Prof. Raphiq Ibrahim, PhD - Prof. of Cognitive and Clinical Neuropsychology. University of Haifa

Prof. Raphiq Ibrahim

PhD

Prof. of Cognitive and Clinical Neuropsychology. University of Haifa

Haifa, Mount Carmel | Israel

Main Specialties: Neurology

Additional Specialties: Cognition and Neuroscience

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4040-7812


Top Author

Prof. Raphiq Ibrahim, PhD - Prof. of Cognitive and Clinical Neuropsychology. University of Haifa

Prof. Raphiq Ibrahim

PhD

Introduction

Raphiq Ibrahim is a senior researcher at the Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities at University of Haifa, where he is an Associate Professor of Neuropsychology. In his first line of research he focuses on the cognitive processing of oral and written language in both monolinguals and bilinguals. In his second line of research he focuses on the the hemispheric specialization of higher cognitive functions.

Primary Affiliation: Prof. of Cognitive and Clinical Neuropsychology. University of Haifa - Haifa, Mount Carmel , Israel

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Prof. Raphiq Ibrahim’s Resume / CV

Education

Oct 1993 - Jun 1998
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Ph.D
psychology and education
Jun 1995
Hebrew University
MSc
Neurobiology/Neuropsychology

Experience

Oct 2012
University of Haifa
Professor of Cognitive and Clinical Neuropsychology
Oct 2005 - Aug 2012
University of Haifa
Senior Lecturer
Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center
Oct 2010
Rambam Medical Center- Cognitive Neurology Department
Senior Neuropsychologist

Publications

60Publications

123Reads

311Profile Views

1PubMed Central Citations

What contributes to spelling in Arabic? A cross-sectional study from first to sixth grade

Writing Systems Research. 9(1), 60-81.

Writing Systems Research.

This study aimed at examining the contribution of various cognitive and linguistic variables to spelling processes among native Arabic-speaking children from first to sixth grade. For this purpose, measures of phoneme awareness (PA), orthographic, morphological, lexical and syntactic knowledge were collected, together with working memory and speed of processing indexes. The analysis was conducted on a large and representative sample using path models. The results revealed that, together with the consistent contribution of PA and orthography, morphology played an important role in predicting spelling. Furthermore, our findings suggested that Arabic orthography, even the vowelised version which is considered as transparent (since it provides the reader with the full phonological information), behaved as other deep orthographies in spelling. These findings are discussed in the context of the unique characteristics of the Arabic language and its orthographic system

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

The influence of diglossia in Arabic on narrative ability: Evidence from analysis of the linguistic and narrative structure of discourse among pre-school children

Reading and Writing. 27(4), 733-747.

Reading and Writing

The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of diglossia on linguistic and narrative structures in Arab kindergarten children by testing performance in production and comprehension. The 30 children who participated in our study were asked to retell one narrative text that was read aloud to them in Literary Arabic and another narrative text that was retold to them in Spoken Arabic. Then they were given a comprehension test that included questions pertaining to each of the two stories. In addition, two questionnaires were filled in by their parents, for collecting personal data and evaluating the level of the children's exposure to Literary Arabic at home. The findings show a significant advantage in the retold spoken text over the retold literary text and in understanding the narrative-discourse. In addition, the findings show that the linguistic gap between Literary and Spoken Arabic seems to impact the level of mastery over linguistic structures in both forms of Arabic. Both of these findings indicate that, despite the fact that the exposure to Literary Arabic at a young age is informal and indirect, pre-school children are able to use linguistic structures from the literary language and to comprehend narrative texts. These results, with a particular emphasis on spoken and literary linguistic knowledge in pre-school children, are discussed herein in light of previous behavioral findings and models of development of narrative abilities in the Arabic language.

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

How does Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) correlate with measures of reading fluency in Arabic

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

Psychology. 6 (1), 269-277.

The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between naming speed and reading in Arabic language. For this purpose, Arabic-speaking children of third and fifth grades were given a battery of tests including two measures of naming speed and a test of pseudo-word reading and single word reading. Correlations analyses were carried out to explore this relationship. The result of this study revealed a significant relationship between naming speed measures and fluency. This suggests that naming speed ability is a key component in reading acquisition in Arabic and this was discussed with regard to the cross-linguistic research literature as well as the specific features of Arabic language.

