Publications by authors named "Raquel Soler-Blasco"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prenatal manganese serum levels and neurodevelopment at 4 years of age.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12;197:111172. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Biodonostia Health Research Institute, Group of Environmental Epidemiology and Child Development, Paseo Doctor Begiristain s/n, 20014, San Sebastian, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940, Leioa, Spain.

Background: The excess of manganese (Mn) causes severe deleterious effects in the central nervous system, and the developing brain is especially sensitive to Mn overload. However, results of prospective studies regarding Mn neurodevelopmental effects remain inconclusive. The present study aims at studying the association of prenatal Mn exposure and neurodevelopment at 4-5 years of age.

Methods: Mn serum concentration was measured in 1465 pregnant women from the INMA (INfancia y MedioAmbiente, Environment and Childhood) Project. Neurodevelopment was assessed using a standardized version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariate regression models were used for data analysis.

Results: No association was found between Mn levels in serum and any of the McCarthy scales. However, the stratification by sex showed a positive and beneficial association of prenatal Mn levels and the verbal, quantitative and general-cognitive scales in girls (β (95%CI): 4 (0.03, 7.96), 4.5 (0.43, 8.57) and 4.32 (0.6, 8.05), respectively).

Conclusions: A beneficial association was found for the first time between prenatal Mn levels measured in serum and neurodevelopment of female offspring at 4 years of age, which could have implications on public health policies, specifically on the establishment of policies promoting prenatal health related to dietary deficits of micronutrients such as Mn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111172DOI Listing
June 2021

Urinary arsenic species and methylation efficiency during pregnancy: Concentrations and associated factors in Spanish pregnant women.

Environ Res 2021 05 17;196:110889. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Arsenic (As) is considered to be toxic for humans, the main routes of exposure being through drinking water and the diet. Once ingested, inorganic arsenic can be methylated sequentially to monomethyl and dimethyl arsenicals. Several factors can affect both As exposure and methylation efficiency.

Objectives: To describe the urinary concentrations of the different As species and evaluate the methylation efficiency during pregnancy, as well as their associated factors in a birth cohort of pregnant Spanish women.

Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 1017 pregnant women from two areas of Spain who had taken part in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) project (2003-2008). Total As (organic and inorganic compounds) and its main metabolites (monomethylarsonic acid, [MMA], dimethylarsinic acid, [DMA], inorganic As [iAs]) and arsenobetaine [AB]) were measured in urine samples collected during the first trimester. Sociodemographic and dietary information was collected through questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the association between As species concentrations and covariates. Arsenic methylation efficiency was determined through the percentages of the metabolites and using As methylation phenotypes, obtained from principal component analysis.

Results: Median urine concentrations were 33.0, 21.6, 6.5, 0.35 and 0.33 μg/g creatinine for total As, AB, DMA, MMA and iAs, respectively. Daily consumption of rice and seafood during the first trimester of pregnancy were positively associated with the concentration of As species (i.e., β [CI95%] = 0.36 [0.09, 0.64] for rice and iAs, and 1.06 [0.68, 1.44] for seafood and AB). TAs, AB and iAs concentrations, and DMA and MMA concentrations were associated with legume and vegetable consumption, respectively. The medians of the percentage of As metabolites were 89.7 for %DMA, 5.1 for %MMA and 4.7 for %iAs. Non-smoker women and those with higher body mass index presented a higher methylation efficiency (denoted by a higher %DMA and lower %MMA).

Discussion: Certain dietary, lifestyle, and environmental factors were observed to have an influence on both As species concentrations and methylation efficiency in our population. Further birth cohort studies in low exposure areas are necessary to improve knowledge about arsenic exposure, especially to inorganic forms, and its potential health impact during childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110889DOI Listing
May 2021

Exposure to mercury among 9-year-old children and neurobehavioural function.

