Publications by authors named "Rassoul Dinarvand"

230 Publications

Porphyrin Molecules Decorated on Metal-Organic Frameworks for Multi-Functional Biomedical Applications.

Biomolecules 2021 11 17;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been widely used as porous nanomaterials for different applications ranging from industrial to biomedicals. An unpredictable one-pot method is introduced to synthesize NH-MIL-53 assisted by high-gravity in a greener media for the first time. Then, porphyrins were deployed to adorn the surface of MOF to increase the sensitivity of the prepared nanocomposite to the genetic materials and in-situ cellular protein structures. The hydrogen bond formation between genetic domains and the porphyrin' nitrogen as well as the surface hydroxyl groups is equally probable and could be considered a milestone in chemical physics and physical chemistry for biomedical applications. In this context, the role of incorporating different forms of porphyrins, their relationship with the final surface morphology, and their drug/gene loading efficiency were investigated to provide a predictable pattern in regard to the previous works. The conceptual phenomenon was optimized to increase the interactions between the biomolecules and the substrate by reaching the limit of detection to 10 pM for the Anti-cas9 protein, 20 pM for the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), below 10 pM for the single guide RNA (sgRNA) and also around 10 nM for recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen. Also, the MTT assay showed acceptable relative cell viability of more than 85% in most cases, even by increasing the dose of the prepared nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11111714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8615380PMC
November 2021

Cationic Liposome Decorated with Cyclic RGD Peptide for Targeted Delivery of anti-STAT3 siRNA to Melanoma Cancer Cells.

J Drug Target 2021 Sep 6:1-34. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1417614411, Tehran, Iran.

Gene therapy is regarded as a valuable strategy for efficient cancer treatment. However, the design of effective delivery systems that can deliver gene materials such as siRNA specifically to the tumour tissues plays a pivotal role in cancer therapy. For this reason, a targeted cationic liposome for melanoma treatment was developed. This system consists of cyclic RGD peptide conjugated to DSPE-PEG2000, cholesterol, DOTAP, and DSPC as cationic and neutral lipids, respectively. Cyclic RGD was selected based on speculation that cyclic RGD would effectively transport anti-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) siRNA into melanoma cell integrin receptors. The prepared liposomes provided excellent stability against electrolyte and serum nucleases. Targeted liposomes remarkably exhibited higher cellular internalisation in comparison with the non-targeted system in flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, incorporating peptide on the surface of liposomes resulted in considerably high cytotoxicity, a 2.1-times raise in apoptosis induction, and a significantly enhanced STAT3 gene suppression as compared with the corresponding non-targeted formulation on B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Whole-body imaging confirmed the more significant tumour accumulation of targeted liposomes in B16F10 melanoma xenograft tumour-bearing mice. Consequently, c-RGD peptide modified liposome suggests a promising option for specific siRNA delivery into melanoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2021.1973481DOI Listing
September 2021

Dual l-Carnosine/ Nanophytosomes with Synergistically Enhanced Protective Effects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Angiogenesis Impairment.

Mol Pharm 2021 09 23;18(9):3302-3325. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1449614535, Iran.

Microvascular complications are among the major outcomes of patients with type II diabetes mellitus, which are the consequences of impaired physiological functioning of small blood vessels and angiogenic responses in these patients. Overproduction and accumulation of methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl byproduct of glycolysis pathway, has been acclaimed as the main inducer of impaired angiogenic responses and microvascular dysfunction in diabetic patients with uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Hence, an effective approach to overcome diabetes-associated microvascular complications is to neutralize the deleterious activity of enhanced the concentration of MGO in the body. Owing to the glycation inhibitory activity of whole extract, and capability of l-carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, in attenuating MGO's destructive activity, we examined whether application of a combination of l-carnosine and could be an effective way of synergistically weakening this reactive dicarbonyl's impaired angiogenic effects. Additionally, overcoming the poor cellular uptake and internalization of l-carnosine and , a nanophytosomal formulation of the physical mixture of two compounds was also established. Although l-carnosine and at whole studied combination ratios could synergistically enhance viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with MGO, the 25:1 w/w ratio was the most effective one among the others (27 ± 0.5% compared to 12 ± 0.3 to 18 ± 0.4%; F (4, 15) = 183.9, < 0.0001). Developing dual nanophytosomes of l-carnosine/ (25:1) combination ratio, we demonstrated superiority of the nanophytosomal formulation in protecting HUVECs against MGO-induced toxicity following a 24-72 h incubation period (17.3, 15.8, and 12.4% respectively). Moreover, 500 μg/mL concentration of dual l-carnosine/ nanophytosomes exhibited a superior free radical scavenging potency (63 ± 4 RFU vs 83 ± 5 RFU; F (5, 12) = 54.81, < 0.0001) and nitric oxide synthesizing capacity (26.11 ± 0.19 vs 5.1 ± 0.33; F (5, 12) = 2537, < 0.0001) compared to their physical combination counterpart. Similarly, 500 μg/mL dual l-carnosine/ nanophytosome-treated HUVECs demonstrated a superior tube formation capacity (15 ± 3 vs 2 ± 0.3; F (5, 12) = 30.87, < 0.001), wound scratch healing capability (4.92 ± 0.3 vs 3.07 ± 0.3 mm/h; F (5, 12) = 39.21, < 0.0001), and transwell migration (586 ± 32 vs 394 ± 18; F (5, 12) = 231.8, < 0.001) and invasion (172 ± 9 vs 115 ± 5; F (5, 12) = 581.1, < 0.0001) activities compared to the physical combination treated ones. Further confirming the proangiogenic activity of the dual l-carnosine/ nanophytosomes, a significant shift toward expression of proangiogenic genes including HIF-1α, VEGFA, bFGF, KDR, and Ang II was reported in treated HUVECs. Overall, dual l-carnosine/ nanophytosomes could be a potential candidate for attenuating type II DM-associated microvascular complications with an impaired angiogenesis background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00248DOI Listing
September 2021

