mechanical thrombectomy.

Methods: We examined access to thrombectomy for ischemic stroke using discharge data from calendar years 2016 to 2018 from all nonfederal emergency departments and acute care hospitals across 11 US states encompassing 80 million residents. Facilities were classified as hubs if they performed mechanical thrombectomy, gateways if they transferred patients who ultimately underwent mechanical thrombectomy, and gaps otherwise. We used standard descriptive statistics and unadjusted logistic regression models in our primary analyses.

Results: Among 205 681 patients with ischemic stroke, 100 139 (48.7% [95% CI, 48.5%-48.9%]) initially received care at a thrombectomy hub, 72 534 (35.3% [95% CI, 35.1%-35.5%]) at a thrombectomy gateway, and 33 008 (16.0% [95% CI, 15.9%-16.2%]) at a thrombectomy gap. Patients who initially received care at thrombectomy gateways were substantially less likely to ultimately undergo thrombectomy than patients who initially received care at thrombectomy hubs (odds ratio, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.25-0.28]). Rural patients had particularly limited access: 27.7% (95% CI, 26.9%-28.6%) of such patients initially received care at hubs versus 69.5% (95% CI, 69.1%-69.9%) of urban patients. For 93.8% (95% CI, 93.6%-94.0%) of patients with stroke at gateways, their initial facility was capable of delivering intravenous thrombolysis, compared with 76.3% (95% CI, 75.8%-76.7%) of patients at gaps. Our findings were unchanged in models adjusted for demographics and comorbidities and persisted across multiple sensitivity analyses, including analyses adjusting for estimated stroke severity.

Conclusions: We found that a substantial proportion of patients with ischemic stroke across the United States lacked access to thrombectomy even after accounting for interhospital transfers. US systems of stroke care require further development to optimize thrombectomy access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033485DOI Listing
May 2021

Histological evaluation of acute ischemic stroke thrombi may indicate the occurrence of vessel wall injury during mechanical thrombectomy.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Several animal studies have demonstrated that mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) may cause vessel wall injury (VWI). However, the histological changes in human cerebral arteries following MT are difficult to determine.

Objective: To investigate the occurrence of VWI during MT by histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of AIS clots.

Methods: As part of the multicenter STRIP registry, 277 clots from 237 patients were analyzed using Martius Scarlett Blue stain and immunohistochemistry for CD34 (endothelial cells) and smooth muscle actin (smooth muscle cells).

Results: MT devices used were aspiration catheters (100 cases), stentriever (101 cases), and both (36 cases). VWI was found in 33/277 clots (12%). There was no significant correlation between VWI and MT device. The degree of damage varied from grade I (mild intimal damage, 24 clots), to grade II (relevant intimal and subintimal damage, 3 clots), and III (severe injury, 6 clots). VWI clots contained significantly more erythrocytes (p=0.006*) and less platelets/other (p=0.005*) than non-VWI clots suggesting soft thrombus material.Thrombolysis correlated with a lower rate of VWI (p=0.04*). VWI cases showed a significantly higher number of passes (2 [1-4] vs 1 [1-3], p=0.028*) and poorer recanalization outcome (p=0.01*) than cases without VWI.

Conclusions: Histological markers of VWI were present in 12% of AIS thrombi, suggesting that VWI might be related to MT. VWI was associated with soft thrombus consistency, higher number of passes and poorer revascularization outcome. There was no significant correlation between VWI and MT device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017310DOI Listing
May 2021

A Detailed Analysis of Infarct Patterns and Volumes at 24-hour Noncontrast CT and Diffusion-weighted MRI in Acute Ischemic Stroke Due to Large Vessel Occlusion: Results from the ESCAPE-NA1 Trial.

Radiology 2021 Jul 11;300(1):152-159. Epub 2021 May 11.

From the Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, 29th St NW, 1079 A, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 2T9 (J.M.O., B.K.M., W.Q., N.K., A.M., N.S., P.C., M.M., A.M.D., C.Z., M.J., M.A.A., S.B.C., M.D.H., M.G.); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (J.M.O.); Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (B.K.M., N.K., A.M.D., C.Z., M.J., M.A.A., S.B.C., M.D.H., M.G.); Department of Medical Imaging, St Anne's University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic (P.C.); International Clinical Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (P.C.); Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga (R.G.N., D.H.); Department of Interventional Radiology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (R.A.M.); Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (A.Y.P., D.R., D.I.); Department of Neurology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (S.C.); Department of Neuroradiology, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (A.R.); and NoNo, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (M.T.).

