Publications by authors named "Raul Allende-Molar"

5 Publications

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First Report of Stem Canker of Tomato Caused by in Mexico.

Plant Dis 2020 Sep 14. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Research Center for Food and Development, Plant Pathology, km 5.5 carretera a Eldorado, Culiacan, SINALOA, Mexico, 80110;

Tomato ( L.) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. During 2015 and 2016, symptoms of stem canker were observed on tomato plants in two greenhouses located in the states of Sinaloa and San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Symptomatic plants exhibited dark brown cankers on stems and brown discoloration of the pith, as well as chlorosis, senescence of leaves, and wilting. At the base of diseased plants, orange-red perithecia were developed. Disease incidence ranged 1-5% in the two greenhouses. Pieces from symptomatic stems were surface disinfested by immersion in a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water, and placed in Petri plates containing acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA). The plates were incubated at 25 ºC for 6 days under a 12-h photoperiod. -like colonies were consistently isolated and 10 monoconidial isolates were obtained. A representative isolate of each site was selected for morphological characterization, phylogenetic analysis, and pathogenicity tests. The two isolates were deposited in the Culture Collection of Phytopathogenic Fungi at the Research Center for Food and Development (accession nos. CCLF11 and CCLF12). Colonies on PDA at 25°C for 7 days exhibited moderate and cream aerial mycelium. Microscopic examination showed falciform, hyaline macroconidia (= 100), 4- to 5-septate, measuring 40 to 75 × 4 to 6 µm. Microconidia (= 100) were cylindrical, hyaline, 0- to 1-septate, measuring 7.8 to 9.5 × 3.1 to 4.8 µm. Chlamydospores were absent. To further identify the pathogen, total DNA was extracted, and the RNA polymerase's second largest subunit (RPB2) and a portion of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primers 5f2 (Liu et al. 1999)/7cr (Reeb et al. 2004) and EF1-728F/EF1-986R (Carbone and Kohn 1999), respectively. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. RPB2: MT263727, MT263728; and TEF1-α: MT249025, MT249026). A phylogenetic analysis was performed by the Maximum Likelihood method with a combined dataset of RPB2 and TEF-1α sequences for and species (Sandoval-Denis and Crous 2018). The phylogenetic tree grouped the two isolates CCLF11 and CCLF12 within the clade with 99% of bootstrap support. Pathogenicity of the two isolates was verified by inoculation of colonized PDA plugs (5 mm diameter) on the wounded stem surface of 10 2-month-old tomato plants from cv. Sun 6200. Ten control plants were inoculated with PDA plugs without mycelia. All plants were kept under greenhouse conditions at 25 to 35°C and regularly watered. Symptoms of stem canker were observed on all inoculated plants after 15 days, whereas stems from control plants remained healthy. After 45 days, perithecia were observed on stem cankers. Koch´s postulates were fulfilled when the fungus was re-isolated from the stems of inoculated plants and not from control plants. has been previously reported causing stem canker of tomato in greenhouses in Canada and the USA (Moine et al. 2014). To our knowledge, this is the first report of causing stem canker of tomato in Mexico. This fungal pathogen represents a severe threat and has the potential to cause significant yield losses in tomato greenhouses, so further research is required to define effective management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1187-PDNDOI Listing
September 2020

Aggressiveness and molecular characterization of spp. associated with foot rot and wilt in Tomato in Sinaloa, Mexico.