SN38 loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs); preparation and in vitro evaluations against glioblastoma.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Jun 30;32(7):78. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

SN38 is the active metabolite of irinotecan with 1000-fold greater cytotoxicity compared to the parent drug. Despite the potential, its application as a drug is still seriously limited due to its stability concerns and low solubility in acceptable pharmaceutical solvents. To address these drawbacks here nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) containing SN38 was prepared and its cytotoxicity against U87MG glioblastoma cell line was investigated. The formulations were prepared using hot ultrasonication and solvent evaporation/emulsification methods. NLCs with a mean size of 140 nm and particle size distribution (PDI) of 0.25 were obtained. The average loading efficiency was 9.5% and its entrapment efficiency was 81%. In order to obtain an accurate determination of released amount of SN38 a novel medium and extraction method was designed, which lead to an appropriate in vitro release profile of the drug from the prepared NLCs. The MTT test results revealed the significant higher cytotoxicity of NLCs on U87MG human glioblastoma cell line compared with the free drug. The confocal microscopy images confirmed the proper penetration of the nanostructures into the cells within the first 4 h. Consequently, the results indicated promising potentials of the prepared NLCs as a novel treatment for glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-021-06538-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245372PMC
June 2021

Efficacy assessments of tretinoin-loaded nano lipid carriers in acne vulgaris: a double blind, split-face randomized clinical study.

Arch Dermatol Res 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, No. 415 Taleqani Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Here, we assessed the efficacy and safety of Nano lipid carrier (NLC) drug delivery system containing tretinoin (NLC-TRE) in comparison with the conventional 0.05% tretinoin cream (TRE cream) in mild to moderate acne vulgaris. A stable and appropriate NLC-TRE formulation was prepared using a high-pressure homogenizer and particle characterization and physicochemical properties were evaluated under accelerated conditions. Efficacy assessment was performed via a split-face clinical study, by comparing the number of acne lesions, porphyrin production and skin biophysical parameters in both sides of the face randomly treated with NLC-TRE and TRE cream. Plasma concentration of tretinoin after topical application of NLC-TRE was measured for primary safety evaluation. We acquired a stable, spherical nanoparticles with particle size of 118.5 nm, PI equal to 0.485 and ZP of - 44.7 mV. The rate of decrease of acne lesions was significantly higher in NLC- TRE side (p value < 0.001). The size and intensity of porphyrin production in pilosebaceous follicles were significantly reduced only on NLC-TRE side (p value < 0.01). The plasma concentration of the tretinoin, after 8 weeks' application remained lower than the toxic levels. The NLC-TRE formula provides better efficiency and good loading capacity of TRE in the drug delivery system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-021-02256-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Polyherbal combination for wound healing: Matricaria chamomilla L. and Punica granatum L.

Daru 2021 Jun 9;29(1):133-145. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) with astringent activities and Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile) with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties are natural remedies used for various skin disorders, including wound healing.

Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the individual and combined wound healing activity of the methanol extracts of pomegranate and chamomile flowers.

Methods: After preparing the menthol fraction of pomegranate and chamomile flowers, the content of total phenols, total tannins, and total flavonoids of fractions was measured. For standardization of pomegranate and chamomile fractions, Gallic acid and apigenin-7-O-glucoside contents of them were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, their antioxidant activities were examined using DPPH and FRAP tests. The antimicrobial assay was performed against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three different concentrations of methanol fraction of each plant and one combination dose of fractions were investigated for their wound healing activities in an excision wound model on the rats' dorsum. Finally, histopathological studies were done at the end of the experiment.

Results: Phytochemical examinations showed high amounts of phenolic compounds in pomegranate flowers, while chamomile flower fractions contained a high amount of total flavonoids. Both fractions, especially pomegranate, had potent antioxidant activity. The best results for wound closure were observed 7 days after wound induction. All treated groups exhibited superior wound contraction compared to their placebo at all measurement times. The combined form of pomegranate and chamomile had better wound healing properties compared to a single therapy, especially on time earlier to wound induction.

Conclusion: This study represented high antioxidant and wound healing activities for methanol fraction of pomegranate and chamomile flowers, which could be related to their high content of phytochemicals. In comparison with single herb treatment, the combined form of these two fractions in lower concentrations accelerated wound closure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-021-00392-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149548PMC
June 2021

Construction of a ternary nano-architecture based graphene oxide sheets, toward electrocatalytic determination of tumor-associated anti-p53 autoantibodies in human serum.