Background The effect of infarct pattern on functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke is incompletely understood. Purpose To investigate the association of qualitative and quantitative infarct variables at 24-hour follow-up noncontrast CT and diffusion-weighted MRI with 90-day clinical outcome. Materials and Methods The Safety and Efficacy of Nerinetide in Subjects Undergoing Endovascular Thrombectomy for Stroke, or ESCAPE-NA1, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients with large-vessel-occlusion stroke undergoing mechanical thrombectomy from March 1, 2017, to August 12, 2019. In this post hoc analysis of the trial, qualitative infarct variables (predominantly gray [vs gray and white] matter involvement, corticospinal tract involvement, infarct structure [scattered vs territorial]) and total infarct volume were assessed at 24-hour follow-up noncontrast CT or diffusion-weighted MRI. White and gray matter infarct volumes were assessed in patients by using follow-up diffusion-weighted MRI. Infarct variables were compared between patients with and those without good outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days. The association of infarct variables with good outcome was determined with use of multivariable logistic regression. Separate regression models were used to report effect size estimates with adjustment for total infarct volume. Results Qualitative infarct variables were assessed in 1026 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 69 years ± 13; 522 men) and quantitative infarct variables were assessed in a subgroup of 358 of 1026 patients (mean age, 67 years ± 13; 190 women). Patients with gray and white matter involvement (odds ratio [OR] after multivariable adjustment, 0.19; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.25; < .001), corticospinal tract involvement (OR after multivariable adjustment, 0.06; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.10; < .001), and territorial infarcts (OR after multivariable adjustment, 0.22; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.32; < .001) were less likely to achieve good outcome, independent of total infarct volume. Conclusion Infarct confinement to the gray matter, corticospinal tract sparing, and scattered infarct structure at 24-hour noncontrast CT and diffusion-weighted MRI were highly predictive of good 90-day clinical outcome, independent of total infarct volume. Clinical trial registration no. NCT02930018 © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Mossa-Basha in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021203964DOI Listing
July 2021

Management and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke and tandem carotid occlusion in the ESCAPE-NA1 trial.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Background: The optimal treatment and prognosis for stroke patients with tandem cervical carotid occlusion are unclear. We analyzed outcomes and treatment strategies of tandem occlusion patients in the ESCAPE-NA1 trial.

Methods: ESCAPE-NA1 was a multicenter international randomized trial of nerinetide versus placebo in 1105 patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular treatment. We defined tandem occlusions as complete occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) on catheter angiography, in addition to a proximal ipsilateral intracranial large vessel occlusion. Baseline characteristics and outcome parameters were compared between patients with tandem occlusions versus those without, and between patients with tandem occlusion who underwent ICA stenting versus those who did not. The influence of tandem occlusions on functional outcome was analyzed using multivariable regression modeling.

Results: Among 115/1105 patients (10.4%) with tandem occlusions, 62 (53.9%) received stenting for the cervical ICA occlusion. Of these, 46 (74.2%) were stented after and 16 (25.8%) before the intracranial thrombectomy. A modified Rankin Score (mRS) of 0-2 at 90 days was achieved in 82/115 patients (71.3%) with tandem occlusions compared with 579/981 (59.5%) patients without tandem occlusions. Tandem occlusion did not impact functional outcome in the adjusted analysis (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.4). Among the subgroup of patients with tandem occlusion, cervical carotid stenting was not associated with different outcomes compared with no stenting (mRS 0-2: 75.8% vs 66.0%, adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 5.1).

Conclusions: Tandem cervical carotid occlusion in patients with acute large vessel stroke did not lower the odds of good functional outcome in our study. Functional outcomes were similar irrespective of the management of the cervical ICA occlusion (stenting vs not stenting).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017474DOI Listing
May 2021

Intraluminal carotid thrombosis and acute ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19.

J Neurol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine and Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, GA, USA.

COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has a diverse constellation of neurological manifestations that include encephalopathy, stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, and encephalitis. Intraluminal carotid thrombi (ILT) are infrequent lesions seen in only 1.6% of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Underlying atherosclerosis is the most common lesion associated with ILT formation. However, with COVID-19, we have encountered ILT in patients without significant atherosclerotic disease. The endothelial inflammation and hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19 pose a risk of arterial and venous thromboembolism and could have contributed to this presentation although the exact pathophysiology and optimal treatment of ILT in COVID-19 remain elusive. Herein, we present a series of ischemic stroke patients with carotid ILT in the setting of a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10562-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082747PMC
April 2021

Clinical impact of EVT with failed reperfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke: results from the ESCAPE and ESCAPE-NA1 trials.

Neuroradiology 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Endovascular treatment (EVT) is a powerful treatment for large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke if reperfusion can be achieved, while in cases with failed reperfusion, EVT may cause harm, as procedure-related complications may occur. We hypothesized that EVT with failed recanalization does not result in worse outcomes compared to best medical management and compared clinical outcomes of LVO stroke patients who underwent EVT with failed reperfusion to those who were treated with best medical management.

Methods: We included patients with failed reperfusion from the control (EVT-only) arm of the ESCAPE-NA1 trial and the EVT arm of the ESCAPE trial and patients of the ESCAPE control arm who were treated with best medical management. Failed reperfusion following EVT was defined as modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 0-2a. Proportions of good outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-2) were compared between patients who did and did not undergo EVT, and adjusted effect size estimates for EVT on outcomes were obtained.

Results: We included 260 patients (110 failed EVT and 150 non-EVT patients). Proportions of good outcome were 38/110 (34.6%) with failed EVT vs.43/147 (29.3%) without EVT (adjusted odds ratio[aOR]: 1.48 [95%CI: 0.81-2.68]). Mortality and proportions of sICH in the failed EVT group vs. patients treated with best medical management were 26/110 (23.6%) vs. 28/147 (19.1%), aOR: 1.12 (95%CI: 0.56-2.24), and 7/110 (6.4%) vs. 4/150 (2.7%), aOR: 2.34 (95%CI: 0.00-22.97).

Conclusion: Clinical outcomes of EVT patients with failed reperfusion did not differ significantly from patients treated with best medical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-021-02723-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Endovascular therapy with or without intravenous thrombolysis in acute stroke with tandem occlusion.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Nancy, France

Background: Endovascular therapy (EVT) is effective and safe in patients with tandem occlusion. The benefit of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) prior to EVT in acute tandem occlusion is debatable.

Objective: To compare EVT alone with EVT plus IVT in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation tandem occlusions.

Methods: This is an individual patient pooled analysis of the Thrombectomy In TANdem lesions (TITAN) and Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke (ETIS) Registries. Patients were divided into two groups based on prior IVT treatment: (1) IVT+ group, which included patients who received IVT prior to EVT, (2) IVT- group, which included patients who did not receive IVT prior to EVT. Propensity score (inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)) was used to reduce baseline between-group differences. The primary outcome was favorable outcome-that is, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0 to 2 at 90 days.

Results: Overall, 602 consecutive patients with an acute stroke with tandem occlusion were included (380 and 222 in the bridging therapy and EVT alone groups, respectively). Onset to imaging time was shorter in the IVT+ group (median 103 vs 140 min). In contrast, imaging to puncture time was longer in the IVT+ group (median 107 vs 91 min). In IPTW analysis, the IVT+ group had higher odds of favorable outcome, excellent outcome (90-day mRS score 0-1), and successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score 2b/3 at the end of EVT). There was no difference in the risk of significant hemorrhagic complications between groups. In secondary analysis of patients treated with acute cervical internal carotid artery stenting, bridging therapy was associated with higher odds of favorable outcome and lower odds of mortality at 90 days.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that bridging therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to anterior tandem occlusion is safe and may improve functional outcome, even in the setting of acute cervical internal carotid artery stenting during EVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017202DOI Listing
April 2021

Repeated Mechanical Endovascular Thrombectomy for Recurrent Large Vessel Occlusion: A Multicenter Experience.

Stroke 2021 Jun 29;52(6):1967-1973. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (G.A.M., H.A.N., L.S., D.M., A.B.C.).

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is now the standard of care for large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. However, little is known about the frequency and outcomes of repeat MT (rMT) for patients with recurrent LVO.

Methods: This is a retrospective multicenter cohort of patients who underwent rMT at 6 tertiary institutions in the United States between March 2016 and March 2020. Procedural, imaging, and outcome data were evaluated. Outcome at discharge was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale.