Environ Int 2021 01 20;146:106173. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Mercury (Hg) is an environmental neurotoxicant whose main route of exposure in humans is the consumption of seafood. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between Hg exposure at 9 years old and behaviour assessed at 9 and 11 years old. Study subjects were mother-child pairs participating in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project in Valencia (Spain). Total Hg (THg) was measured in hair samples from the children at 9 years old. Behaviour and emotions were assessed at 9 (n = 472) years and 11 (n = 385) years of age using the Child Behaviour Checklist test (CBCL) and the Conners Parents Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S). Furthermore, the attention function was assessed by the Attention Network Test at 11 years old. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Polymorphism in BDNF, APOE and GSTP1 were genotyped in cord blood DNA. Multivariable negative binomial regression models were built in order to study the association between THg concentrations and the scores obtained by the children at 9 and 11 years old. Effect modification by sex and genetic polymorphisms was assessed. The association between Hg levels and CBCL scores was positive (worse neurobehavioural development) for the CBCL internalizing and total problem scales (Incidence Rate Ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.07 [1.01, 1.13] and 1.05 [0.99, 1.11], respectively). The association between Hg and the externalizing and total problems CBCL scales and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) index of the CPRS-R:S was different according to sex, with boys obtaining worse scores with increasing Hg, compared to girls. Statistically significant interactions were also observed for genetic polymorphisms affecting the association between early exposure to Hg and both CBCL and CPRS-R:S scores. In conclusion, postnatal Hg exposure is associated with poorer neurobehavioural development in 9- and 11-year-old children. Sex and the presence of certain genetic polymorphisms modified this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106173DOI Listing
January 2021

Postnatal exposure to mercury and neuropsychological development among preschooler children.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Mar 13;35(3):259-271. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain.

The objective of this study was to describe the postnatal exposure to Hg and to evaluate its association with neuropsychological development among preschool children. The study population are 4-5 years old children (n = 1252) participant in the Spanish INMA Project. Total Hg was measured in cord blood and in hair samples taken at 4 years of age (2008-2012). Neuropsychological development was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Information on covariates and possible confounders was obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Generalized additive and linear regression models were built in order to assess the relationship between MSCA scores and Hg exposure. We also evaluated the magnitude of the possible bias generated from measurement error in seafood intake estimate from questionnaire and Hg determination. The geometric mean of hair Hg was 0.98 µg/g [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94, 1.03]. In the regression analysis, the association between Hg and the MSCA scores was positive for all the scales and statistically significant for the verbal (β = 0.89; 95%CI 0.38, 1.39), memory (β = 0.42; 95%CI 0.09, 0.76) and general cognitive scales (β = 1.35; 95%CI 0.45, 2.25). However, these associations were clearly attenuated when we adjusted by the children's fish intake variables or when took into account theoretical scenarios of low precision in fish intake and Hg measurements. Hg levels in this Spanish population were high in comparison with other European countries; however, we did not observe adverse effects on child neuropsychological development associated with this postnatal exposure to Hg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00620-9DOI Listing
March 2020

Prenatal manganese exposure and neuropsychological development in early childhood in the INMA cohort.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2020 03 7;224:113443. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, diet being its main source. Some epidemiological studies have found that a prenatal excess of Mn could negatively affect neuropsychological development during infancy, but the evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal serum Mn concentrations and child neuropsychological development assessed at 1 year of age.

Methods: study subjects were 1179 mother-child pairs from two Spanish cohorts (Valencia and Gipuzkoa) of the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project. Mn was measured in serum samples collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. Child neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, composed of both mental and psychomotor scales. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy and during the child's first year of life. Serum Mn was log-2 transformed. Multivariable linear regression models were built. Generalized additive models were used to assess the shape of the relation between prenatal exposure to Mn and the neuropsychological test scores.

Results: geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of maternal serum Mn was 1.50 (1.48-1.53) μg/L. Levels of Mn were higher among non-working mothers and in those with a higher consumption of nuts. The association between maternal Mn levels and child neuropsychological development was negative in the multivariable models for the mental (β [95% CI] = -0.39 [-2.73, 1.95]) and psychomotor scales (β [95% CI] = -0.92 [-3.48, 1.65]), although the coefficients were not statistically significant. The best shape describing the relationship between Mn and the Bayley scales was linear in both cases.

