Publications by authors named "Ratha-Korn Vilaichone"

101 Publications

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile by Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Approach in Clinical Practice: Opportunity and Challenge.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 May 13;11(5). Epub 2022 May 13.

Helicobacter pylori and Microbiota Study Group, Institute of Tropical Diseases, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.

The burden of bacterial resistance to antibiotics affects several key sectors in the world, including healthcare, the government, and the economic sector. Resistant bacterial infection is associated with prolonged hospital stays, direct costs, and costs due to loss of productivity, which will cause policy makers to adjust their policies. Current widely performed procedures for the identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria rely on culture-based methodology. However, some resistance determinants, such as free-floating DNA of resistance genes, are outside the bacterial genome, which could be potentially transferred under antibiotic exposure. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to profiling antibiotic resistance offer several advantages to overcome the limitations of the culture-based approach. These methodologies enhance the probability of detecting resistance determinant genes inside and outside the bacterial genome and novel resistance genes yet pose inherent challenges in availability, validity, expert usability, and cost. Despite these challenges, such molecular-based and bioinformatics technologies offer an exquisite advantage in improving clinicians' diagnoses and the management of resistant infectious diseases in humans. This review provides a comprehensive overview of next-generation sequencing technologies, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics in assessing antimicrobial resistance profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9137939PMC
May 2022

The role of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases.

Gut Pathog 2022 May 23;14(1):19. Epub 2022 May 23.

Helicobacter pylori and Microbiota Study Group, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Over the past decade, the development of next-generation sequencing for human microbiota has led to remarkable discoveries. The characterization of gastric microbiota has enabled the examination of genera associated with several diseases, including gastritis, precancerous lesions, and gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is well known to cause gastric dysbiosis by reducing diversity, because this bacterium is the predominant bacterium. However, as the diseases developed into more severe stages, such as atrophic gastritis, premalignant lesion, and gastric adenocarcinoma, the dominance of H. pylori began to be displaced by other bacteria, including Streptococcus, Prevotella, Achromobacter, Citrobacter, Clostridium, Rhodococcus, Lactobacillus, and Phyllobacterium. Moreover, a massive reduction in H. pylori in cancer sites was observed as compared with noncancer tissue in the same individual. In addition, several cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis were found. Among these individuals, there was an enrichment of Paludibacter, Dialister, Streptococcus, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Treponema. These remarkable findings suggest the major role of gastric microbiota in the development of gastroduodenal diseases and led us to the hypothesis that H. pylori might not be the only gastric pathogen. The gastric microbiota point of view of disease development should lead to a more comprehensive consideration of this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13099-022-00494-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9125830PMC
May 2022

Plasma Cystatin C Level is a Prognostic Marker of Morbidity and Mortality in Hospitalized Decompensated Cirrhotic Patients.

J Med Invest 2021 ;68(3.4):302-308

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Introduction : Cystatin C (CysC) is biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there is limited evidence in decompensated cirrhotic patients without AKI at admission. This study aimed to assess CysC as a predictor of 90-day mortality. Methods : Decompensated cirrhotic patients without AKI were prospectively enrolled. CysC and creatinine were measured within 24 hours of admission and compared between patients with in-hospital complications (AKI, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF)) vs. those without, and survivors vs. non-survivors. The AUROC and cut-off point of CysC in predicting 90-day mortality were determined. Results : Of 137 decompensated cirrhotic patients, 46 without AKI at admission were included (58.7% male, age 60.8 ± 11.2years, MELD 13.1 ± 5.1, ChildA / B / C 43.5% / 39.1% / 17.4%). The mean CysC level tended to be higher in patients with ACLF (1.52 ± 0.60 vs. 1.11 ± 0.28, p = 0.05), and significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors (1.61 ± 0.53 vs. 1.08 ± 0.28, p = 0.013). The 90-day mortality rate was 21.7%. After adjusting with age and bacterial infection on admission, CysC level  ≥ 1.25 mg / L was significantly associated with 90-day mortality. The CysC cut-off level  ≥ 1.25 mg / L provided 80% sensitivity and 75% specificity for predicting 90-day mortality. Conclusion : Plasma CysC within 24 hours could be used as a predictor for 90-day mortality and development of ACLF in decompensated cirrhotic patients. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 302-308, August, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2152/jmi.68.302DOI Listing
November 2021

Endoscopic Diagnosis for H. pylori Infection: White Light Imaging (WLI) vs. Image-Enhanced Endoscopy (IEE).

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Sep 1;22(9):3031-3038. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Center of Excellence in Digestive Diseases and Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Helicobacter pylori infection is a class I carcinogen that can lead to gastric cancer. Early diagnosis and eradication of H. pylori infection are important to eliminate the risk of gastric cancer. Several invasive diagnostic techniques require biopsy samples, resulting in avoidable injury and medical expense. Furthermore, due to the localized distribution of H. pylori, random biopsies are not always reliable in diagnosing H. pylori infection. This article aimed to review endoscopic findings and new endoscopic options for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Using conventional white light imaging (WLI) and image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), the endoscopic features associated with histological changes have increasingly become apparent. Real-time endoscopy is essential to make a diagnosis of H. pylori infection and allow targeted biopsy. Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), such as narrow-band imaging (NBI), linked color imaging (LCI), and blue laser imaging (BLI), enhances visualization of the surface vascular pattern and provides accurate diagnostic performance in H. pylori infection, as well as gastric neoplastic lesions, compared to conventional white light endoscopy. In conclusion, the new endoscopic technologies could be used in current practice with conventional white light endoscopy for accurate and real-time diagnosis of H. pylori infection and pre-cancerous lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.9.3031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8850904PMC
September 2021

Efficacy of Zinc Supplement in Minimal hepatic Encephalopathy: A prospective, Randomized Controlled Study (Zinc-MHE Trial).

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Sep 1;22(9):2879-2887. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with cirrhosis of the liver has a negative impact on the quality of daily life by impairing attention, memory and visuomotor coordination, and resulting in cognitive decline. Ammonia is thought to be part of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Zinc is an essential trace element, one of the cofactor enzymes that is essential for the conversion of ammonia to urea.

Aim: To assess the effect of zinc supplementation on psychomotor performance in cirrhotic patients with MHE.

Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial recruited 69 cirrhotic patients (age 18-75 years) diagnosed with MHE by neuropsychometric (NP) tests comprised of the number connection test part A (NCT-A), number connection test part B (NCT-B), serial dot test (SDT), line tracing test (LTT) and digit symbol test (DST). Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-based system block of four randomizations to receive 45 mg of elemental zinc or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the absolute change in NP tests from baseline to 12-weeks of zinc supplement compared with placebo. The assessment of changes of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the Short Form survey-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, as well as biochemical parameters including serum ammonia, was also conducted in both groups.

Results: From January to December 2020, 125 eligible cirrhotic patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, of whom 69 (55%) had MHE and were randomly assigned to treatment: 35 patients were assigned to receive 45 mg of elemental zinc and the others 34 patients to receive placebo. Significant improvements in NP tests were established in the zinc supplement group when compared with the placebo group (NCT-A, p = 0.029; NCT-B, p = 0.008; SDT, p = 0.002; DST, p = <0.001). A significant improvement of HRQOL assessed by the SF-36 score was only seen in the zinc group (p<0.001). In the zinc supplement group, not only was an improvement in psychomotor performance reported, but quality of life was also improved, irrespective of baseline zinc level.

Conclusion: Twelve weeks of zinc supplement in cirrhotic patients with MHE not only had a positive effect on psychomotor performance but also improved HRQOL irrespective to baseline zinc level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.9.2879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8850891PMC
September 2021

Antiviral treatment could not provide clinical benefit in management of mild COVID-19: A Retrospective Experience from Field hospital.

J Infect Public Health 2021 09 31;14(9):1206-1211. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Chairman of the Executive Committee, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected over 145 million infected people and 3 million deaths worldwide. There has been limited data to recommend either for or against use of antiviral regimens in mild COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to compare clinical outcomes between mild COVID-19 patients receiving antiviral drugs and those without.

Method: Thai patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at field hospital affiliated to Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand were evaluated between January 1, 2020 and April 13, 2021. Patients' data, clinical presentation, past medical history, laboratory results, and treatment outcomes were extensively reviewed.

Results: Five hundred patients with positive tests were included in the study. The mean age was 35.9 years; 46% males. There were 225 (45%), 207 (41.4%), 44 (8.8%), 18 (3.6%), 6 (1.2%) patients with asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19, respectively. Of 207 mild COVID-19 patients, 9 (4.3%) received lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir, 17 (8.2%) received favipiravir, while 175 (84.5%) had only supportive care. Mild COVID-19 patients receiving antiviral treatment had longer median length of hospital stay [13 days (IQR 11-14) vs. 10 days (IQR 8-12), p < 0.001] than patients having only supportive treatment. Antiviral drug use was significantly associated with longer hospital stay (>10 days) in mild COVID-19 patients (OR 5.52; 95%CI 2.12-14.40, p < 0.001). Adverse drug reactions such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hepatitis were also demonstrated in our COVID-19 patients with antiviral treatments. Majority of patients (97.6%) recovered without any complications and were discharged home. Two deaths were caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome from severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Conclusion: Antiviral treatment could not provide superior clinical outcomes to supportive care in mild COVID-19 patients. Mild COVID-19 patients receiving antiviral medication had longer length of hospital stay than those without. Standard supportive care and regular monitoring of disease progression might be keys for successful management of mild COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.07.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325384PMC
September 2021

Predictors for regression and progression of intestinal metaplasia (IM): A large population-based study from low prevalence area of gastric cancer (IM-predictor trial).

PLoS One 2021 11;16(8):e0255601. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu, Japan.

Background: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) can lead to gastric cancer. Until now, there have been limited studies of predictors for regression and progression of IM. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with regression or progression of IM for guiding proper management and prevention of gastric cancer.

Methods: 2,025 patients undergoing gastroscopy in Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand were enrolled during September 2017-August 2019. Patients' data including baseline characteristics, laboratory results, and histopathology of gastric biopsies from University medical database were extensively reviewed.

Results: 2,025 patients had mean age of 61.3 years and 44.2% were males. Overall H. pylori prevalence was 47.5%. There were 1,551(76.6%) patients with chronic gastritis and 361(17.8%) with IM. Of 400 patients with chronic gastritis having follow-up endoscopy and repeated gastric biopsies, 104(26%) had persistent H. pylori infection and 27(26%) developed IM during mean follow-up time of 24 months. Persistent H. pylori infection was significantly associated with development of IM (OR 3.16, 95%CI 1.56-6.39, p = 0.001). Regression, persistence, and progression of IM were demonstrated in 57.3%, 39.2%, and 3.5% of patients, respectively. Age >65 years, persistent H. pylori infection, and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with persistent IM or progression to dysplasia with OR 2.47(95%CI 1.33-4.61, p = 0.004), OR 2.64(95%CI 1.13-6.18, p = 0.025), and OR 2.54(95%CI 1.16-5.54, p = 0.019), respectively. Patients without H. pylori infection had more IM regression than patients with persistent infection (60.4%vs.39.4%, p = 0.035). Patients with persistent H. pylori infection significantly had higher IM progression to dysplasia (15.2%vs.2.1%; OR 11.15, 95%CI 1.18-105.24, p = 0.035) than noninfected. During 24 months of study, 30 patients (1.5%) were diagnosed with gastric cancer.

Conclusion: Regression of IM could be achieved by successful H. pylori eradication. Persistent H. pylori infection was significantly associated with development and progression of IM to dysplasia. Age >65 years and diabetes mellitus were also significant predictors for IM progression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255601PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357097PMC
November 2021

Frailty as tested by the Liver Frailty Index is associated with decompensation and unplanned hospitalization in patients with compensated cirrhosis.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 10 1;56(10):1210-1219. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background And Aims: Frailty is associated with morbidity and mortality in advanced cirrhosis. However, the information on the association between frailty and outcome in compensated cirrhosis is scarce. We aimed to explore the prognostic impact of frailty in compensated cirrhosis.

Methods: Compensated cirrhotic patients were prospectively enrolled. Frailty was defined by the Liver Frailty Index (LFI). Development of new hepatic decompensation (worsening ascites, portal hypertension-related bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, or acute kidney injury), unplanned hospitalization, and decompensation-free survival were recorded. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by SF-36 questionnaire.

