Publications by authors named "Rasmus Telving"

9 Publications

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Corrigendum to "HighResNPS.com: An Online Crowd-Sourced HR-MS Database for Suspect and Non-targeted Screening of New Psychoactive Substances".

J Anal Toxicol 2019 07;43(6):e7-e8

Section of Forensic Chemistry, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederik V's vej 11, 2100 Copenhagen ϕ, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkz049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6655411PMC
July 2019

HighResNPS.com: An Online Crowd-Sourced HR-MS Database for Suspect and Non-targeted Screening of New Psychoactive Substances.

J Anal Toxicol 2019 Aug;43(7):520-527

Section of Forensic Chemistry, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederik V's vej 11, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly increasing. However, although the number might be large, most NPS have a low prevalence of use, so keeping screening libraries updated with the relevant analytical targets becomes a challenge. One way to ensure sufficient screening coverage is to use shared high resolution-mass spectrometry (HR-MS) databases, such as HighResNPS.com: a free, online, spreadsheet-format, crowd-sourced HR-MS database for NPS screening. The aims of this study were (i) to present the database to the scientific community and (ii) to verify that the HighResNPS database can be utilized in suspect screening workflows for LC-HR-MS instruments and software from four different instrument vendors. A sample was spiked with 10 NPS, and participating laboratories then analyzed the sample with their respective HR-MS vendor platforms and the HighResNPS database. The HighResNPS data were obtained via a spreadsheet converted to fit the import specifications of the different vendor platforms. Suspect screening was performed using LC-HR-MS vendor platforms from Thermo Fisher, Waters, Bruker and Agilent. All 10 NPS were identified in at least three workflows used for the four different vendor platforms. Multiple users have submitted data to HighResNPS for the same NPS, which resulted in multiple true-positive identifications for these NPS. Suspect screening with LC-HR-MS can be based on diagnostic fragment ions reported by users of different vendor platforms and can support NPS identification in biological samples and/or seizure analyses when no reference standard is available in-house. The present work clearly demonstrates that HighResNPS data is compatible with instruments and screening software from at least four different vendor platforms. The database can thus serve as a useful add-on in LC-HR-MS screening workflows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkz030DOI Listing
August 2019

Prevalence of xenobiotic substances in first-trimester blood samples from Danish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2018 03 3;8(3):e018390. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers, Denmark.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening.

Design: A crosssectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Setting: An antenatal clinic in a Danish city with 62 000 inhabitants, where >95% of pregnant women joined the screening programme.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: The prevalence and patterns of caffeine, nicotine, medication and illicit drug intake during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Results: The prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter drug detection was 17.9%, including acetaminophen (8.9%) and antidepressants (3.0%), of which citalopram (0.9%) was the most frequent. The prevalence of illegal drugs, indicators of smoking (nicotine/cotinine) and caffeine was 0.9%, 9.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. Only 17.4% of women had no substance identified in their sample.

Conclusions: This study emphasises the need for further translational studies investigating lifestyle habits during pregnancy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms through which xenobiotic substances may affect placental function and fetal development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5855249PMC
March 2018

Recreational drug use at a major music festival: trend analysis of anonymised pooled urine.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 04 17;56(4):245-255. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

b Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences , University of Copenhagen , Denmark.

Objective: The spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has expanded rapidly in the last decade. The complexity of the pharmacological effects of NPS challenges the traditional treatment guidelines, and information of the emergence of new arrivals is valuable. Our knowledge on the actual range of recreational drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system or through drug seizures. We aimed to detect classical recreational drugs and NPS in the urine of music festival attendees and evaluate if the use of NPS could have been predicted by comparing study data with drug seizure data from the previous year published by European and Danish health authorities.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 44 urine samples were collected from three urinals at Roskilde Festival 2016-the largest Danish music festival. Two urinals were placed at music stages with late-night concerts, and one urinal was placed at a camp site. Samples were prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by cationic and anionic solid phase extraction, and analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS). Data were processed using an in-house library of 467 target substances, including legal and illegal drugs and metabolites. Urine drug-screening immunoassays were also evaluated and results were compared to UPLC-HR-TOF-MS results.