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September 2018
5 Reads

Simple View of Reading" in transparent and deep versions of the Arabic script

Reading Psychology

Reading Psychology

Several studies have tested the validity of the simple view of reading model by examining various degrees of orthographic depth. This study aims to validate this model in both transparent and deep versions of Arabic. In addition, the contribution of the basic components of decoding and listening comprehension to reading comprehension in the transparent and deep versions was tested. In total, 460 typical Arabic-speaking children in the first and second grade participated in this study. A moderate degree of explained variance was found in both versions, and the contribution of decoding and listening comprehension was influenced by transparency and by the grade level of the reader. The results are discussed in relation to previous findings in the field and the unique characteristics of the Arabic language.

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September 2018
5 Reads

Number processing in Arabic and Hebrew bilinguals: Evidence for the compatibility effect

Journal of cross cultural psychology. 46(3), 565–578.

Journal of cross cultural psychology

In the current study, a direct assessment of the effect of presentation language and format on the compatibility effect of two-digit numbers was made by contrasting performance of Arabic/Hebrew bilinguals in a digital (Hindi digits/Arabic digits) and verbal numerical comparison task (Arabic an inverted language: units-decades and Hebrew a non-inverted language: decades-units). Our data revealed in digital presentation format a regular compatibility effect in Hindi digits and Arabic digits characterized by lower reaction-time (RT) means for compatible number pairs than incompatible ones with no difference in the RT means of participants in the two languages, Arabic language–Hindi digits as a mother tongue and Hebrew language–Arabic digits as a second language. However, in verbal presentation format, different patterns of compatibility effect were found in Arabic and Hebrew verbal numbers. In Arabic number words, a regular compatibility effect was found, while in Hebrew number words, no compatibility effect was found. This reflects the influence and modulation of the lexical-syntactic structure of the language in two-digit numbers comparison. Evidently, these differences in the compatibility effect advocate and strengthen the claim that two-digit numbers comparison is influenced by the numbers presentation format. Different modes of presentation of two-digit numbers (digital vs. verbal) can lead to different number comparison styles. The parallel model accounts for the numerical comparison in digital presentation, while for the verbal numbers presentation, a revised sequential-syntactic model is preferable.

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August 2018
5 Reads

Speed of Reading Texts in Arabic and Hebrew.

Reading and Writing

Reading and Writing

We tested the effects of orthography on text reading by comparing reading measures in Arabic and Hebrew-speaking adults. The languages are typologically very similar, but use different orthographies. We measured naming speed of single letters, words and nonwords, and visual processing. Arabic-speakers also performed some of the tasks in Hebrew. We measured silent and oral reading speed of simpler and complex texts and their relationships with component abilities. Results show that Arabic-speakers read complex texts in Arabic more slowly than Hebrew-speakers read in Hebrew. Arabic-speakers read texts in Hebrew more slowly than in Arabic, even though they performed the letter naming and visual tasks equivalently in the two languages. For both groups, the best predictor of oral reading speed is speed of reading single words, with speed of letter naming adding to the prediction in Hebrew, but not in Arabic. No variable had a significant contribution to the prediction of speed of silent reading. The results suggest that even though lower level processes such as letter and word identification may be simpler to perform in Hebrew than in Arabic, higher level processes required to comprehend a complex text, are always faster in the first language of the participants. Both the characteristics of the text, its structural and semantic complexity, and the characteristics of the orthography play roles in the quality of reading. Relationships between the top-down and bottom-up components of reading are dynamic, and specific to orthographic factors and the sociolinguistic environment of the readers (e.g., the diglossia of Arabic).

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August 2018
3 Reads

Language-specific and Language-general Factors in Text Reading in Arabic: Evidence from the Missing Letter Effect

Psicológica. 36(1), 121-140.

Psicológica

The goal of the present study was to extend the models explaining the missing-letter effect (MLE) to an additional language and orthography, and to test the role of phonology in silent reading in Arabic. We also examined orthographic effects such as letter position and letter shape, morphological effects such as pseudo-prefixes, and phonological effects such as pronounceability. The results showed that readers miss letters more often in function words and prefixes than in content words, more in second position than in first position, more often when the letters are silent than pronounced, and less often when the letter shape is more symmetric and stable. The results show that these aspects of the missing letter effect can be generalized over writing systems that are not alphabetic, suggesting that the models proposed to explain the MLE in all the orthographies tested may reflect a universal aspect of reading.