Results: 152 patients were included (MELD 9.2 ± 3.4, Child-Pugh A/B 84.9%/15.1%), and 24.3% were frail. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, age > 65 years, MELD score > 10, and Child-Pugh B were associated with frailty. Compared to the robust group, pre-frail and frail patients had significantly higher cumulative 1-year probabilities of developing decompensation (0% 8.5% 18.4%,  = .009), and unplanned hospitalization (0% 13.5% 34.2%,  < .001), and lower 1-year decompensation-free survival (100% 90.8% 80.4%,  = .014). Two models of multivariable Cox regression analysis were done adjusted with MELD-Na and Child-Pugh B, frailty was associated with developing decompensation (HR 3.01,  = .04; and 2.98,  = .04, respectively) and unplanned hospitalization (HR 2.46,  = .02; and 2.39,  = .03, respectively), but not the decompensation-free survival. By multivariable linear regression analysis, Child-Pugh B and frailty significantly decreased both physical and mental component scores of the SF-36 questionnaire.

Conclusion: Frailty is prevalent in compensated cirrhosis. The LFI provides additional prognostic values to recognized risk scores regarding the development of decompensation, hospitalization, and impaired QoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1957497DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical Features and Overall Survival of Females with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study and Review of the Literature in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Int J Womens Health 2021 22;13:717-725. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medicine, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine (CICM) at Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes more than 200,000 women deaths annually. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features, provide prognostic factors for female patients with HCC, and performed a literature review on them in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of female patients with HCC at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand between January 2009 and January 2019. Furthermore, important aspects of female patients with HCC in the ASEAN published in PubMed and Scopus up to October 2020 were extensively reviewed.

Results: A total of 187 female patients with HCC were included (mean age 65.7±11.9 years). Elderly females were diagnosed with HCC at a more advanced stage than younger individuals (37.0% vs 23.2%, p=0.049, OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.00-3.78) and the younger group had a significantly higher overall 2-year survival rate than the elderly group (65.0% vs 45.5%, p=0.03, OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.09-4.57). Abdominal pain (HR 9.89, 95% CI 2.85-34.38, p<0.001), ascites at presentation (HR 2.77, 95% CI 1.11-6.92, p=0.03), ruptured hepatoma (HR 14.68, 95% CI 12.60-83.09, p=0.002), advanced-stage HCC (HR 9.74, 95% CI 1.89-50.26; p=0.007), and serum hypoalbuminemia (HR 4.67, 95% CI 1.62-13.50, p=0.004) were significantly associated with poor survival rate. From the ASEAN, a total of 543 females HCC patients from 6 studies were extensively reviewed. Chronic hepatitis B infection was among the pre-existing liver disease leading to HCC in ASEAN. HCC in females of the ASEAN occurred most often at an advanced age and had a grave prognosis.

Conclusion: HCC affects a large number of females, especially in Thailand and the ASEAN, is diagnosed at an advanced stage and had a grave prognosis. Abdominal pain, ascites, ruptured HCC, advanced-stage HCC, and serum hypoalbuminemia are associated with poor prognosis. Early detection of HCC and prompt treatment in patients at risk could result in better survival outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S311419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314927PMC
July 2021

Helicobacter pylori eradication improves motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease patients: A prospective cohort study (HP-PD trial).

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0251042. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a bacterium associated with many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and has shown a high prevalence in Parkinson's disease (PD). As HP-associated GI dysfunction could affect L-dopa (levodopa) absorption, HP eradication might improve the clinical response and decrease motor fluctuations.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the clinical symptoms of PD patients with motor fluctuations. The 13C-urea breath test was used to diagnose a current HP infection. All patients with HP infection received a 2-week regimen of triple therapy. The changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score, L-dopa onset time, wearing-off symptoms, mean daily on-off time, GI symptom scores, and quality of life score were measured at baseline and at a 6-week follow-up.

Results: A total of 163 PD patients were assessed, of whom 40 were enrolled. Fifty-five percent of the enrolled patients (22/40) had a current HP infection, whereas HP eradication was identified in 17 of 22 (77.3%) patients who received eradication therapy. Patients with HP eradication showed a significant decrease in daily 'off' time (4.0 vs. 4.7 h, p = 0.040) and an increase in daily 'on' time (11.8 vs. 10.9 h, p = 0.009). Total wearing-off score (4.4 vs. 6.0, p = 0.001) and the GI symptom score (8.1 vs. 12.8, p = 0.007) were significantly improved. There was no significant improvement in L-dopa onset time, UPDRS motor score, or quality of life score.

Conclusions: HP eradication leads to significant clinical improvement in the symptoms of PD. Eradication of HP not only increases the total daily 'on' time but also decreases wearing-off symptoms and improves GI symptoms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251042PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096108PMC
October 2021

FBPAII and rpoBC, the Two Novel Secreted Proteins Identified by the Proteomic Approach from a Comparative Study between Antibiotic-Sensitive and Antibiotic-Resistant Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastritis Strains.

Infect Immun 2021 05 17;89(6). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

infection is the leading cause of chronic gastritis, which can develop into gastric cancer. Eliminating infection with antibiotics achieves the prevention of gastric cancer. Currently, the prevalence of resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole, and the dual resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin (C_R, M_R, and C/M_R, respectively), remains at a high level worldwide. As a means of exploring new candidate proteins for the management of infection, secreted proteins from antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant -associated gastritis strains were obtained by in-solution tryptic digestion coupled with nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS). A total of 583, 582, 590, and 578 differential expressed proteins were identified from C_R, M_R, C/M_R, and antibiotic-sensitive strain (S_S) samples, respectively. Of these, 23 overlapping proteins were found by Venn diagram analysis. Based on heat map analyses, the most and least differing protein expressions were observed from C/M_R strains and S_S strains, respectively. Of the proteins secreted by the S_S strain, only nine were found. After predicting the protein interaction with metronidazole and clarithromycin via the STITCH database, the two most interesting proteins were found to be rpoBC and FBPAII. After quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, a downregulation of from M_R strains was observed, suggesting a relationship of to metronidazole sensitivity. Inversely, an upregulation of from C_R, M_R, and C/M_R strains was noticed, suggesting the paradoxical expression of FBPAII and the gene. This report is the first to demonstrate the association of these two novel secreted proteins, namely, rpoBC and FBPAII, with antibiotic-sensitive associated gastritis strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00053-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315936PMC
May 2021

Serum Helicobacter pylori antibody reactivity in seven Asian countries using an automated latex aggregation turbidity assay.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 9;36(8):2198-2209. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu, Japan.