Talanta 2021 Aug 19;230:122276. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Almost 13% of all death in the world is related to cancer. One of the major reasons for failing cancer treatment is the late diagnosis of the tumors. Thus, diagnosis at the early stages could be vital for the treatment. Serum autoantibodies, as tumor markers, are becoming interesting targets due to their medical and biological relevance. Among them, anti-p53 autoantibody in human sera is found to be involved in a variety of cancers. Regarding this issue, a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor for detection of anti-p53 autoantibody has been developed. For this purpose, a nanocomposite including thionine (as an electron transfer mediator)/chitosan/nickel hydroxide nanoparticles/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (Th-CS-Ni(OH)NPs-ERGO) as a support platform was fabricated on the surface of glassy carbon electrode via a layer-by-layer manner and characterized through common electrochemical and imaging techniques. Then, p53-antigen was immobilized on the nanocomposite and used in an indirect immunoassay with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibody and HO as the substrate, following the typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Under optimized condition, two techniques, including differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) as a label free technique, applied for the biomarker detection. The linear ranges and LODs were obtained 0.1-500 pg mL and 0.001 pg mL using DPV and 5-150 pg mL and 0.007 pg mL using EIS, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed biosensor displayed satisfying stability, selectivity, and reproducibility. According to the results, the presented protocol is promising to develop other electrochemical biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122276DOI Listing
August 2021

Bio-multifunctional noncovalent porphyrin functionalized carbon-based nanocomposite.

Sci Rep 2021 03 23;11(1):6604. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14155-6451, Tehran, Iran.

Herein, in a one-pot method, the reduced graphene oxide layers with the assistance of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were decorated to provide a suitable space for the in situ growth of CoNiS, and the porphyrins were incorporated into the layers as well to increase the sensitivity of the prepared nanostructure. The prepared nanocomposite can establish π-π interactions between the genetic material and on the surface of porphyrin rings. Also, hydrogen bonds between genetic domains and the porphyrin' nitrogen and the surface hydroxyl groups are probable. Furthermore, the potential donor-acceptor relationship between the d transition metal, cobalt, and the genetic material provides a suitable way to increase the interaction and gene loading , and transfections. The reason for this phenomenon was optimized to increase the EGFP by up to 17.9%. Furthermore, the sensing ability of the nanocomposite towards HO was investigated. In this regard, the limit of detection of the HO obtained 10 µM. Also, the in situ biosensing ability in the HEK-293 and PC12 cell lines was evaluated by the addition of PMA. The nanocomposite showed the ability to detect the released HO after adding the minimum amount of 120 ng/mL of the PMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86119-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988124PMC
March 2021

Preparation and Safety Evaluation of Topical Simvastatin Loaded NLCs for Vitiligo.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Jan 7;11(1):104-110. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Pharmaceutical, Cosmeceutical and Hygienic Formulation Lab, Center for Research & Training in Skin Diseases & Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Vitiligo is a long-term common autoimmune disease in which growing patches of skin lose their color. There is no FDA-approved treatment for vitiligo. However, recent studies have demonstrated an immunosuppressive effect on vitiligo lesions in mouse models by simvastatin. A topical formulation was prepared containing simvastatin-loaded nano lipid carriers (simNLCs) for vitiligo treatment followed by evaluating their physicochemical characteristics and clinical safety. Both the lipid phase and the aqueous phase were heated to 75°C separately, and then simvastatin was dispersed in the lipid phase added to the aqueous phase. The mixture was homogenized for 1 minute, then for Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) formation, the emulsion was sonicated using a probe sonicator. The simNLCs produced were evaluated for drug entrapment, particle size and morphology, zeta potential, polydispersity index, viscosity, drug content, in vitro drug release, in vivo skin safety test, and long-term stability studies. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry techniques proved the formation of a stable formulation containing spherical particles with nanoscale size. The drug entrapment efficiency and the drug-loading capacity were determined to be 99.27% and 3.9%, respectively. Human safety results indicated that adding simvastatin to lipid nanoparticles did not cause any changes to skin biophysical parameters. The preparation method of simNLC developed in this study is a suitable method, and the nanoparticles fabricated were safe with acceptable long-term stability and drug entrapment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2021.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961223PMC
January 2021

Green chemistry and coronavirus.

Sustain Chem Pharm 2021 Jun 3;21:100415. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa.

The novel coronavirus pandemic has rapidly spread around the world since December 2019. Various techniques have been applied in identification of SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infection including computed tomography imaging, whole genome sequencing, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This review article discusses the diagnostic methods currently being deployed for the SARS-CoV-2 identification including optical biosensors and point-of-care diagnostics that are on the horizon. These innovative technologies may provide a more accurate, sensitive and rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to manage the present novel coronavirus outbreak, and could be beneficial in preventing any future epidemics. Furthermore, the use of green synthesized nanomaterials in the optical biosensor devices could leads to sustainable and environmentally-friendly approaches for addressing this crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scp.2021.100415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927595PMC
June 2021

