Publications by authors named "Rasha S Azrag"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Retrospective hospital-based study on snakebite envenomation in Sudan.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, P. O. Box 321, Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: Snakebite statistics are lacking in Sudan despite the high estimated burden. In this study we aimed to describe the incidence of snakebite envenomation and death in Sudan and to show the state-wise distribution of snakebite episode.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital-based data on snakebite for 2014-2018. Data were obtained from the annual health statistical reports of the Ministry of Health. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the results.

Results: A total of 63 160 people were envenomed during 2014-2018 with an average of 12 632 cases/year. The death rate between inpatient cases was 2.5%. The annual incidence was 18- 47 cases/100 000 population. Gadarif state recorded the highest incidence (132/100 000 population) of snakebite envenomation in Sudan whereas Northern state had the least incidence (5/100 000 population). The 15-24 y age group experienced the highest risk of snakebite and males were more exposed to snakebites than females.

Conclusions: Although hospital-based records underestimate the burden of snakebite, they can still provide an insight regarding the actual numbers. Here, we highlight the at-risk states in Sudan to be targeted for further questionnaire-based epidemiological studies and to guide health authorities to reduce the burden of snakebite envenomation by insuring proper antivenom distribution to the highly affected areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trab085DOI Listing
June 2021

Culex/ mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded along the Nile River in central and northern Sudan, with a key for the identification of all species of the genus known to occur in the country.

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 20;4963(3):zootaxa.4963.3.1. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Vector Genetics and Control Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan..

Despite the importance of Culex species as major vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus and the microfilariae that cause lymphatic filariasis, information on these mosquitoes in Sudan is limited to works published 65 years ago in the former Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, where some species were only recorded from areas of the territory now known as South Sudan. In this paper, we provide updated information on Culex mosquitoes collected indoors during surveillance studies conducted along the Nile River in central and northern areas of Sudan between 2012 and 2019. Of 3,411 female mosquitoes collected in Khartoum and northern states along the river, 2,560 (75%) were specimens of Culex belonging to 12 species: Cx. (Culex) antennatus (Becker, 1903), Cx. (Cux.) laticinctus Edwards, 1913, Cx. (Cux.) neavei Theobald, 1906, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus Theobald, 1903, Cx. (Cux.) poicilipes (Theobald, 1903), Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, Cx. (Cux.) simpsoni Theobald, 1905, Cx. (Cux.) sinaiticus Kirkpatrick, 1925, Cx. (Cux.) theileri Theobald, 1903, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 and Cx. (Culiciomyia) macfiei Edwards, 1923. This is the first record for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. macfiei in central Sudan. The relative abundance of each species varied in different areas and seasons, but Cx. antennatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were the most abundant indoor resting species. We provide an updated dichotomous key for the identification of the adults of Culex mosquitoes known to occur in the Republic of the Sudan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4963.3.1DOI Listing
April 2021

A possible role for ticks in the transmission of Madurella mycetomatis in a mycetoma-endemic village in Sudan.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 04;115(4):364-374

Mycetoma Research Center, Soba University Hospital, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: Currently there is a wide knowledge gap in our understanding of mycetoma epidemiological characteristics, including the infection route.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study was carried out to determine the role of exposure to animals and insects such as ticks in the transmission of eumycetoma in two adjacent villages at eastern Sudan.

Results: Significant differences were found between the two villages in the level of contact and exposure to animals and ticks, the percentages of people bitten by ticks, participation in cleaning animal pens and knowledge of the medical importance of ticks. In the village with a high mycetoma prevalence rate, there were high infestation rates of ticks in domestic animals. Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus species were the most prevalent species in houses with mycetoma patients and together they constituted 83% of the total collection. Pool screening of vectors for the detection of Madurella mycetomatis recombinant RNA genes showed one positive pool from Rhipicephalus evertsi following amplification of the universal fungal primer and one positive sample from Hyalomma rufipes following the use of a specific primer.

Conclusion: The findings indicate a possible role of ticks in the transmission of eumycetoma causative agents. However, further in-depth studies are needed to verify this.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trab030DOI Listing
April 2021

Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: a noticeable tolerance to urban polluted larval habitats associated with resistance to Temephos.

Malar J 2018 May 18;17(1):204. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: It has been documented that unplanned urbanization leads to the exposure of members of the Anopheles vectors to a range of water pollution in urban settings. Many surveys from African and Asian countries reported the presence of Anopheles larvae in polluted urban habitats. The present study documents an obvious tolerance of the melanic and normal forms of Anopheles arabiensis to urban polluted larval habitats accompanied by resistance to Temephos larvicide.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to inspect apparently polluted An. arabiensis larval habitats during the hot dry season of 2015. Larval specimens were collected from only apparently polluted habitats after visual inspection from 5 localities in Khartoum State. After morphological and molecular identification of random samples of larvae the magnitude of water pollution was determined using nine abiotic factors. The susceptibility status of An. arabiensis larval forms from normal and polluted habitats to Temephos was tested using the WHO standard diagnostic concentration doses.

Results: Morphological and PCR analysis of anopheline larvae revealed the presence of An. arabiensis, a member of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Seven out of 9 physiochemical parameters showed higher concentrations in polluted larval habitats in comparison to control site. Anopheles arabiensis larvae were found in water bodies characterized by high mean of conductivity (1857.8 ± 443.3 uS/cm), turbidity (189.4 ± 69.1 NTU) and nitrate (19.7 ± 16.7 mg/l). The range of mortality rates of An. arabiensis larvae collected from polluted habitats in comparison to An. arabiensis larvae collected from non-polluted habitats was 6.7-64% (LD = 1.682) and 67.6-96% (LD = 0.806), respectively.

Conclusions: The present study reveals that minor populations of An. arabiensis larval forms are adapted to breed in polluted urban habitats, which further influenced susceptibility to Temephos, especially for the melanic larval forms. This could have further implications on the biology of the malaria vector and on the transmission and epidemiology of urban malaria in Sudan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2350-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960190PMC
May 2018
-->