Background And Aim: To determine the application range of diagnostic kits utilizing anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody, we tested a newly developed latex aggregation turbidity assay (latex) and a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E-plate), both containing Japanese H. pylori protein lysates as antigens, using sera from seven Asian countries.

Methods: Serum samples (1797) were obtained, and standard H. pylori infection status and atrophy status were determined by culture and histology (immunohistochemistry) using gastric biopsy samples from the same individuals. The two tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and latex) were applied, and receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed.

Results: Area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic of E-plate and latex curves were almost the same and the highest in Vietnam. The latex AUC was slightly lower than the E-plate AUC in other countries, and the difference became statistically significant in Myanmar and then Bangladesh as the lowest. To consider past infection cases, atrophy was additionally evaluated. Most of the AUCs decreased using this atrophy-evaluated status; however, the difference between the two kits was not significant in each country, but the latex AUC was better using all samples. Practical cut-off values were 3.0 U/mL in the E-test and 3.5 U/mL in the latex test, to avoid missing gastric cancer patients to the greatest extent possible.

Conclusions: The kits were applicable in all countries, but new kits using regional H. pylori strains are recommended for Myanmar and Bangladesh. Use of a cut-off value lower than the best cut-off value is essential for screening gastric cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15467DOI Listing
August 2021

Gastrointestinal manifestation as clinical predictor of severe COVID-19: A retrospective experience and literature review of COVID-19 in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

JGH Open 2020 Dec 12;4(6):1096-1101. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Thammasat University Hospital Khlong Nueng Thailand.

Background And Aim: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has caused over 200 000 deaths worldwide. Thailand announced the first confirmed case outside mainland China in January 2020. The disease also spread widely across Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Gastrointestinal manifestations could be presenting symptoms of COVID-19. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 patients in Thailand and review important aspects of this disease in ASEAN.

Methods: Thai patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand, were evaluated between 1 January 2020 and 30 April 2020. Patients' data, clinical presentation, exposure risk, past medical history, laboratory results, and treatment outcomes were extensively reviewed.

Results: A total of 352 COVID-19 tests were performed, and 40 patients with positive tests were studied. The mean age was 30.5 years, and 55% were female. Most (82.5%) had no underlying diseases. Comorbidities were associated with severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 29.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31-388.40, = 0.009). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 12 patients (30%). The most common presenting symptoms were anorexia (17.5%) and diarrhea (15%). Gastrointestinal symptoms developed before (9.1%), concurrent with (63.6%), and after (27.3%) respiratory symptoms. Diarrhea was significantly associated with severe COVID-19 (OR 38.52; 95% CI 3.11-476.70, = 0.004). Twenty-four patients (60%) received antiviral drugs; 40% had only supportive care. Only one patient required intensive care. No patient died.

Conclusions: Gastrointestinal manifestations in COVID-19 patients are common symptoms and can occur anytime during the disease course. Patients presenting with only gastrointestinal symptoms should raise clinical suspicion for COVID-19 in areas with high disease incidence. Clinically severe COVID-19 was associated with comorbidities and diarrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731825PMC
December 2020

Prognostic factors for survival in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 02 19;4(1):e1305. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Gastroenterology Unit, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Gastric cancer ranks as a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Information of prognostic factors related to gastric cancer are limited.

Aim: This study aimed to gather clinical data and prevalence of prognostic factors related to gastric adenocarcinoma in Thailand.

Methods And Results: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand between January 2010 and July 2018. Gastric adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled and followed up for at least 5 years. Total of 210 gastric tumor patients were enrolled. One hundred patients were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinomas (57 men and 43 women, mean age = 61.1 years). The leading presenting symptoms were weight loss (65%), followed by dyspepsia (54%) and UGI bleeding. Common clinical manifestations were thrombocytosis (26%), followed by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH; 15%). Eosinophilia was present in early cancer (25.0% vs 6.5%, P = .123), while SIADH and thrombocytosis were more common in advanced stages (16.3% vs 0%, P = .602, and 28.3% vs 0%, P = .108, respectively). SIADH was significantly related to reduced 1-year survival rate compared to normal serum sodium levels (21.4% vs 71.4%, OR 0.109, 95% CI 0.024-0.497, P = .004). Five-year survival rates were worse in patients with SIADH, but better in patients with eosinophilia compared to patients without these conditions (0% vs 27.8%, P = .058 and 20.0% vs 7.8%, P = .375, respectively).

Conclusion: Thrombocytosis and SIADH were common in gastric cancer. SIADH was significantly correlated with poor 1-year survival. These clinical manifestations might be useful for predicting gastric cancer prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnr2.1305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941448PMC
February 2021

Predictors for development of complete and incomplete intestinal metaplasia (IM) associated with H. pylori infection: A large-scale study from low prevalence area of gastric cancer (IM-HP trial).

PLoS One 2020 1;15(10):e0239434. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Digestive Diseases Research Center (DRC), Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is precancerous lesion of gastric cancer related to H. pylori infection. There has been limited data about IM and associated risk factors. This study aimed to determine risk factors related to development of IM to guide proper management.

Methods: 1,370 patients undergoing UGI endoscopy at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand were included between January 2018-August 2019. Patients' data including baseline characteristics, laboratory results, and histopathology from medical database were extensively reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for p53 expression from gastric biopsies was also performed.

Results: Overall H. pylori prevalence was 43.8%. Mean age was 60.7 years and 45% of whom were males. Chronic gastritis was observed in 1,064(77.7%) patients, while 223(16.3%) had IM. Of 223 patients with IM, 194(87%) patients had complete IM, while 29 (13%) had incomplete IM. In groups of complete and incomplete IM, current H. pylori infection rates were 66.5% and 58.6%, respectively. The BMI of incomplete IM group(27.4) was significantly higher than BMI of complete IM group (23.6). Overweight and obese patients (BMI ≥23 kg/m2) were significantly associated with higher risk for the development of incomplete IM (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.14-9.27, p = 0.027). Males, age >50 years, and current H. pylori infection were significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis group with OR 1.43 (95%CI 1.01-2.03, p = 0.048), OR 1.67 (95% CI 1.08-2.57, p = 0.021), and OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.29-4.30, p<0.001), respectively. During 20 months of study, there were 15 patients (1.1%) diagnosed with gastric cancer and 1-year survival rate was only 60%.