Polymer-Coated NH-UiO-66 for the Codelivery of DOX/pCRISPR.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 23;13(9):10796-10811. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Herein, the NH-UiO-66 metal organic framework (MOF) has been green synthesized with the assistance of high gravity to provide a suitable and safe platform for drug loading. The NH-UiO-66 MOF was characterized using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. Doxorubicin was then encapsulated physically on the porosity of the green MOF. Two different stimulus polymers, p(HEMA) and p(NIPAM), were used as the coating agents of the MOFs. Doxorubicin was loaded onto the polymer-coated MOFs as well, and a drug payload of more than 51% was obtained, which is a record by itself. In the next step, pCRISPR was successfully tagged on the surface of the modified MOFs, and the performance of the final nanosystems were evaluated by the GFP expression. In addition, successful loadings and internalizations of doxorubicin were investigated via confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cellular images from the HeLa cell line for the [email protected]@pCRISPR and [email protected]@pCRISPR do not show any promising and successful gene transfections, with a maximum EGFP of 1.6%; however, the results for the p(HEMA)[email protected]@pCRISPR show up to 4.3% transfection efficiency. Also, the results for the p(NIPAM)[email protected]@pCRISPR showed up to 6.4% transfection efficiency, which is the first and superior report of a MOF-based nanocarrier for the delivery of pCRISPR. Furthermore, the MTT assay does not shown any critical cytotoxicity, which is a promising result for further biomedical applications. At the end of the study, the morphologies of all of the nanomaterials were screened after drug and gene delivery procedures and showed partial degradation of the nanomaterial. However, the cubic structure of the MOFs has been shown in TEM, and this is further proof of the stability of these green MOFs for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01460DOI Listing
March 2021

An in situ hydrogel-forming scaffold loaded by PLGA microspheres containing carbon nanotube as a suitable niche for neural differentiation.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 21;120:111739. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411, Iran; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are known to have a strong impact on cell behaviors in neural tissues. Due to complex physiology system and limited regenerative capacity of nervous system, neural tissue engineering has attracted attention as a promising strategy. In this study, we designed a hydrogel loaded by poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing carbon nanotubes (CNT) and the biochemical differentiation factors, as a scaffold, in order to replicate the neural niche for stem cell growth (and/or differentiation). Different formulations from Hyaluronic acid (H), Poloxamer (P), Ethoxy-silane-capped poloxamer (PE), and cross-linked Alginate (Alg) were utilized as an in situ gel structure matrix to mirror the mechanical properties of the ECM of CNS. Subsequently, conductivity, surface morphology, size of microspheres, and CNT dispersion in microsphere were measured using two probes electrical conductometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. According to SEM and fluorescent microscopy images, CNTs increased the porosity of polymeric structure, which, in turn, facilitated the adhesion of stem cells on the surface of microspheres compared with control. Microstructure and rheological behaviors of different gel compositions were investigated using SEM and parallel-plate oscillatory rheometer, respectively. The MTT assay showed the toxicity profile of hydrogels was appropriate for cell transplantation. The confocal images illustrated the 3D platform of P15%H10% and P20%H5% gel formulations containing the PLGA-CNT microspheres, which allows the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from MSC. The results of real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed neuronal differentiation capacity of cultured NSCs derived from MSC in the alginate gel that contained PLGA-CNT microspheres as well as other control groups. The dispersion of the CNT-PLGA microspheres, covered by NSCs, into alginate gel in the presence of induction factors was found to notably enhance the expression of Sox2-SYP and β-Tubulin III neuronal markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111739DOI Listing
January 2021

Combination Therapy of Breast Cancer by Codelivery of Doxorubicin and Survivin siRNA Using Polyethylenimine Modified Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 03 4;7(3):1074-1087. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14174, Iran.

Here, polyethylenimine (PEI) modified silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNPs) were prepared for codelivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and survivin siRNA. The prepared NPs were characterized in terms of stability and structural, functional, and physicochemical properties. Moreover, the ability of the conjugate to escape from the endosome and cellular uptake were assessed. Afterward, the therapeutic efficacy was analyzed in the mice model. The siRNA loaded PEI-SFNPs showed acceptable size, zeta potential, and stability in serum. It also effectively induced apoptosis in the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cell line. Cellular uptake and endosomal escape analyses confirmed that PEI-SFNPs containing siRNA could escape from the endosome and accumulate in the cytoplasm of 4T1 cells. Real time-PCR indicated the significant decrease in the expression of survivin mRNA in the 4T1 cell line 48 h postincubation with siRNA loaded PEI-SFNPs. biodistribution of PEI-SFNPs confirmed higher accumulation of SFNPs in the tumor site compared with other organs. The codelivery systems remarkably reduced the growth rate of breast tumor in the mice model without any obvious weight lost. Histopathological and tunnel staining exhibited more apoptotic tumor cells in the group containing both DOX and survivin siRNA. Tumorigenic breast tissue resected from the animals after treatment with siRNA also exhibited significant suppression of survivin gene. In conclusion, the prepared drug delivery system had an acceptable potential in tumor removal, apoptosis induction in cancer cells, and therapeutic efficacy. Thus, it would be a good candidate for breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01511DOI Listing
March 2021

Glutamate-urea-based PSMA-targeted PLGA nanoparticles for prostate cancer delivery of docetaxel.