Results: Of 3059 patients treated with MT during the study period, 56 (1.8%) underwent at least 1 rMT. Fifty-four (96%) patients were analyzed; median age was 64 years. The median time interval between index MT and rMT was 2 days; 35 of 54 patients (65%) experienced recurrent LVO during the index hospitalization. The mechanism of stroke was cardioembolism in 30 patients (56%), intracranial atherosclerosis in 4 patients (7%), extracranial atherosclerosis in 2 patients (4%), and other causes in 18 patients (33%). A final TICI recanalization score of 2b or 3 was achieved in all 54 patients during index MT (100%) and in 51 of 54 patients (94%) during rMT. Thirty-two of 54 patients (59%) experienced recurrent LVO of a previously treated artery, mostly the pretreated left MCA (23 patients, 73%). Fifty of the 54 patients (93%) had a documented discharge modified Rankin Scale after rMT: 15 (30%) had minimal or no disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2), 25 (50%) had moderate to severe disability (modified Rankin Scale score 3-5), and 10 (20%) died.

Conclusions: Almost 2% of patients treated with MT experience recurrent LVO, usually of a previously treated artery during the same hospitalization. Repeat MT seems to be safe and effective for attaining vessel recanalization, and good outcome can be expected in 30% of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033393DOI Listing
June 2021

Treating acute large vessel occlusion stroke: to bridge or not to bridge?

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2021-000952DOI Listing
April 2021

Per pass analysis of thrombus composition retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 7:15910199211009119. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background And Aim: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion often requires multiple passes to retrieve the entire thrombus load. In this multi-institutional study we sought to examine the composition of thrombus fragments retrieved with each pass during MT.

Methods: Patients who required multiple passes during thrombectomy were included. Histopathological evaluation of thrombus fragments retrieved from each pass was performed using Martius Scarlet Blue staining and the composition of each thrombus component including RBC, fibrin and platelet was determined using image analysis software.

Results: 154 patients underwent MT and 868 passes was performed which resulted in 263 thrombus fragments retrieval. The analysis of thrombus components per pass showed higher RBC, lower fibrin and platelet composition in the pass 1 and 2 when compared to pass 3 and passes 4 or more combined (P values <0.05). There were no significant differences between thrombus fragments retrieved in pass 1 and pass 2 in terms of RBC, WBC, fibrin, and platelet composition (P values >0.05). Similarly, when each composition of thrombus fragments retrieved in pass 3 and passes 4 or more combined were compared with each other, no significant difference was noted (P values >0.05).

Conclusion: Our findings confirm that thrombus fragments retrieved with each pass differed significantly in histological content. Fragments in the first passes were associated with lower fibrin and platelet composition compared to fragments retrieved in passes three and four or higher. Also, thrombus fragments retrieved after failed pass were associated with higher fibrin and platelet components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15910199211009119DOI Listing
April 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Influence of time to endovascular stroke treatment on outcomes in the early versus extended window paradigms.

Int J Stroke 2021 Apr 7:17474930211006304. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurosciences, Drexel Neurosciences Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: The effect of time from stroke onset to thrombectomy in the extended time window remains poorly characterized.

Aim: We aimed to analyze the relationship between time to treatment and clinical outcomes in the early versus extended time windows.

Methods: Proximal anterior circulation occlusion patients from a multicentric prospective registry were categorized into early (≤6 h) or extended (>6-24 h) treatment window. Patients with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 10 and intracranial internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery-M1-segment occlusion and pre-morbid modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-1 ("DAWN-like" cohort) served as the population for the primary analysis. The relationship between time to treatment and 90-day mRS, analyzed in ordinal (mRS shift) and dichotomized (good outcome, mRS 0-2) fashion, was compared within and across the extended and early windows.