Conclusions: Males, age >50 years, and current H. pylori infection are significant predictors for the presence of intestinal metaplasia. BMI might be beneficial for using as a predictive risk factor to reduce the development of incomplete intestinal metaplasia. H. pylori eradication could be an effective way to prevent the development of gastric precancerous lesions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239434PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529201PMC
November 2020

Population-based study of Helicobacter pylori infection and antibiotic resistance in Bhutan.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Aug 29;97:102-107. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan.

Objectives: Bhutan suffers from a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer-related mortality. In preparation for a countrywide H. pylori eradication program, the antibiotic resistance patterns of H. pylori infection were surveyed in different geographical regions.

Methods: Dyspeptic patients in 6 districts including Thimphu, Punakha, Wangdue, Trongsa, Bumthang, and Haa underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during GASTROCAMP and were enrolled between December 2010 and April 2015. Gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease test, histopathology, and H. pylori culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was later performed if the culture was positive.

Results: A total of 1178 patients were surveyed. The overall H. pylori infection in Bhutan was 66.2%. Punakha had the highest prevalence of H. pylori infection (85.6%). Thimphu and Punakha (city areas) had higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than rural districts (73.5% vs 63.3%, OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.13, p=0.0008). There were 357 patients (30.3%) with positive H. pylori culture completed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The mean age was 40.5 years with female predominance (57.1%). No amoxicillin resistant strains were found. Metronidazole resistance was 81% followed by levofloxacin resistance (8.1%). Clarithromycin (2%) and tetracycline (0.6%) resistance was rare except in Thimphu, the capital city (10%) vs 0% in rural areas, p<0.001. The metronidazole resistance rate remained stable at approximately 80% during the past 5 years of study. Levofloxacin-resistant strains gradually rose from 5.3% in 2010 to 9.9% in 2015.

Conclusions: Bhutan had a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Metronidazole resistance was extremely high, whereas clarithromycin resistance was quite low in this specific area. Antibiotic resistance pattern could be good evidence for guiding a proper treatment regimen for H. pylori infection in Bhutan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.077DOI Listing
August 2020

Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Koh Kong, Cambodia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 May 1;21(5):1409-1413. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan.

Background: Gastric cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Cambodia, can be prevented by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. There is limited data about H. pylori strains in Cambodia. This study aimed to evaluate H. pylori prevalence and antibiotic resistance in Koh Kong, Cambodia.

Methods: 118 Cambodian dyspeptic patients were scheduled to enter this study and 58 were enrolled between July and September 2019. All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. 3 gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease test, H. pylori culture with E-test and GenoType® HelicoDr (Hain Lifescience factory, Germany). 3-mL blood sample was collected for CYP2C19 genotyping.

Results: 58 subjects were enrolled (40 females, 18 males, mean age 43.8 years). Overall H. pylori prevalence was 31.0%. Antibiotic resistance rates were 78.6% for metronidazole, 50.0% for fluoroquinolones, and 27.8% for clarithromycin. There was no amoxicillin and tetracycline resistance. More than half of H. pylori strains (57.1%) were multidrug-resistant. Most (35.7%) were resistant to metronidazole and quinolone. Poor, intermediate and rapid metabolizers were 5.5%, 38.9% and 55.6%, respectively.

Conclusions: H. pylori infection remains common infection in Cambodia. High prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin and multidrug-resistant H. pylori is still major problems in Cambodia. Treatment regimens without clarithromycin and quinolone such as 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy might be an appropriate choice for H. pylori eradication in this particular area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.5.1409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541852PMC
May 2020

Efficacy of Omeprazole, Tetracycline, and 4 Times Daily Dosing of Amoxicillin in Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Limited Resource Area in Bhutan: A Prospective Randomized Trial (BHUTAN Study).

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 Apr 1;21(4):1109-1114. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan.

Backgrourd: H. pylori-associated gastric cancer is the first cancer-related death in Bhutan. Effective regimen for H. pylori eradication is essential to reduce risk of developing gastric cancer. Clarithromycin is not widely used in this limited resource country. Aim of this study was to evaluate proper regimen and prevalence of antibiotic resistance pattern for H. pylori eradication in Bhutan.

Methods: Five hundred and forty-six patients underwent gastroscopy during GASTROCAMP between October 2014 and April 2015 in Bhutan and 77 patients were enrolled. Four gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease test, histopathology, H. pylori culture with Epsilometer test. All H. pylori-positive patients were randomized to receive either 7-day or 14-day of 500 mg amoxicillin four times daily, 500 mg tetracycline four times daily, and 20 mg omeprazole twice daily.

Results: Seventy-seven subjects were enrolled (54 females, 23 males, mean age = 45.4 years). Of 77 patients, 52 (67.5%) received 7-day regimen while 25 (32.5%) had 14-day regimen. Prevalence of H. pylori was 38.2%. Antibiotic resistance was 80.0% for metronidazole, 11.1% for levofloxacin and no resistance seen in amoxicillin, tetracycline and clarithromycin. Overall eradication rates of 7-day and 14-day regimens were 51.9% and 80.0%, p = 0.02. Female and age ≥40 years had significantly higher eradication rate when receiving 14-day compared to 7-day regimen (94.1% vs. 45.9%, OR = 18.82; 95% CI 2.26-157.02, p = 0.0007 and 86.7% vs. 50.0%, OR = 6.50; 95% CI 1.25-33.91, p = 0.02, respectively).

Conclusions: Fourteen-day regimen might be an acceptable regimen for H. pylori eradication in limited resource area such as Bhutan. Female and age ≥40 years should receive longer duration of treatment. This 14-day regimen could at least reduce the risk of developing H. pylori-associated diseases especially peptic ulcer with complications and gastric cancer which lead to many deaths in Bhutan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.4.1109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445957PMC
April 2020

Anti-, Anti-Inflammatory, Cytotoxic, and Antioxidant Activities of Mace Extracts from .