Pharm Dev Technol 2021 Apr 4;26(4):381-389. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Targeted drug delivery is a tool to make treatment more specific, selective, and effective and to prevent unwanted complications. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a useful biomarker in order to monitor and control prostate cancer. Glutamate-Urea-R (Glu-Urea-R) is a PSMA enzyme inhibitor capable of binding to this surface marker of prostate cancer cell in an efficient and special manner. The aim of this project was to develop a docetaxel-loaded nanoparticle of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) polyethylene glycol which is cojugated to a urea-based anti-PSMA ligand named glutamate-urea-lysine (glu-urea-lys) for targeted delivery of docetaxel in prostate cancer. The obtained nanoparticles, prepared by nanoprecipitation method, were spheres with a particle size of around 150 nm and zeta potential of -7.08 mV. Uptake studies on the PC3 (as PSMA negative) and LNCaP (as PSMA positive) cells demonstrated that drug uptake was efficient by the PSMA positive cells. IC50 of targeted NPs on LNCaP cell line compared to non-targeted ones was reduced by more than 70% in three different incubation times of 24, 48, and 72 h. In conclusion, the nanoparticles are expected to specifically transport docetaxel to PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells and consequently, enhance the antitumor efficacy of docetaxel on these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2021.1875238DOI Listing
April 2021

Nanotechnology-assisted microfluidic systems: from bench to bedside.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 02 27;16(3):237-258. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

With significant advancements in research technologies, and an increasing global population, microfluidic and nanofluidic systems (such as point-of-care, lab-on-a-chip, organ-on-a-chip, etc) have started to revolutionize medicine. Devices that combine micron and nanotechnologies have increased sensitivity, precision and versatility for numerous medical applications. However, while there has been extensive research on microfluidic and nanofluidic systems, very few have experienced wide-spread commercialization which is puzzling and deserves our collective attention. For the above reasons, in this article, we review research advances that combine micro and nanotechnologies to create the next generation of nanomaterial-based microfluidic systems, the latest in their commercialization success and failure and highlight the value of these devices both in industry and in the laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2020-0353DOI Listing
February 2021

Efficacy of topotecan nanoparticles for intravitreal chemotherapy of retinoblastoma.

Exp Eye Res 2021 03 13;204:108423. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common intraocular malignancy in children that accounts for approximately 4% of all pediatric malignancies. Since chemotherapy is a widely practiced treatment for Rb, there is a growing interest in developing new and effective drugs to overcome systemic and local side effects of chemotherapy to improve the quality of life and increase the chances of survival. This study sought to fabricate thiolated chitosan nanoparticles containing topotecan (TPH-TCs-NPs) with a view of enhancing drug loading and release control. This research was also designed to assess the ability of TPH-TCs-NPs to improve cell association, increase treatment efficacy in retinoblastoma cells and xenograft-rat-model of retinoblastoma, and overcome current topotecan hydrochloride (TPH) intravitreal administration challenges, including stability loss and poor cellular uptake. Modified ionic gelation method was optimized to fabricate TPH-TCs-NPs and TPH-TMC-NPs (N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles containing TPH). We characterized the NPs and quantified topotecan loading and release against a free TPH standard. The efficacy of TPH-NPs was quantified in human retinoblastoma cells (Y79) by XTT and flow cytometry measurement. In addition, Y79 cells were injected intravitreally in both eyes of immunodeficient wistar albino rats to create a xenograft-rat-model to compare the antitumor effectiveness of TPH-NPs and TPH by intravitreal administration. TPH-NPs complexation was confirmed by EDX, FTIR, and DSC techniques. TPH-TCs-NPs and TPH-TMC-NPs had high encapsulation efficiency (85.23 ± 2 and 73.34 ± 2% respectively). TPH-TCs-NPs showed a mean diameter, polidispersity index, and zeta potential of 25±2 nm, 0.21 ± 0.03 and +12 ± 2 mV, respectively. As a function of dose, TCs and TMC NPs were more efficacious than free topotecan (IC50s 53.17 and 85.88 nM, relative to 138.30 nM respectively, P = 0.012). Kruskal-Wallis test showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. Additionally, a significant difference between the tumor control and TPH-TCs-NPs treated group in xenograft-rat-model ( Range of P-value: 0.026 to 0.035) was shown by Bonferroni post hoc test. The current investigation demonstrated enhanced efficacy and association of TPH-TCs-NPs relative to free TPH in retinoblastoma cells and tumor in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2020.108423DOI Listing
March 2021

The colorful world of carotenoids: a profound insight on therapeutics and recent trends in nano delivery systems.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 5:1-40. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

The therapeutic effects of carotenoids as dietary supplements to control or even treat some specific diseases including diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases, bacterial infections, as well as breast, prostate, and skin cancer are discussed in this review and also thoughts on future research for their widespread use are emphasized. From the stability standpoint, carotenoids have low bioavailability and bioaccessibility owing to their poor water solubility, deterioration in the presence of environmental stresses such as oxygen, light, and high heat as well as rapid degradation during digestion. Nanoencapsulation technologies as wall or encapsulation materials have been increasingly used for improving food product functionality. Nanoencapsulation is a versatile process employed for the protection, entrapment, and the delivery of food bioactive products including carotenoids from diverse environmental conditions for extended shelf lives and for providing controlled release. Therefore, we present here, recent (mostly during the last five years) nanoencapsulation methods of carotenoids with various nanocarriers. To us, this review can be considered as the first highlighting not only the potential therapeutic effects of carotenoids on various diseases but also their most effective nanodelivery systems.HighlightsBioactive compounds are of deep interest to improve food properties.Carotenoids (such as β-carotene and xanthophylls) play indispensable roles in maintaining human health and well-being.A substantial research effort has been carried out on developing beneficial nanodelivery systems for various carotenoids.Nanoencapsulation of carotenoids can enhance their functional properties.Stable nanoencapsulated carotenoids could be utilized in food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1867958DOI Listing
January 2021

Exosomes derived from miR-34a-overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells inhibit in vitro tumor growth: A new approach for drug delivery.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 9;266:118871. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: Exosomes hold great promise as bio-inspired delivery vehicles. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recognized for their potential to yield huge quantities of exosomes. We aimed to investigate the potential use of modified exosomes derived from genetically modified dental pulp MSCs (DPSCs) as a carrier to deliver tumor suppressor miR-34a to repress proliferation of breast carcinoma cells.