Conclusion: This study shows a null association between maternal prenatal levels of Mn and neuropsychological development at one year after birth in two cohorts within the INMA study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.113443DOI Listing
March 2020

Association of Iron Status and Intake During Pregnancy with Neuropsychological Outcomes in Children Aged 7 Years: The Prospective Birth Cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Study.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 7;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 7.

Pere Virgili Institute for Health Research (IISPV), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43003 Tarragona, Spain.

Early iron status plays an important role in prenatal neurodevelopment. Iron deficiency and high iron status have been related to alterations in child cognitive development; however, there are no data about iron intake during pregnancy with other environmental factors in relation to long term cognitive functioning of children. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between maternal iron status and iron intake during pregnancy and child neuropsychological outcomes at 7 years of age. We used data from the INMA Cohort population-based study. Iron status during pregnancy was assessed according to serum ferritin levels, and iron intake was assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Working memory, attention, and executive function were assessed in children at 7 years old with the N-Back task, Attention Network Task, and the Trail Making Test, respectively. The results show that, after controlling for potential confounders, normal maternal serum ferritin levels (from 12 mg/L to 60 mg/L) and iron intake (from 14.5 mg/day to 30.0 mg/day), respectively, were related to better scores in working memory and executive functioning in offspring. Since these functions have been associated with better academic performance and adaptation to the environment, maintaining a good state of maternal iron from the beginning of pregnancy could be a valuable strategy for the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11122999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949977PMC
December 2019

Prenatal Se concentrations and anthropometry at birth in the INMA study (Spain).

Environ Res 2020 02 19;181:108943. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

We assessed whether prenatal selenium (Se) exposure is associated with anthropometry at birth, placental weight and gestational age. Study subjects were 1249 mother-child pairs from the Valencia and Gipuzkoa cohorts of the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2008). Se was determined in serum samples taken at the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic and dietary characteristics were also collected by questionnaires. Mean (SD) serum Se concentration was 79.57 (9.64) μg/L. Se showed weak associations with both head circumference and gestational age. The association between serum Se concentration and birth weight and length was negative, and direct for placental weight and probability of preterm birth, although the coefficients did not reach statistical significance. Individuals with total mercury (THg) levels >15 μg/L reversed the serum Se concentration effect on head circumference. Significant interactions were found between sex and both gestational age and prematurity. Spontaneous birth gestational ages were estimated to be lower for males and their probability of prematurity was higher. In conclusion, prenatal Se exposure may be associated with lower head circumference and lower gestational ages at spontaneous birth. Interactions with THg exposure and gender should be considered when assessing these relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108943DOI Listing
February 2020

Exposure to mercury among 9-year-old Spanish children: Associated factors and trend throughout childhood.

Environ Int 2019 09 19;130:104835. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Mercury is considered a neurotoxicant and human exposure occurs mainly from the consumption of marine species. We aimed to describe total mercury concentrations (THg) and associated factors in 9-year old children, as well as to explore the trend in THg from 4 to 9 years of age. The study population consisted of 9-year-old children participating in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain (n = 405, 2013-2014). THg in hair samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry at the age of 4 and 9 years. Sociodemographic and dietary data was obtained through questionnaires. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the association between THg and covariates. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of hair THg at 9 years old was 0.89 μg/g (0.81, 0.98). Thirteen percent of children had THg above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by the World Health Organization. THg were higher among children whose mothers had a healthy body mass index before pregnancy. Children with non-smoker mothers and worker fathers had also higher THg. Children's fish intake at 9 years-old was positively associated with THg, being swordfish, canned tuna and lean fish (i.e. hake, sea bream and sole) the most associated categories. Levels decreased by around 22% between 4 and 9 years old. Birth cohort studies, such as the INMA Project, allow the longitudinal evaluation of Hg exposure and the possible effects on children's health. This information can be used to formulate diet recommendations in vulnerable populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.05.029DOI Listing
September 2019

Inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological development of children of 4-5 years of age living in Spain.