Results: A total of 1603 out of 2008 patients qualified. Despite longer time to treatment (9[7-13.9] vs. 3.4[2.5-4.3] h,  < 0.001), extended-window patients ( = 257) had similar rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH; 0.8% vs. 1.7%,  = 0.293) and 90-day-mortality (10.5% vs. 9.6%,  = 0.714) with only slightly lower rates of 90-day good outcomes (50.4% vs. 57.6%,  = 0.047) versus early-window patients ( = 709). Time to treatment was associated with 90-day disability in both ordinal (adjusted odd ratio (aOR), ≥ 1-point mRS shift: 0.75; 95%CI [0.66-0.86],  < 0.001) and dichotomized (aOR, mRS 0-2: 0.73; 95%CI [0.62-0.86],  < 0.001) analyses in the early- but not in the extended-window (aOR, mRS shift: 0.96; 95%CI [0.90-1.02],  = 0.15; aOR, mRS0-2: 0.97; 95%CI [0.90-1.04],  = 0.41). Early-window patients had significantly lower 90-day functional disability (aOR, mRS shift: 1.533; 95%CI [1.138-2.065],  = 0.005) and a trend towards higher rates of good outcomes (aOR, mRS 0-2: 1.391; 95%CI [0.972-1.990],  = 0.071).

Conclusions: The impact of time to thrombectomy on outcomes appears to be time dependent with a steep influence in the early followed by a less significant plateau in the extended window. However, every effort should be made to shorten treatment times regardless of ischemia duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211006304DOI Listing
April 2021

Endovascular reperfusion outcomes in patients with a stroke and low ASPECTS is highly dependent on baseline infarct volumes.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology and Interventional Neuroradiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Background: Patients with large vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) and a low Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) are often not offered endovascular therapy (ET) as they are thought to have a poor prognosis.

Objective: To compare the outcomes of patients with low and high ASPECTS undergoing ET based on baseline infarct volumes.

Methods: Review of a prospectively collected endovascular database at a tertiary care center between September 2010 and March 2020. All patients with anterior circulation LVOS and interpretable baseline CT perfusion (CTP) were included. Subjects were divided into groups with low ASPECTS (0-5) and high ASPECTS (6-10) and subsequently into limited and large CTP-core volumes (cerebral blood flow 30% >70 cc). The primary outcome measure was the difference in rates of 90-day good outcome as defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 2 across groups.

Results: 1248 patients fit the inclusion criteria. 125 patients had low ASPECTS, of whom 16 (12.8%) had a large core (LC), whereas 1123 patients presented with high ASPECTS, including 29 (2.6%) patients with a LC. In the category with a low ASPECTS, there was a trend towards lower rates of functional independence (90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2) in the LC group (18.8% vs 38.9%, p=0.12), which became significant after adjusting for potential confounders in multivariable analysis (aOR=0.12, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.912, p=0.04). Likewise, LC was associated with significantly lower rates of functional independence (31% vs 51.9%, p=0.03; aOR=0.293, 95% CI 0.095 to 0.909, p=0.04) among patients with high ASPECTS.

Conclusions: Outcomes may vary significantly in the same ASPECTS category depending on infarct volume. Patients with ASPECTS ≤5 but baseline infarct volumes ≤70 cc may achieve independence in nearly 40% of the cases and thus should not be excluded from treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017184DOI Listing
March 2021

Maximizing the catheter-to-vessel size optimizes distal flow control resulting in improved revascularization in vitro for aspiration thrombectomy.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Physiology, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

Background: Balloon guide catheters (BGCs) achieve proximal flow control during thrombectomy but antegrade intracranial flow often persists via the Circle of Willis. Closely sizing an aspiration catheter to the target vessel might achieve greater flow control and improve technical performance. Our objective was to measure the impact of aspiration catheter size on distal flow control and flow reversal with and without the use of BGCs. Clot retrieval testing was performed to establish the impact of these parameters on revascularization.

Methods: An in vitro thrombectomy model replicated in vivo conditions. Flow was measured continuously using ultrasonic flow sensors placed 20 cm distal to the catheter tip in the middlel cerebral artery (MCA). Four aspiration catheters of increasing size were evaluated: ACE 60 and 64 (Penumbra), SOFIA Plus (MicroVention), and Millipede 088 (Perfuze). Two clot analog types (red blood cell-rich and fibrin/platelet-rich) were used for clot retrieval testing.

Results: The larger area of the 'superbore' Millipede 088 catheter resulted in a larger reduction in antegrade flow than standard aspiration catheters, even when the latter were combined with a BGC. During aspiration, 6Fr catheters were unable to cause flow reversal in the distal MCA while the Millipede 088 achieved significant distal flow reversal (-146 mL/min) (P<0.0001*) (*denotes significance). The solo use of Millipede 088 resulted in better recanalization outcomes and significantly reduced distal emboli for internal carotid artery (P=0.015*) and MCA (P=0.014*) occlusions compared with all other devices and combinations.