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 29;2020:7576818. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Division of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand.

The aril (mace) of , known as Dok-Chan, is a spice that has long been used for treating stomach discomfort, peptic ulcer, and nausea. It is an ingredient in many remedies in Thai traditional medicine, e.g., Ya-Hom-Thep-Bha-Jit, Ya-Hom-Nao-Wa-Kot, and Ya-That-Bun-Job, which are used to treat dyspepsia and other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of mace were used for all tests. Anti activities were determined by the disc diffusion method and agar dilution. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in a RAW264.7 cell line, and cytotoxicity was determined against gastric cancer cell lines (Kato III) using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical cation decolorization assays were used to determine the antioxidant activities. The result found that the ethanolic extract of mace exhibited antimicrobial activity against ATCC 43504 and six clinical strains with MIC values of 125-250 g/ml. The aqueous extract MICs against ATCC reference strain and six clinical strains were 500 g/ml compared with 0.5 g/ml for the positive control, clarithromycin. The inhibitory effect of LPS-induced NO release and cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extract had IC values of 82.19 g/ml and 26.06 g/ml, respectively, and the EC values for the DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays were 13.41 g/ml and 12.44 g/ml, respectively. The mace extract also had anticancer properties. In conclusion, the ethanolic mace extract had anti-, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. These data support further preclinical and clinical investigation to see if the mace extract could have a role in treating patients with dyspepsia, peptic ulcers, and possibly gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7576818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146089PMC
March 2020

Serum pepsinogens as a gastric cancer and gastritis biomarker in South and Southeast Asian populations.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(4):e0230064. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Division of Gastroenterohepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine-Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Serum pepsinogens have been widely acknowledged as gastric mucosal biomarkers; however, a multicountry report on the benefits of pepsinogens as biomarkers has not yet been published. We analyzed 1,206 sera and gastric mucosal samples collected from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand then assessed the association between gastric mucosal changes and Helicobacter pylori infection. The new cutoff values for serum pepsinogen values were evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. The participants with H. pylori infection had significantly lower pepsinogen I and higher pepsinogen II values, but a lower pepsinogen I/II ratio than participants without the infection (all P < .001). The pepsinogen I and pepsinogen I/II values were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in individuals with atrophic gastritis than in those without (both P < .001). Among uninfected individuals, only the pepsinogen I/II ratio was significantly lower in atrophic individuals. Pepsinogen I/II ratio also were significantly different between disease among H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative individuals, suggesting the pepsinogen I/II ratio is a robust biomarker for determining both chronic and atrophic gastritis. The cutoffs for detecting chronic and atrophic gastritis for the pepsinogen I/II ratio were 4.65 and 4.95, respectively. In conclusion, pepsinogen levels are useful biomarker for both chronic gastritis and atrophic gastritis, but they should be used with caution. Population-based validation is necessary to determine the best cutoff values. Among all pepsinogen values, the pepsinogen I/II ratio was the most reliable gastric mucosal-change biomarker.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230064PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145115PMC
July 2020

High Effective of 14-Day High-Dose PPI- Bismuth-Containing Quadruple Therapy with Probiotics Supplement for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication: A Double Blinded-Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 09 1;20(9):2859-2864. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Gastroenterology Unit, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is important risk factors for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy has recently been the first-line regimen recommended in many European countries but has limited efficacy in ASEAN especially Thailand. This study was aim to evaluate efficacy of high dose PPI Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy with probiotics supplement for H. pylori eradication. Methods: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, H. pylori infected patients were randomized to receive 7-or 14-day high dose PPI- bismuth-containing quadruple therapy with or without probiotics supplement. Probiotic was 37.5 mg Lactobacillus reuteri (Biogaia®) in tablet twice daily. CYP2C19 genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility tests were also done. H. pylori eradication was defined as a negative 13C-urea breath test at least 4 weeks after treatment. Results: 100 subjects were enrolled (72 females, 28 males, mean age=54 years). Antibiotic resistance was 15.6% for clarithromycin, 34.1% for metronidazole. CYP2C19 genotyping was performed in both group and revealed 13%, 50% and 37% for poor, intermediate and rapid metabolizers, respectively. Overall eradication rates of 7-day and 14-day regimens with probiotic were 68% and 96%; P value=0.027. The eradication rate for all patients with poor and rapid metabolizers were 100% with 14-day regimen. 14-day regimen with probiotics can provide 100% eradication with clarithromycin resistance, metronidazole resistance or dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance group. Furthermore, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, abdominal discomfort, and bitter taste were significantly lower in patients with probiotics group compared with placebo (6%vs.26%, P=0.002,OR=0.126,95% CI=0.03-0.53; 4%vs.18.0%, P=0.017, OR= 0.155,95% CI=0.03-0.81 and 4%vs.26%, P= 0.001,OR= 0.08, 95%CI= 0.016-0.41, respectively). Conclusions: The 14-day high dose PPI- bismuth-containing quadruple therapy with probiotic can provide an excellent cure rate for H. pylori infection as first line treatment irrespective of CYP2C19 and antibiotic resistance pattern. Adding probiotic also significantly reduced treatment-related adverse events and improve the patients’ compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976817PMC
September 2019

Characterization of a novel Helicobacter pylori East Asian-type CagA ELISA for detecting patients infected with various cagA genotypes.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2020 Feb 23;209(1):29-40. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, 879-5593, Japan.