Results: In total, 77 drugs, including metabolites, were qualitatively identified in the 44 urine samples. The recreational drugs identified were amphetamine (n = 30), cocaine (n = 44), MDA (n = 40), MDMA (n = 44), THC-COOH (n = 19) and ketamine (n = 17). No NPS were identified. Sample testing using the urine drug-screening immunoassays showed presence of cocaine (n = 27), methamphetamine/MDMA (n = 4), THC (n = 7), "Spice" (n = 7) and methylphenidate (n = 1). These discrepancies might be caused by differences in cut-off values between the analytical methods, limited specificity or cross-reactivity of the urine drug-screening immunoassays compared to UPLC-HR-TOFMS results.

Conclusion: Widespread uses of classical recreational drugs were identified in pooled urine samples. The prevalence of NPS was not as comprehensive as expected based on the European and Danish health authorities reports on illegal drugs. Urine drug-screening immunoassays results are advised to be confirmed by chromatographic bioanalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1360496DOI Listing
April 2018

Targeted toxicological screening for acidic, neutral and basic substances in postmortem and antemortem whole blood using simple protein precipitation and UPLC-HR-TOF-MS.

Forensic Sci Int 2016 Sep 18;266:453-461. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Section for Forensic Chemistry, Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Electronic address:

A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral and basic substances covered by the method were identified in postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples from forensic autopsy cases, clinical forensic cases and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases by a reverse target database search. The screening method covered 467 substances. Validation was performed on spiked whole blood samples and authentic postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples. For most of the basic drugs, the established cut-off limits were very low, ranging from 0.25ng/g to 50ng/g. The established cut-off limits for most neutral and acidic drugs, were in the range from 50ng/g to 500ng/g. Sample preparation was performed using simple protein precipitation of 300μL of whole blood with acetonitrile and methanol. Ten microliters of the reconstituted extract were injected and separated within a 13.5min UPLC gradient reverse-phase run. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to generate the ions in the m/z range of 50-1000. Fragment ions were generated by bbCID. Identification was based on retention time, accurate mass, fragment ion(s) and isotopic pattern. A very sensitive broad toxicological screening method using positive electrospray ionization UPLC-HR-TOF-MS was achieved in one injection. This method covered basic substances, substances traditionally analyzed in negative ESI (e.g., salicylic acid), small highly polar substances such as beta- and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB and GHB, respectively) and highly non-polar substances such as amiodarone. The new method was shown to combine high sensitivity with a very broad scope that has not previously been reported in toxicological whole blood screening when using only one injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.07.004DOI Listing
September 2016

A Metabolomics Study of Retrospective Forensic Data from Whole Blood Samples of Humans Exposed to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: A New Approach for Identifying Drug Metabolites and Changes in Metabolism Related to Drug Consumption.

J Proteome Res 2016 Feb 8;15(2):619-27. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Section for Forensic Chemistry, Aarhus University , Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

The illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has profound physiological cerebral, cardiac, and hepatic effects that are reflected in the blood. Screening of blood for MDMA and other narcotics are routinely performed in forensics analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOFMS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether such UPLC-HR-TOFMS data collected over a two-year period could be used for untargeted metabolomics to determine MDMA metabolites as well as endogenous changes related to drug response and toxicology. Whole blood samples from living Danish drivers' positive for MDMA in different concentrations were compared to negative control samples using various statistical methods. The untargeted identification of known MDMA metabolites was used to validate the methods. The results further revealed changes of several acylcarnitines, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine, inosine, thiomorpholine 3-carboxylate, tryptophan, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH), and lysophospatidylcholine (lysoPC) species in response to MDMA. These endogenous metabolites could be implicated in an increased energy demand and mechanisms related to the serotonergic syndrome as well as drug induced neurotoxicity. The findings showed that it was possible to extract meaningful results from retrospective UPLC-HR-TOFMS screening data for metabolic profiling in relation to drug metabolism, endogenous physiological effects, and toxicology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b01023DOI Listing
February 2016

A fatal poisoning involving 25C-NBOMe.

Forensic Sci Int 2015 Jun 24;251:e1-8. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Section of Forensic Chemistry, Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Aarhus University Hospital, The Bartholin Building, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