Conclusions: Maximizing the catheter-to-vessel size facilitates near flow-arrest on catheter insertion, potentially negating the need for a BGC. A 0.088 inch aspiration catheter enables significant flow reversal in the distal MCA during aspiration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017316DOI Listing
March 2021

Carotid web: an under-recognized and misdiagnosed ischemic stroke etiology.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Background: Carotid web (CaW) constitutes a possible cause of ischemic stroke, particularly large vessel occlusion syndromes. We aim to evaluate misdiagnosis rates and diagnosis trends for CaW.

Methods: Based on CT angiography (CTA), we prospectively identified a cohort of patients with symptomatic CaW treated at two comprehensive stroke centers (CSC) from 2014 to 2020 to assess misdiagnosis. Official CTA reports from the CSCs and referring hospitals were then reviewed for mention of CaW. For diagnosis trends, we retrospectively analyzed a CSC electronic medical record, identifying patients with CaW mentioned in an official CTA report from 2011 to 2020.

Results: For misdiagnosis, 56 patients with symptomatic CaW were identified in the CSCs; 16 (28%) had bilateral CaW, totaling 72 CaWs. Only one CaW (5.5%) was reported at referring facilities, from 14 patients/18 CaWs imaged with CTA. Conversely, 43 (69%) CaWs were reported from 49 patients/62 CaWs at the CSC (p<0.01). For diagnosis trends, from 2011 to 2020, 242 patients at a CSC accounted for 266 CTA reports mentioning CaW. The majority of these reports (n=206, 77%) were associated with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) ICD-9/ICD-10 codes. The rate of CaW diagnosis adjusted per 1000 patients with stroke/TIA increased over time, 2015 being the most significant point of change ('joinpoint'; p=0.01). The analysis of CaW mentions normalized per 1000 CTA reports also showed increasing rates of diagnosis over time (joinpoint:2014; p<0.02).

Conclusion: CaW was predominantly identified in patients with strokes/TIAs rather than asymptomatic patients. CaW was commonly overlooked in facilities with lower levels of cerebrovascular certification. Recognition of CaW at a CSC has significantly increased over time, independent of overall imaging and stroke patient volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017306DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between clot composition and stroke origin in mechanical thrombectomy patients: analysis of the Stroke Thromboembolism Registry of Imaging and Pathology.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Jul 15;13(7):594-598. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Neurosurgery, Baptist Medical Center Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Background: We retrospectively evaluated the composition of retrieved clots from ischemic stroke patients to study the association between histological composition and stroke etiology METHODS: Consecutive patients enrolled in the Stroke Thromboembolism Registry of Imaging and Pathology (STRIP) were included in this study. All patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy and retrieved clots were sent to a central core lab for processing. Histological analysis was performed using martius scarlet blue (MSB) staining, and quantification for red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), fibrin and platelets was performed using Orbit Image Software. A Wilcoxon test was used for continuous variables and χ test for categorical variables.

Results: 1350 patients were included in this study. The overall rate of Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2c/3 was 68%. 501 patients received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (37%). 267 patients (20%) had a large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) source, 662 (49%) a cardioembolic (CE) source, 301 (22%) were cryptogenic, and the remainder had other identifiable sources including hypercoagulable state or dissection. LAA thrombi had a higher mean RBC density (46±23% vs 42±22%, p=0.01) and a lower platelet density (24±18% vs 27±18%, p=0.03) than CE thrombi. Clots from dissection patients had the highest mean RBC density (50±24%) while clots from patients with a hypercoagulable state had the lowest mean RBC density (26±21%).

Conclusions: Our study found statistically significant but clinically insignificant differences between clots of CE and LAA etiologies. Future studies should emphasize molecular, proteomic and immunohistochemical characteristics to determine links between clot composition and etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017167DOI Listing
July 2021

Age-adjusted infarct volume cut-off points improve stroke outcome prognostication beyond modeling with age and infarct volume.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Background: Age and infarct volume are among the most powerful predictors of outcome after large vessel occlusion acute strokes (LVOS).

Objective: To study the impact of age-adjusted final infarct volume (FIV) on functional outcomes.