Environ Res 2019 07 29;174:135-142. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN, Northern Ireland, UK.

Early-life exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) may adversely impact health later in life. To date, evidence of iAs adverse effects on children's neurodevelopment comes mainly from populations highly exposed to contaminated water with conflicting results. Little is known about those effects among populations with low iAs exposure from food intake. We investigated the cross-sectional association between exposure to iAs and neurodevelopment scores among children living in Spain whose main route of exposure was diet. Arsenic species concentrations in urine from 400 children was determined, and the sum of urinary iAs, dimethylarsinic acid, and monomethylarsonic acid was used to estimate iAs exposure. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities was used to assess children's neuropsychological development at about 4-5 years of age. The median (interquartile range) of children's sum of urinary iAs, MMA, and DMA was 4.85 (2.74-7.54) μg/L, and in adjusted linear regression analyses the natural logarithm transformed concentrations showed an inverse association with children's motor functions (β, [95% confidence interval]; global scores (-2.29, [-3.95, -0.63])), gross scores (-1.92, [-3.52, -0.31]) and fine scores (-1.54, [-3.06, -0.03]). In stratified analyses by sex, negative associations were observed with the scores in the quantitative index (-2.59, [-5.36, 0.17]) and working memory function (-2.56, [-5.36, 0.24]) only in boys. Our study suggests that relatively low iAs exposure may impair children's neuropsychological development and that sex-related differences may be present in susceptibility to iAs related effects; however, our findings should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.04.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6541502PMC
July 2019

Reproducibility and Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Assessment in Children Aged 7⁻9 Years in Spain.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 25;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, History of Medicine and Gynecology, University Miguel Hernández, 03550 Alacant, Spain.

The purpose of this study was to examine if the short semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a reliable and valid tool to assess the diet of Spanish children aged 7-9 years. We collected data from 156 children of the birth cohort INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood)). Children's parents or care-givers completed a 46-item FFQ on two occasions over a 9-12-month period about the children's diet. To explore the reproducibility of the FFQ, the nutrient and food group intake collected from the both FFQs were compared, while validity was examined by contrasting the nutrient values from the FFQs and the average of three 24-hour dietary recalls (24hDRs) taken in this period, and also with the concentration of several vitamins in the blood (carotenoids, vitamin D and α-tocopherol). Pearson and de-attenuated correlation coefficients were calculated. The average correlation coefficients for nutrient intake's reproducibility was 0.41, ranging from 0.25 (calcium) to 0.65 (β-carotene), and for food group intake was 0.45, ranging from 0.18 (cereals) to 0.68 (sweetened beverages). Correlation coefficients slightly improved when we compared energy-adjusted intakes. The average correlation coefficients for validity against 24hDRs was 0.34 for energy-adjusted intakes, and 0.39 when de-attenuation coefficients were used. The validity coefficients against the blood concentrations of vitamins were 0.38 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.26 for lycopene, 0,23 for α-carotene and 0.15 for β-carotene, all of them statistically significant ( < 0.05). This study suggests that our brief FFQ is a suitable tool for the dietary assessment of a wide range of nutrients and food groups in children 7-9 years, despite the low to moderate reproducibility and validity observed for some nutrients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521299PMC
April 2019

Maternal copper status and neuropsychological development in infants and preschool children.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 04 1;222(3):503-512. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Copper (Cu) is an essential element involved in biological processes; however, excessive Cu could be harmful because of its reactive nature. Very few studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal Cu levels and children's neuropsychological development.

Methods: Study subjects were mother-child pairs from the Spanish INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) Project. Cu was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in serum samples taken at the first trimester of pregnancy (2003-2005). Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 12 months (n = 651) and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) at 5 years of age (n = 490). Covariates were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Multivariate linear and non-linear models were built in order to study the association between maternal Cu and child neuropsychological development.