3 Biotech 2019 Jul 20;9(7):276. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

1Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Carretera Culiacán-Eldorado km 17.5, C.P. 80000 Culiacán, Sinaloa Mexico.

wilt is one of the main limiting factors for tomato production in Mexico. One thousand and fifty isolates were obtained from vascular tissues tomato plants showing wilt and yellowing symptoms in Sinaloa, Mexico. The pathogenic isolates were evaluated through phylogenetic analysis of the TEF-1α gene and ITS region, morphological markers and pathogenicity tests. Within the 15 pathogenic isolates, 7 were identified as and 8 as . Phylogenetic analysis of f. sp. and isolates confirmed that both populations are constituted by distinct phylogenetic lineages. The isolates showed differences in aggressiveness; was the most aggressive. Isolates of both complexes triggered similar aerial symptoms of yellowing and darkening of the vascular tissues in tomato plants. But only isolates triggered necrosis in the plant crowns. Morphological markers allowed differentiating isolates from distinct complexes but not differentiating between lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1808-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586728PMC
July 2019

Diversity of mucoralean fungi in soils of papaya (Carica papaya L.) producing regions in Mexico.

Fungal Biol 2018 08 23;122(8):810-816. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Research Center for Food and Development, A.C. Carr. El Dorado, km 5.5, Campo el Diez, 80110, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. Electronic address:

Mexico is the fifth largest producer of papaya worldwide and has recently reported problems with mucoralean fungi in this crop. These fungi are considered saprophytes in the soil and are ubiquitous in nature. In this work, they were isolated from soil in regions of intensive papaya cultivation in Mexico. Collections were made in the states of Colima, Oaxaca and Veracruz in Apr 2016. A total of 72 mucorales fungal isolates was obtained and morphologically characterized and then molecular characterization (28S ribosomal region) of 25 representative isolates was carried out. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences confirmed the presence of the species Gilbertella persicaria, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor circinelloides and Mucor hiemalis, which cause soft rot in papaya fruits, therefore, spores of these fungi found in the orchard soils can be considered as a constant source of contamination that affects healthy fruits. Additionally, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Mucor ellipsoideus, Rhizopus homothallicus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus schipperae, Lichteimia ramosa, Gongronella butleri, Cunninghamella bertholletiae and Cunninghamella blakesleeana were identified which are considered to have agricultural, biotechnological and medical importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2018.04.008DOI Listing
August 2018

Fast technique for the identification of Gilbertella persicaria via optical microscopy.

J Microbiol Methods 2017 11 9;142:36-38. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Research Center for Food and Development, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. Electronic address:

Gilbertella persicaria is an important phytopathogen that is confused with Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. The main distinguishing characteristic of G. persicaria is the presence of appendages in sporangiospores, and their observation by conventional staining techniques generally fails. A technique is described using light microscopy for fast and reliable diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2017.09.004DOI Listing
November 2017

Enrichment and genotypic diversity of phlD-containing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. in two soils after a century of wheat and flax monoculture.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2006 Mar;55(3):351-68

Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6430, USA.

Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) play a key role in the suppressiveness of some soils to take-all of wheat and other diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. Soils from side-by-side fields on the campus of North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA, which have undergone continuous wheat, continuous flax or crop rotation for over 100 years, were assayed for the presence of 2,4-DAPG producers. Flax and wheat monoculture, but not crop rotation, enriched for 2,4-DAPG producers, and population sizes of log 5.0 CFU g root(-1) or higher were detected in the rhizospheres of wheat and flax grown in the two monoculture soils. The composition of the genotypes enriched by the two crops differed. Four BOX-PCR genotypes (D, F, G, and J) and a new genotype (T) were detected among the 2,4-DAPG producers in the continuous flax soil, with F- and J-genotype isolates dominating (41 and 39% of the total, respectively). In contrast, two genotypes (D and I) were detected in the soil with continuous wheat, with D-genotype isolates comprising 77% of the total. In the crop-rotation soil, populations of 2,4-DAPG producers generally were below the detection limit, and only one genotype (J) was detected. Under growth-chamber and field conditions, D and I genotypes (enriched by wheat monoculture) colonized the wheat rhizosphere significantly better than isolates of other genotypes, while a J-genotype isolate colonized wheat and flax rhizospheres to the same extent. This study suggests that, over many years of monoculture, the crop species grown in a field enriches for genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producers from the reservoir of genotypes naturally present in the soil that are especially adapted to colonizing the rhizosphere of the crop grown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2005.00038.xDOI Listing
March 2006