Methods: Review of a prospectively collected thrombectomy database at a tertiary care center between September 2010 and February 2018. Consecutive patients with anterior circulation LVOS who achieved full reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 3) were categorized into four age groups: (G1) <60 years, (G2) 60-69, (G3) 70-79, (G4) ≥80 years. The Youden Index was used to identify the optimal FIV cut-off point for good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) discrimination in each group and the overall population. The predictive ability of these specific thresholds was evaluated using binary logistic regressions and compared with the non-age-adjusted cut-off point.

Results: 516 patients were analyzed (G1: n=171, G2: n=130, G3: n=103, G4: n=112). Patients with poor outcome had a larger FIV in each group (p<0.01 for all). The target FIV cut-off point decreased with increased age: G1: 45.7 mL (sensitivity 56%, specificity 80%); G2: 30.4 mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 75%); G3: 20.2 mL (sensitivity 76%, specificity 65%); G4: 16.9 mL (sensitivity 68%, specificity 70%). The non-age-adjusted cut-off point was 19.2 mL (sensitivity 70%, specificity 59%).In multivariate analysis, adjusting for confounders including age and FIV, achieving a FIV less than the age-adjusted threshold was an independent predictor of good outcome (aOR=2.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 5.24, p<0.001). In contrast, a similar model including the non-age-adjusted target cut-off point failed to reveal an association with good outcome (aOR=1.72, 95% CI 0.93 to 3.19, p<0.085). Furthermore, the latter model had a weaker outcome predictive ability as assessed by the Akaike information criterion (409 vs 403).

Conclusions: Age-adjusted infarct volume represents a strong outcome discriminator beyond age and infarct volume in isolation and might help to refine patient selection and improve outcome prognostication in stroke thrombectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017066DOI Listing
March 2021

Endothelial Shear Stress and Platelet FcγRIIa Expression in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:646309. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States.

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) has been characterized by the degree of arterial stenosis and downstream hypoperfusion, yet microscopic derangements of endothelial shear stress at the luminal wall may be key determinants of plaque growth, vascular remodeling and thrombosis that culminate in recurrent stroke. Platelet interactions have similarly been a principal focus of treatment, however, the mechanistic basis of anti-platelet strategies is largely extrapolated rather than directly investigated in ICAD. Platelet FcγRIIa expression has been identified as a potent risk factor in cardiovascular disease, as elevated expression markedly increases the risk of recurrent events. Differential activation of the platelet FcγRIIa receptor may also explain the variable response of individual patients to anti-platelet medications. We review existing data on endothelial shear stress and potential interactions with the platelet FcγRIIa receptor that may alter the evolving impact of ICAD, based on local pathophysiology at the site of arterial stenosis. Current methods for quantification of endothelial shear stress and platelet activation are described, including tools that may be readily adapted to the clinical realm for further understanding of ICAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.646309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947292PMC
February 2021

Clinical effectiveness of endovascular stroke treatment in the early and extended time windows.

Int J Stroke 2021 Apr 20:17474930211005740. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosciences, Drexel Neurosciences Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: The clinical efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy has been unequivocally demonstrated in multiple randomized clinical trials. However, these studies were performed in carefully selected centers and utilized strict inclusion criteria.

Aim: We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy in a prospective registry.

Methods: A total of 2008 patients from 76 sites across 12 countries were enrolled in a prospective open-label mechanical thrombectomy registry. Patients were categorized into the corresponding cohorts of the SWIFT-Prime, DAWN, and DEFUSE 3 trials according to the basic demographic and clinical criteria without considering specific parenchymal imaging findings. Baseline and outcome variables were compared across the corresponding groups.

Results: As compared to the treated patients in the actual trials, registry-derived patients tended to be younger and had lower baseline ASPECTS. In addition, time to treatment was earlier and the use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) and general anesthesia were higher in DAWN- and DEFUSE-3 registry derived patients versus their corresponding trials. Reperfusion rates were higher in the registry patients. The rates of 90-day good outcome (mRS0-2) in registry-derived patients were comparable to those of the patients treated in the corresponding randomized clinical trials (SWIFT-Prime, 64.5% vs. 60.2%; DAWN, 50.4% vs. 48.6%; Beyond-DAWN: 52.4% vs. 48.6%; DEFUSE 3, 52% vs. 44.6%, respectively; all  > 0.05). Registry-derived patients had significant less disability than the corresponding randomized clinical trial controls (ordinal modified Rankin Scale (mRS) shift odds ratio (OR),  < 0.05 for all).