Results: The mean ± standard deviation of maternal Cu concentrations was 1606 ± 272 μg/L. In the multivariate analysis, a negative linear association was found between maternal Cu concentrations and both the BSID mental scale (beta = -0.051; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: -0.102, -0.001) and the MSCA verbal scale (beta = -0.044; 95%CI:-0.094, 0.006). Boys obtained poorer scores than girls, with increasing Cu at 12 months (interaction p-value = 0.040 for the mental scale and 0.074 for the psychomotor scale). This effect modification disappeared at 5 years of age. The association between Cu and the MSCA scores (verbal, perceptive performance, global memory and motor, general cognitive, and executive function scales) was negative for those children with lowest maternal iron concentrations (<938μg/L).

Conclusion: The Cu concentrations observed in our study were within the reference range established for healthy pregnant women in previous studies. The results of this study contribute to the body of scientific knowledge with important information on the possible neurotoxic capability of Cu during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.01.007DOI Listing
April 2019

[Inequities in mental health: admissions for psychosis in public hospitals of the Comunitat Valenciana (2008-2015)].

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2018 Nov 12;92. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Dirección General de Salud Pública/ FISABIO. Área de Desigualdades en Salud. Generalitat Valenciana. Valencia. España.

Objective: The prevalence of mental health problems is increasing throughout the world. Certain population groups have more probability to suffer mental disorders, which may generate inequities in health. The main of this paper is analyze the differences in the frecuency of hospital admissions according to different inequities dimensions (age, sex and country of birth) of the populaion between 15 and 49 years old between 2008 and 2015 in the Comunitat Valenciana (Spain).

Methods: Transversal study based on all admissions for Diagnosis-related group "Psychosis" in public centers in the Comunitat Valenciana. Sources of information were Minimum Basic Data Set and Population Information System. Descriptive analysis of clinical and social variables was conducted, and differences among subgroups were analyzed by t-Student test for the comparison of a quantitative variable and χ2 test for the comparison of a qualitative variable, as well as the exact Wilcoxon and the Fisher test when application conditions were not satisfied.

Results: there were studied 23869 admissions for psychosis generated by 11265 patients. Most of these admissions were because of schizophrenia disorders (39.44%). When comparing by sex, differences in diagnosis were observed, being more frequent psychotic mood disorders in women (39.3%). There also observed differences when comparing by country of birth, being more frequent "Other non-organic psychosis" in foreign people (40.5%). Differences were found regarding mortality during admission, being higher in men (5.1% vs. 4%) and in foreign people (5.3% vs. 3.8%).

Conclusions: There have been detected inequities in the frequency of psychosis admissions in the Comunitat Valenciana. These differences are observed around different dimensions such as age, gender and country of origin.
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November 2018

[How do Sick People and Their Caregivers Live Non-Invasive Ventilation? Systematic Literature Review of Qualitative Research].

Rev Enferm 2016 Nov-Dec;39(11-12):14-24

Introduction: W know that non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a basic ventilator support, but sometimes it fails, because of intolerance, lack of adherence, breach, etc. How can we anticipate that failure? We intend to explore the qualitative evidence on the experiences of people with this treatment and their formal and informal caregivers.

Method: Systematic literature review of original articles indexed from 2005 to 2015, which study the NIV in adult population with qualitative methodology in six databases. Peer review of scientific quality with tool of the CASPe Program. Qualitative metasynthesis of the findings.

Results: 15 articles met selection criteria, based on Grounded Theory and Phenomenology, which use interviews, observation and focus group, directed both patients, and families and health professionals. Its studies emphasize the feeling of anxiety and loss of control, although the NIV relieves them dyspnea (ambivalence). Search daily well-being through routines and active participation. Interaction dependence/autonomy, especially in decision-making, finding differences that make complex the process information and advance directives. Practical wisdom of nursing care 24 hours with patients id described basic, and difficulties being narrated: lack of time, overload of work, technocentrism, inexperience.

Conclulsions: The qualitative evidence of treatment with VNI is varied although scarce; different plots (acute situations, chronic, terminals) are explored, from different points of view. The integration of these findings in our practice will help us to increase adherence and become the treatment successful, but especially to improve the quality of life of ventilated patients and their families.
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October 2018