This paper reports on a fatal overdose case involving the potent hallucinogenic drug 25C-NBOMe (2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine). In the present case, a young male was hospitalized after the recreational use of this potent drug. He died at the hospital at approximately 12h after ingestion, with preceding signs of serotonin toxicity. Medico-legal autopsy was performed on the deceased, during which time peripheral whole blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver and gastric content samples were submitted for toxicological examination. Further, whole blood collected at the hospital at 2-4h following ingestion of the drug was analyzed. 25C-NBOMe and a demethylated and glucuronidated metabolite of 25C-NBOMe were identified in the urine and blood samples using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRTOF-MS). Subsequently, 25C-NBOMe was quantified in the peripheral whole blood (0.60μg/kg), urine (2.93μg/kg), vitreous humor (0.33μg/kg), liver (0.82μg/kg) and gastric content (0.32μg total) samples collected during autopsy and in the ante-mortem whole blood (0.81μg/kg) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The autopsy findings were consistent with acute poisoning. Based on the toxicological findings, the cause of death was determined to be a fatal overdose of 25C-NBOMe in combination with amphetamine intake. To our knowledge, the present paper reports the first quantification of 25C-NBOMe in biological specimens from a fatal intoxication case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.03.012DOI Listing
June 2015

Screening analysis for medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse in whole blood using ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS)--toxicological findings in cases of alleged sexual assault.

Forensic Sci Int 2012 Oct 6;222(1-3):154-61. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Section for Toxicology and Drug Analysis, Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous screening of 46 medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse in whole blood was developed and validated. The method includes most of the commonly used and abused drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and opioids. Chromatographic separation of the targeted drugs was achieved using a Waters ACQUITY UPLC coupled to a Waters Micromass LCT Premier XE time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The total chromatographic run time was 13.5 min injection to injection. The estimated method LOQ is in the range of 0.06-27 ng/g, which is below the therapeutic levels for each of the drugs analyzed but LSD. The extraction recovery ranged from 6% to 197% with median value 95% and mean value 82%. Matrix effect ranged from 81% suppression to 29% enhancement of the signals compared to signals obtained in the absence of biological matrix. The method was tested on 55 authentic forensic toxicology samples confirming the same positive results as found using the routine analytical procedures as well as some additional compounds. Recently there has been considerable attention paid to drug-facilitated sexual assault and the toxicological findings in these cases. As part of a pilot study to investigate the prevalence of medicinal drugs, drugs of abuse, and alcohol in victims of alleged sexual assault, biological specimens were obtained from 167 victims being examined at the Sexual Assault Center in Aarhus, Denmark. The obtained blood samples were analyzed using the novel screening method supported by additional analyses for e.g. THC and alcohol. 124 victims reported they have been drinking alcohol prior to the assault (74%). Alcohol analyses revealed 59 positive findings (48%). 35 of the cases were found positive for one or more drugs excluding alcohol (21%). 20 of the victims reported they have been subject to a drug-facilitated sexual assault (12%). For the victims suspecting drug-facilitated sexual assault, the toxicological analyses revealed four positive for alcohol and nine victims were positive for one or more drugs, with six of the victims found positive for benzodiazepines or other drugs with sedative effects. It was notable that victims tested positive for medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse as well as victims of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in average underwent medical examination later than the whole study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.05.019DOI Listing
October 2012

A fatal poisoning involving Bromo-Dragonfly.

Forensic Sci Int 2009 Jan 17;183(1-3):91-6. Epub 2008 Dec 17.

Section for Toxicology and Drug Analysis, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

This paper reports a fatal overdose case involving the potent hallucinogenic drug Bromo-Dragonfly (1-(8-bromobenzo[1,2-b; 4,5-b']difuran-4-yl)-2-aminopropane). In the present case, an 18-year-old woman was found dead after ingestion of a hallucinogenic liquid. A medico-legal autopsy was performed on the deceased, during which liver, blood, urine and vitreous humour were submitted for toxicological examination. Bromo-Dragonfly was identified in the liver blood using UPLC-TOFMS, and was subsequently quantified in femoral blood (0.0047 mg/kg), urine (0.033 mg/kg) and vitreous humour (0.0005 mg/kg) using LC-MS/MS. Calibration standards were prepared from Bromo-Dragonfly isolated from a bottle found next to the deceased. The structure and purity of the isolated compound were unambiguously determined from analysis of UPLC-TOFMS, GC-MS, HPLC-DAD, (1)H and (13)C NMR data and by comparison to literature data. The autopsy findings were non-specific for acute poisoning. However, based on the toxicological findings, the cause of death was determined to be a fatal overdose of Bromo-Dragonfly, as no ethanol and no therapeutics or other drugs of abuse besides Bromo-Dragonfly were detected in the liver, blood or urine samples from the deceased. To our knowledge, this is the first report of quantification of Bromo-Dragonfly in a biological specimen from a deceased person. This case caused the drug to be classified as an illegal drug in Denmark on 5th December 2007.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.11.001DOI Listing
January 2009
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