Materials And Methods: miR-34a-overexpressing DPSCs were prepared using XMIRXpress-34a lentivectors. The anticancer effects of the miR-34a-loaded exosomes were evaluated on breast carcinoma cells through apoptosis, migration, and invasion assays. Given the structural similarity between exosomes and liposomes, we compared the exosome-mediated miRNA delivery efficiency with that of liposomes.

Key Findings: Our data demonstrated that genetically modified DPSCs were capable of secretion of exosomes enriched with therapeutic miRNAs and presented the feasibility of application of exosome-based vehicle for gene delivery.

Significance: We showed the potential of MSC-derived exosomes as a tool for delivery of miRNAs in vitro. Nevertheless, optimizing gene-loading approaches is required before exosomes can be intended as a miRNA carrier for therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118871DOI Listing
February 2021

Optimization of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles for gene delivery, using design of experiment: in vitro and in vivo study.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 30;118:111036. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Gene therapy is a novel approach for cancer treatment and investigation for suitable gene delivery systems is remarkable. Here, preparation of a polyelectrolyte complex containing polysaccharides: trimethyl chitosan (TMC) as the positive and hyaluronate (HA), dextran sulfate and alginate as the negative part was studied. The optimized nanoparticles (TMC: between 0.2 and 0.47 mg/ml, HA: 0.35 mg/ml (≈131 nm, nearly full gene loading)) were obtained via primary screening followed by the D-optimal method. In vitro cellular study on the MCF7 cell line confirmed the non-toxicity and high cellular uptake (>90%) of prepared nanoparticles. Notably, in vivo study indicated noticeable tumor uptake of nanoparticles while low accumulation in vital organs such as heart, liver and lungs. Moreover, although a qualitative variable was considered, the applied method restricted the number of runs by selecting spots from the spherical atmosphere. The prepared nanoparticles could be suggested as an efficient and safe delivery system for cancer gene delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111036DOI Listing
January 2021

ZnAl nano layered double hydroxides for dual functional CRISPR/Cas9 delivery and enhanced green fluorescence protein biosensor.

Sci Rep 2020 11 26;10(1):20672. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Evaluation of the effect of different parameters for designing a non-viral vector in gene delivery systems has great importance. In this manner, 2D crystals, precisely layered double hydroxides, have attracted the attention of scientists due to their significant adjustability and low-toxicity and low-cost preparation procedure. In this work, the relationship between different physicochemical properties of LDH, including pH, size, zeta potential, and synthesis procedure, was investigated and optimized for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery and reverse fluorescence response to the EGFP. In this manner, ZnAl LDH and ZnAl HMTA LDH were synthesized and characterized and applied in the HEK-293 cell line to deliver CRISPR/Cas9. The results were optimized by different characterizations as well as Gel Electrophoresis and showed acceptable binding ability with the DNA that could be considered as a promising and also new gold-standard for the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9. Also, the relationship of the presence of tertiary amines (in this case, hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as the templates) in the structure of the ZnAl LDH, as well as the gene delivery application, was evaluated. The results showed more than 79% of relative cell viability in most of the weight ratios of LDH to CRISPR/Cas9; fully quenching the fluorescence intensity of the EGFP/LDH in the presence of 15 µg mL of the protoporphyrins along with the detection limit of below 2.1 µg mL, the transfection efficiency of around 33% of the GFP positive cell for ZnAl LDH and more than 38% for the ZnAl LDH in the presence of its tertiary amine template.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77809-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693303PMC
November 2020

Novel Pt-AgPO/CdS/Chitosan Nanocomposite with Enhanced Photocatalytic and Biological Activities.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Nov 23;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Regional Center of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Šlechtitelů 27, 78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Decorating photocatalysts with noble metal nanoparticles (e.g., Pt) often increases the catalysts' photocatalytic activity and biomedical properties. Here, a simple and inexpensive method has been developed to prepare a Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan composite, which was characterized and used for the visible light-induced photocatalytic and antibacterial studies. This synthesized composite showed superior photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation as a hazardous pollutant (the maximum dye degradation was observed in 90 min of treatment) and killing of Gram positive bacterial ( and ) as well as Gram negative bacteria (, , , and ) under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of CdS, CdS/AgPO, and Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan against , , , , , and showed the zone of inhibition (mm) under visible light and under dark conditions at a concentration of 20 µg mL. Furthermore, the cell viability of the CdS/chitosan, AgPO, AgPO/CdS/chitosan, and Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan were investigated on the human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293), Henrietta Lacks (HeLa), human liver cancer cell line (HepG2), and pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines. In addition, the results indicated that the photodegradation rate for Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan is 3.53 times higher than that of CdS and 1.73 times higher than that of the CdS/AgPO composite. Moreover, Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan with an optimal amount of CdS killed large areas of different bacteria and different cells separately in a shorter time period under visible-light irradiation, which shows significantly higher efficiency than pure CdS and other CdS/AgPO composites. The superb performances of this composite are attributed to its privileged properties, such as retarded recombination of photoinduced electron/hole pairs and a large specific surface area, making Pt-AgPO/CdS/chitosan a valuable composite that can be deployed for a range of important applications, such as visible light-induced photocatalysis and antibacterial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10112320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700689PMC
November 2020

Improved green biosynthesis of chitosan decorated Ag- and CoO-nanoparticles: A relationship between surface morphology, photocatalytic and biomedical applications.