Currently, Western-type CagA is used in most commercial Helicobacter pylori CagA ELISA kits for CagA detection rather than East Asian-type CagA. We evaluated the ability of the East Asian-type CagA ELISA developed by our group to detect anti-CagA antibody in patients infected with different cagA genotypes of H. pylori from four different countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The recombinant CagA protein was expressed and later purified using GST-tag affinity chromatography. The East Asian-type CagA-immobilized ELISA was used to measure the levels of anti-CagA antibody in 750 serum samples from Bhutan, Indonesia, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. The cutoff value of the serum antibody in each country was determined via Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cutoff values were different among the four countries studied (Bhutan, 18.16 U/mL; Indonesia, 6.01 U/mL; Myanmar, 10.57 U/mL; and Bangladesh, 6.19 U/mL). Our ELISA had better sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of anti-CagA antibody detection in subjects predominantly infected with East Asian-type CagA H. pylori (Bhutan and Indonesia) than in those infected with Western-type CagA H. pylori predominant (Myanmar and Bangladesh). We found positive correlations between the anti-CagA antibody and antral monocyte infiltration in subjects from all four countries. There was no significant association between bacterial density and the anti-CagA antibody in the antrum or the corpus. The East Asian-type CagA ELISA had improved detection of the anti-CagA antibody in subjects infected with East Asian-type CagA H. pylori. The East Asian-type CagA ELISA should, therefore, be used in populations predominantly infected with East Asian-type CagA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00634-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983352PMC
February 2020

Once-daily rabeprazole, levofloxacin, clarithromycin-MR, and bismuth for Helicobacter pylori eradication: A randomized study of 7 or 14 days (ONCE study).

Helicobacter 2019 Oct 7;24(5):e12615. Epub 2019 Jul 7.

National Digestive Diseases Research Center (NDRC), Pathumthani, Thailand.

Objective: Most therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication utilize multiple drugs given 2-4 times daily. Patient adherence has been an impediment to reliably achieving high success. This study evaluated a once-daily dosing H pylori eradication regimen.

Methods: A prospective randomized pilot study of H pylori eradication compared once-daily treatment regimen containing levofloxacin (750 mg), clarithromycin-MR (1 g), rabeprazole (60 mg), and bismuth subsalicylate (1,048 mg) for a 7 or 14 days. CYP2C19 genotype and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed. Successful eradication was defined as negative 13C-urea breath test at least 4 weeks after completion of treatment.

Results: 100 subjects were randomized (40 men, 60 women with mean age =54 years). The eradication rates were as follows: 94% (47/50; 95%CI 0.87-1.01) and 84% (42/50; 95%CI 0.73-0.95) with 14-day and 7-day therapy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.08-1.35, P = 0.06), respectively. Resistance rates were as follows: 13.0% for clarithromycin, 26.0% for fluoroquinolone, 2.9% for dual clarithromycin-fluoroquinolone resistance, and 62.8% for metronidazole. The 14-day regimen provided 100% eradication in patients with levofloxacin susceptible strain irrespective of the presence of clarithromycin resistance. CYP2C19 genotypes had no effect on cure rates.

Conclusions: The once-daily 14-day rabeprazole-, levofloxacin-, clarithromycin-MR-, and bismuth-containing therapy provided high eradication rate suggested that triple therapies with a PPI, bismuth, and clarithromycin-MR or levofloxacin would be highly effective for once-a-day tailored therapy or as empiric therapy for first-line regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12615DOI Listing
October 2019

High Efficacy of Rapid Urine Test for Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Thai People

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 May 25;20(5):1525-1529. Epub 2019 May 25.

Digestive Diseases Research Center of Thailand, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in further effective treatment. Rapid urine test (RAPIRUN) is a test developed for qualitative detection of urine H. Pylori antibody and use for determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. However, the test needs validation in Thai population before using in clinical practice. Objective: This study aimed to compare performance of different diagnostic tests on H. pylori detection in Thai population. Methods: Total of 94 patients with dyspepsia who referred to Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand, between December 2012 and April 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent gastroscopy. Then, 3 biopsies at antrum were taken for H. pylori diagnosis. including rapid urease test (Pronto Dry, Eisai, Thailand), H. pylori culture, and histopathology. Urine samples were also collected at the same time for rapid urine test (RAPIRUN H. pylori Antibody, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.). Patients were diagnosed with H. pylori-positive if their culture or rapid urease tests plus histopathology yielded positive results. Results: Total of 29 patients (30.9%) were infected with H. pylori. Prevalence of H. pylori infection by rapid urease test, histopathology, culture and rapid urine test were 25.5%, 28.7%, 29.8%, and 32.9% respectively. We observed that rapid urease test, histopathology, culture, and rapid urine test had sensitivity of 82.8%, 93.1%, 93.1% and 86.2%; specificity of 100%, 100%, 100%, and 90.8%; and accuracy of 95.7%, 97.9%, 97.9%, and 89.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Rapid urine test (RAPIRUN) provided a reliable result for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, this rapid urine test demonstrated high accuracy, reliable, safe handle and easy to use. We suggested rapid urine test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in Thai population since we found it less invasive and with higher reliable efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.5.1525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857864PMC
May 2019

N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Post-embolization Syndrome in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Transarterial Chemoembolization.

Dig Dis Sci 2019 11 9;64(11):3337-3345. Epub 2019 May 9.

Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

Background: Post-embolization syndrome is a common complication after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known to ameliorate liver damage from several causes.

Aim: To determine the efficacy of intravenous NAC in the prevention of post-embolization syndrome in HCC patients following TACE.

Methods: In this study, patients with HCC admitted for TACE were prospectively enrolled. All patients were randomized stratified by Child A or B to receive NAC or placebo. The NAC group received intravenous NAC 24 h prior to TACE (150 mg/kg/h for 1 h followed by 12.5 mg/kg/h for 4 h, then continuous infusion 6.25 mg/h for 48 h after the procedure). The placebo group received an infusion of 5% glucose solution until 48 h after procedure. The post-embolization syndrome was defined as: T ≥ 38.5 c and serum ALT > 3 times of pretreatment value.

Results: In total, 111 HCC patients were enrolled; 57 were randomly assigned to NAC group and 54 to placebo group. The incidence of post-embolization syndrome was lower in NAC group (24.6%) compared to placebo group (48.2%); P = 0.01. On multivariate analysis, receiving IV NAC (P = 0.03) and HCC diameter (P < 0.01) were associated with developing post-embolization syndrome. Post-TACE liver decompensation was documented in 26/111 (23.4%) patients. There was no difference in the incidence of post-TACE liver decompensation between NAC and placebo group.

Conclusions: In this study, intravenous NAC administration reduces the incidence of post-embolization syndrome after TACE in patients with HCC. However, it does not prevent post-TACE liver decompensation.