Conclusion: Our study provides favorable generalizability data for the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in the "real-world" setting and supports that patients may be safely treated outside the constraints of randomized clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211005740DOI Listing
April 2021

Epidemiological Surveillance of the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Stroke Care Using Artificial Intelligence.

Stroke 2021 05 4;52(5):1682-1690. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Mount Sinai Health System, New York (C.P.K., J.M.).

Background And Purpose: The degree to which the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected systems of care, in particular, those for time-sensitive conditions such as stroke, remains poorly quantified. We sought to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in the overall screening for acute stroke utilizing a commercial clinical artificial intelligence platform.

Methods: Data were derived from the Viz Platform, an artificial intelligence application designed to optimize the workflow of patients with acute stroke. Neuroimaging data on suspected patients with stroke across 97 hospitals in 20 US states were collected in real time and retrospectively analyzed with the number of patients undergoing imaging screening serving as a surrogate for the amount of stroke care. The main outcome measures were the number of computed tomography (CT) angiography, CT perfusion, large vessel occlusions (defined according to the automated software detection), and severe strokes on CT perfusion (defined as those with hypoperfusion volumes >70 mL) normalized as number of patients per day per hospital. Data from the prepandemic (November 4, 2019 to February 29, 2020) and pandemic (March 1 to May 10, 2020) periods were compared at national and state levels. Correlations were made between the inter-period changes in imaging screening, stroke hospitalizations, and thrombectomy procedures using state-specific sampling.

Results: A total of 23 223 patients were included. The incidence of large vessel occlusion on CT angiography and severe strokes on CT perfusion were 11.2% (n=2602) and 14.7% (n=1229/8328), respectively. There were significant declines in the overall number of CT angiographies (-22.8%; 1.39-1.07 patients/day per hospital, <0.001) and CT perfusion (-26.1%; 0.50-0.37 patients/day per hospital, <0.001) as well as in the incidence of large vessel occlusion (-17.1%; 0.15-0.13 patients/day per hospital, <0.001) and severe strokes on CT perfusion (-16.7%; 0.12-0.10 patients/day per hospital, <0.005). The sampled cohort showed similar declines in the rates of large vessel occlusions versus thrombectomy (18.8% versus 19.5%, =0.9) and comprehensive stroke center hospitalizations (18.8% versus 11.0%, =0.4).

Conclusions: A significant decline in stroke imaging screening has occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis underscores the broader application of artificial intelligence neuroimaging platforms for the real-time monitoring of stroke systems of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078127PMC
May 2021

Balloon guide catheter improvements in thrombectomy outcomespersist despite advances in intracranial aspiration technology.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Interventional Neuroradiology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

Background: First-pass effect (FPE) has been established as a key metric for technical success and strongly correlates with better clinical outcomes. Most data supporting improved outcomes with the use of a balloon guide catheter (BGC) predate the advent of last-generation large-bore intracranial aspiration catheters. We aim to evaluate the impact of BGC in FPE and clinical outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with contemporary technology.

Methods: Patients were recruited from the prospectively ongoing ROSSETTI registry. This registry includes all consecutive patients with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion (LVO) from 10 comprehensive stroke centers in Spain. Demographic, clinical, angiographic, and clinical outcome data were compared between BGC and non-BGC groups. FPE was defined as the achievement of mTICI2c-3 after a single device pass.

Results: 426 patients were included out of which 271 (63.62%) used BCG. BGC-treated patients had higher FPE rate (45.8% vs 27.7%; P<0.001), higher final mTICI ≥2 c recanalization rate (76.8% vs 50.3%, respectively; P<0.001), shorter procedural time [median (IQR), 30 (19-58) vs 43 (33-71) min; P<0.001], higher NIHSS difference from admission to 24 hours [median (IQR), 8 (2-12) vs 3 (0-10); P=0.001], and lower mortality rate (17.6% vs 29.8%, P=0.026) compared with non-BGC patients. BGC use was an independent predictor of FPE (OR 2.197, 95% CI 1.436 to 3.361; P<0.001), and excellent clinical outcome at 3 months (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.68; P=0.002).

Conclusions: Our results support the benefit of BGC use on angiographic and clinical outcomes in anterior circulation LVO ischemic stroke remain significant even when considering recent improvements in intracranial aspiration technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017027DOI Listing
February 2021