Nanomedicine 2021 02 10;32:102331. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

[email protected] and [email protected] were fabricated with Salvia hispanica. Results showed MZI values of 5 and 30 mm for CoO-NPs- and [email protected] against S. aureus, and 15 and 21 mm for CoO-NPs- and [email protected] against E. coli (24 h, 20 μg/mL), respectively. MTT assays showed up to 80% and 90%, 71% and 75%, and 91% and 94% mammalian cell viability for the green synthesized, chemically synthesized AgNPs and green synthesized [email protected] for HEK-293 and PC12 cells, respectively, and 70% and 71%, 59% and 62%, and 88% and 73% for the related CoO-NPs (24 h, 20 μg/mL). The photocatalytic activities showed dye degradation after 135 and 105 min for [email protected] and [email protected], respectively. FESEM results showed differences in particle sizes (32 ± 3.0 nm for the AgNPs and 41 ± 3.0 nm for the CoONPs) but AFM results showed lower roughness of the [email protected] (7.639 ± 0.85 nm) compared to [email protected] (9.218 ± 0.93 nm), which resulted in potential biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102331DOI Listing
February 2021

How health transformation plan was designed and implemented in the Islamic Republic of Iran?

Int J Prev Med 2020 6;11:121. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Community Based Participatory Research Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Following his inauguration in late 2013, President Rouhani aimed to boost quality and equity in the health care delivery system. To fulfill this aim, a set of interventions, called Health Transformation Plan (HTP), were implemented. So far, it has been a heated debate whether HTP breathes a spirit of a new reform. HTP has targeted long-standing historical deficits of the Iranian health system as well as urgent problems, both of which have been, to some extent, resolved. To decrease Out-Of-Pocket (OOP) health expenditures, HTP has presented new financing mechanisms to expand a safety net to Iranian citizens fundamentally. HTP also encompassed interventions to overcome problems in the provision of health care by recruitment of health workforces, establishing new health facilities, and expanding primary health care to urban and peri-urban areas. Furthermore, performance indicators including access, quality, and patient satisfaction have been affected. Given these changes, HTP is entitled to be a health system reform. However, a new agenda within HTP is required so that the Iranian health system can obtain better value for money that is to be spending on it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_430_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554432PMC
August 2020

Appropriate Scaffold Selection for CNS Tissue Engineering.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2020 Oct-Dec;12(4):203-220

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cellular transplantation, due to the low regenerative capacity of the Central Nervous System (CNS), is one of the promising strategies in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The design and application of scaffolds mimicking the CNS extracellular matrix features (biochemical, bioelectrical, and biomechanical), which affect the cellular fate, are important to achieve proper efficiency in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation as well as integration with the surrounding tissue. Different studies on natural materials demonstrated that hydrogels made from natural materials mimic the extracellular matrix and supply microenvironment for cell adhesion and proliferation. The design and development of cellular microstructures suitable for neural tissue engineering purposes require a comprehensive knowledge of neuroscience, cell biology, nanotechnology, polymers, mechanobiology, and biochemistry. In this review, an attempt was made to investigate this multidisciplinary field and its multifactorial effects on the CNS microenvironment. Many strategies have been used to simulate extrinsic cues, which can improve cellular behavior toward neural lineage. In this study, parallel and align, soft and injectable, conductive, and bioprinting scaffolds were reviewed which have indicated some successes in the field. Among different systems, three-Dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a powerful, highly modifiable, and highly precise strategy, which has a high architectural similarity to tissue structure and is able to construct controllable tissue models. 3D bioprinting scaffolds induce cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation and promote the diffusion of nutrients. This method provides exceptional versatility in cell positioning that is very suitable for the complex Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of the nervous system.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502166PMC
October 2020

High-gravity-assisted green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles: the flowering of nanomedicine.

Nanomedicine 2020 11 12;30:102297. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigated the synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using a high-gravity technique mediated by Salvia hispanica leaf extracts. Biological assays confirmed their antibacterial activity against gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria with significant antioxidant activity in comparison with the standards as well as low cellular toxicity on PC12 and HEK293 cell lines. To the best of our knowledge, this study can be considered as the first investigation of Pd-NPs synthesized by Salvia hispanica leaf extracts assisted by a high-gravity technique. In addition, the mentioned green synthesis procedure led to the formation of nanoparticles with considerable antibacterial properties independent of the morphology and texture of the green media of these nanoparticles. Considering the increasing rate of antimicrobial resistant bacteria deaths worldwide, this study introduces a novel green synthesis method and non-antibiotic nanoparticle which should be studied for a wide range of medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102297DOI Listing
November 2020