Trial Registration Number: This study was registered with Thai Clinical Trial Registry (TCTR20150313002).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05652-0DOI Listing
November 2019

CYP2C19 Genotype, CagA Genotype and Antibiotic Resistant Strain of Helicobacter pylori Infection

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 Apr 29;20(4):1243-1247. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand. Email:

Background: H. pylori is a class I carcinogen and major cause of gastric cancer. Few previous studies reported relationship between H. pylori infection, CYP2C19 genotype and functional dyspepsia (FD) subtype. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between CYP2C19 genotype and FD subtype patients(host factor) with antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori infection and CagA genotype(bacterial factor). Methods: FD patients who were investigated with gastroscopy at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand during March 2017-November 2017 were enrolled. Two antral gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease test, E-test and cultures. CagA genotypes (CagA1a and CagA2a) were determined by PCR and CYP2C19 genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP. FD patients were categorized as epigastric pain syndrome(EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). Results: 93 FD patients with H. pylori infection were enrolled (37 male, 56 female, mean age 54.5 years). There were 33 patients with EPS and 60 patients with PDS. CYP2C19 genotype revealed 55.9% rapid metabolizer (RM), 40.9% intermediate metabolizer (IM) and 3.2% poor metabolizer (PM) genotypes. Antibiotics susceptibility tests demonstrated 62.8% resistant to metronidazole, 12.9% resistant to clarithromycin and 27.1% resistant to fluoroquinolone. CagA 1a and CagA 2a were demonstrated in 6 patients(11.5%) and 46 patients(88.5%). CagA2a genotype was more prevalent in PDS than EPS patients (94.3%vs.76.5%; P =0.08) without significance. In intermediate metabolizer (IM), CagA2a genotype was significant higher in PDS than EPS(100% vs.25%; P=0.004). Conclusions: PDS, CYP2C19 RM genotype and CagA 2a gene of H. pylori infection were the predominant type of FD in Thailand. Metronidazole remain the most common antibiotic resistant strain of H. pylori infection in FD patients. PDS (host factor) was significantly related to CagA2a genotype (bacterial factors) only in patients with intermediate metabolizer. Appropriate dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and correct regimens for H. pylori eradication in FD patients should be consider to improve clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.4.1243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948911PMC
April 2019

Risk Factors and Prognosis of Spontaneously Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thailand

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Dec 25;19(12):3629-3634. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand. Email:

Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fatal cancer worldwide. Spontaneously Rupture remains important complication of HCC. The incidence of spontaneous HCC rupture was high in ASEAN but limited studies were reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors and overall survival of ruptured HCC in tertiary care center in Thailand. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HCC patients aged ≥15 years old during January 2012-January 2016 and followed up through June 2016 at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. All clinical information, laboratory and radiologic findings were collected from reviewing computer data base of medical records. Results: 333 patients had completely retrievable information. Of which, 51patients (15.3%) had spontaneous ruptured HCC. Clinical symptoms with abdominal discomfort and anemic symptoms were significantly higher in ruptured than non-ruptured HCC groups. (76.47% vs.39.36%: p<0.001, 13.73vs.0.71%, p<0.001). Furthermore, size of tumors, presences of metastasis and serum AFP>200 ng/mL were significantly higher in ruptured than non-ruptured HCC groups (10.29cm. vs. 6.47cm. p<0.001, 17.65% vs. 8.16%, p=0.034, 60.78% vs. 36.88%, p=0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, age, abdominal discomfort, anemic symptoms, Child-Pugh score>6 were independent risk factors of HCC rupture (OR=0.96, 95%CI=0.93-0.99, p=0.02; OR=3.47, 95%CI=1.26-9.6, p=0.016; OR=54.51, 95%CI=7.09-418.89, p<0.001; OR=2.62, 95%CI=1.09-6.31, p=0.031, respectively). 1-year and 2-year survival rates of ruptured HCC were 66.9% and 44.6% respectively. Conclusions: Age, abdominal discomfort, anemic symptoms and Child-Pugh score>6 might be predictive factors of spontaneous ruptured HCC. Ruptures of HCC remained a fatal disease with poor survival rate in Thailand. Appropriate treatment in early stage could be effective tool to improve the treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2018.19.12.3629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428545PMC
December 2018

Helicobacter pylori Infection and Related Gastrointestinal Diseases in Southeast Asian Countries: An Expert Opinion Survey

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Dec 25;19(12):3565-3569. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Hochiminh City, Hochiminh, Vietnam.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is currently considered as an infectious disease irrespective of symptoms and stage of disease. This study aimed to survey the impact of H. pylori infection and the current management approaches in Southeast Asian countries. Materials and methods: This is a survey among 26 experts from 9 Southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), who attended a meeting to develop the ASEAN consensus on H. pylori management in November 2015. Results: The prevalence of H. pylori varied significantly from 20% to 69% among countries, highest in Myanmar and lowest in Malaysia. The rate of H. pylori infection in patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer (GC) also varied significantly, not only among countries but also among regions within the same country. The most common method for H. pylori diagnosis before treatment was rapid urease test, followed by urea breath test. In multi-ethnic countries, some ethnic groups including Chinese, Batak and Minahasanese were considered as having higher risk of GC. There have been no national screening programs for GC in all countries, and a majority of patients with GC were diagnosed in advanced stages with very poor 5-year survival. Conclusions: The prevalence of H. pylori infection and its infection rates in related gastrointestinal diseases were significantly different among Southeast Asian countries. The prognosis of patients with GC in the region was very poor. The result of this survey is a platform for future international and regional research collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2018.19.12.3565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428556PMC
December 2018

Thailand Dyspepsia Guidelines: 2018.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Jan;25(1):15-26

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross, Bangkok, Thailand.

The management of dyspepsia in limited-resource areas has not been established. In 2017, key opinion leaders throughout Thailand gathered to review and evaluate the current clinical evidence regarding dyspepsia and to develop consensus statements, rationales, levels of evidence, and grades of recommendation for dyspepsia management in daily clinical practice based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. This guideline is mainly focused on the following 4 topics: (1) evaluation of patients with dyspepsia, (2) management, (3) special issues (overlapping gastroesophageal reflux disease/irritable bowel syndrome and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug/aspirin use), and (4) long-term follow-up and management to provide guidance for physicians in Thailand and other limited-resource areas managing such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm18081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326203PMC
January 2019
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