Co-delivery of gemcitabine prodrug along with anti NF-κB siRNA by tri-layer micelles can increase cytotoxicity, uptake and accumulation of the system in the cancers.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Nov 6;116:111161. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran, Iran; Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Combination treatment based on gene and chemotherapy is a promising strategy for effective cancer treatment due to the limited therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Dual functional polymeric micelles (PMs) have been emerged as potent nanocarriers for combinational cancer therapy. In the present study, the potential of tri-layer PMs loaded with anti-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) siRNA and 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine (GemC18) has been investigated for cancer treatment. PMs with different core hydrophobicity were prepared by using poly(ε-caprolactone), polyethyleneimine and polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEI-PEG) copolymers and evaluated. The results revealed that GemC18-loaded PMs were significantly more cytotoxic than free drug on breast and pancreatic cancer cells. However, the cytotoxicity of drug loaded micelles was decreased by increasing the micellar core hydrophobicity because of decreasing drug release rate. Moreover, siRNA loaded PMs could considerably inhibit NF-κB expression. PMs loaded with both GemC18 and siRNA exhibited higher capability to induce apoptosis and inhibit migration of both cells. PMs with the most hydrophobic core indicated higher tumor accumulation efficiency via in-vivo imaging study. In conclusion, the prepared PMs hold a promise as an attractive dual functional delivery system for an effective cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111161DOI Listing
November 2020

Point-of-Use Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2: Nanotechnology-Enabled Solutions for the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 20;21(14). Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the COVID-19 pandemic that has been spreading around the world since December 2019. More than 10 million affected cases and more than half a million deaths have been reported so far, while no vaccine is yet available as a treatment. Considering the global healthcare urgency, several techniques, including whole genome sequencing and computed tomography imaging have been employed for diagnosing infected people. Considerable efforts are also directed at detecting and preventing different modes of community transmission. Among them is the rapid detection of virus presence on different surfaces with which people may come in contact. Detection based on non-contact optical techniques is very helpful in managing the spread of the virus, and to aid in the disinfection of surfaces. Nanomaterial-based methods are proven suitable for rapid detection. Given the immense need for science led innovative solutions, this manuscript critically reviews recent literature to specifically illustrate nano-engineered effective and rapid solutions. In addition, all the different techniques are critically analyzed, compared, and contrasted to identify the most promising methods. Moreover, promising research ideas for high accuracy of detection in trace concentrations, via color change and light-sensitive nanostructures, to assist fingerprint techniques (to identify the virus at the contact surface of the gas and solid phase) are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404277PMC
July 2020

Adoptive Treg cell-based immunotherapy: Frontier therapeutic aspects in rheumatoid arthritis.

Immunotherapy 2020 08 7;12(12):933-946. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The major current focus on treating rheumatoid arthritis is to put an end to long-term treatments and instead, specifically block widespread immunosuppression by developing antigen-specific tolerance, while also permitting an intact immune response toward other antigens to occur. There have been promising preclinical findings regarding adoptive Treg cells immunotherapy with a critically responsible function in the prevention of autoimmunity, tissue repair and regeneration, which make them an attractive candidate to develop effective therapeutic approaches to achieve this interesting concept in many human immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. or manipulation protocols are not only utilized to correct Treg cells defect, but also to benefit from their specific immunosuppressive properties by identifying specific antigens that are expressed in the inflamedjoint. The methods able to address these deficiencies can be considered as a target for immunity interventions to restore appropriate immune function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/imt-2020-0071DOI Listing
August 2020

Burgeoning Polymer Nano Blends for Improved Controlled Drug Release: A Review.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 19;15:4363-4392. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Dentistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA.

With continual rapid developments in the biomedical field and understanding of the important mechanisms and pharmacokinetics of biological molecules, controlled drug delivery systems (CDDSs) have been at the forefront over conventional drug delivery systems. Over the past several years, scientists have placed boundless energy and time into exploiting a wide variety of excipients, particularly diverse polymers, both natural and synthetic. More recently, the development of nano polymer blends has achieved noteworthy attention due to their amazing properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and more importantly, their pivotal role in controlled and sustained drug release in vitro and in vivo. These compounds come with a number of effective benefits for improving problems of targeted or controlled drug and gene delivery systems; thus, they have been extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical applications. Additionally, they are quite attractive for wound dressings, textiles, tissue engineering, and biomedical prostheses. In this sense, some important and workable natural polymers (namely, chitosan (CS), starch and cellulose) and some applicable synthetic ones (such as poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly-glycolic acid (PGA)) have played an indispensable role over the last two decades for their therapeutic effects owing to their appealing and renewable biological properties. According to our data, this is the first review article highlighting CDDSs composed of diverse natural and synthetic nano biopolymers, blended for biological purposes, mostly over the past five years; other reviews have just briefly mentioned the use of such blended polymers. We, additionally, try to make comparisons between various nano blending systems in terms of improved sustained and controlled drug release behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S252237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314622PMC
August 2020

Green synthesis of CuO- and CuO-NPs in assistance with high-gravity: The flowering of nanobiotechnology.

Nanotechnology 2020 Jun 30;31(42):425101. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

This study, for the first time, reports the synthesis of CuO- and CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using the Salvia hispanica extract by a high-gravity technique. The original green synthesis procedure led to the formation of nanoparticles with promising catalytic and biological properties. The synthesized nanoparticles were fully characterized and their catalytic activity was evaluated through a typical Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (AAC) reaction. The potential antibacterial activity against gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria were investigated. It was shown that the antibacterial properties were independent of the NP morphology as well as of the texture of the synthesis media. As a result, the presently synthesized nanoparticles showed very good photocatalytic and catalytic activities in comparison with the literature. From a biological perspective, they showed lower cytotoxicity in comparison with the literature, and also showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Thus, these present green CuO and CuO nanoparticles deserve further attention to improve numerous medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aba142DOI Listing
June 2020
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