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July 2018
5 Reads

How do different cognitive and linguistic variables contribute to reading in Arabic? A cross-sectional study from first to sixth grade

Reading and Writing. 30(9), 1835-1867.

Reading and Writing

This study aimed at examining the contribution of various cognitive and linguistic variables to spelling processes among native Arabic-speaking children from first to sixth grade. For this purpose, measures of phoneme awareness (PA), orthographic, morphological, lexical and syntactic knowledge were collected, together with working memory and speed of processing indexes. The analysis was conducted on a large and representative sample using path models. The results revealed that, together with the consistent contribution of PA and orthography, morphology played an important role in predicting spelling. Furthermore, our findings suggested that Arabic orthography, even the vowelised version which is considered as transparent (since it provides the reader with the full phonological information), behaved as other deep orthographies in spelling. These findings are discussed in the context of the unique characteristics of the Arabic language and its orthographic system

View Article
November 2017
3 Reads

Multi-literate experience as a treasure chest for young learners of English as a Foreign Language

Reading and Writing. 29(7), 1293-1315.

Reading and Writing

The study aimed to examine the pedagogical implications of the linguistic and orthographic proximity hypothesis. This hypothesis claims that the similarities and differences between first and additional languages and scripts help or hinder the acquisition of literacy in the novel language. In this study we examined the impact of Arabic language and literacy as opposed to Hebrew language and literacy on the acquisition of English basic literacy skills amongst elementary school Arabic L1 speaking versus Hebrew L1 speaking children. All these children are considered emergent bi-, tri- or multi-lingual and literate. A total of 75 fifth grade children participated in the study: 30 Arabic L1 speaking children and 45 Hebrew L1 speaking children. Tests in decoding and spelling various English target conventions were conducted. Arabic L1 speaking children showed an advantage in both decoding and spelling for the short vowel /æ/, the digraph , in decoding of short vowels and in spelling of vowel digraphs thus supporting the linguistic and orthographic proximity hypothesis. There were no significant differences between the two groups on decoding and spelling the silent , which provided a challenge for all participants. As predicted, the phoneme /p/ posed a challenge for spelling for Arabic L1 speaking children. These data provide support for a metaphoric treasure chest consisting of various languages and literacies that children bring into the classroom and which should be considered by teachers. The contents of this treasure chest which are linguistically or orthographically similar to English facilitate its literacy acquisition.

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November 2016
3 Reads

Promoting Comprehension Skills Among At-Risk First Graders: The Role of Motivation in one-to-one tutoring environment

Psychology. 6(4), 375-386

Psychology

The current study investigated the role of motivation in promoting reading comprehension skills among at-risk first graders. For this purpose, 20 at-risk first graders were recruited to participate in an interactive one-to-one tutoring reading comprehension intervention program. Following the children and tutors motivation level, four sub-groups were created: highly motivated children/ highly motivated tutors (HM-T/HM-L), highly motivated children/low motivated tutors (HM-L/ HM-T), low motivated children/highly motivated tutors (LM-L/HM-T) and low motivated children/ low motivated tutors (LM-L/LM-T). The children’s progress in comprehension measures was documented. Across different time periods greater improvement was obtained among highly motivated children who were tutored by highly motivated tutor. The implications of the current findings were discussed.

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October 2015
3 Reads

Fostering Phonological Awareness in a Computerized-Tutored Environment for Ar-abic Speaking First Graders At-Linguistic

Open Journal of Modern Linguistics. 5(2), 120-134.

Open Journal of Modern Linguistics

The current study investigated the efficacy of a computerized-tutored intervention program in fostering phonological awareness skills amongst 40 At-linguistic Risk Arab first graders. In addition, it examines the role of the pupils’ motivation on the learning process. For this purpose, the pupils’ achievements were assessed at three points during the program’s activation. When compared to control, the intervention group showed significantly higher phonological awareness related skills at the end of the scholastic year. When considering the role of motivation, high-motivation pupils outperformed low-motivation pupils and depicted greater progress in phonological awareness development when compared to their peers. The study findings point to the effectiveness of the program in fostering phonological awareness skills and the importance of motivation in maximizing its gains. The interactive nature of the program that was operated in a computerized assisted environment was allowed to bypass the complexity imposed by Arabic diglossic nature and properties. The study findings are discussed in relation to its practical and scientific impact: diagnosis and treatment, research, teaching and material development.

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October 2015
3 Reads

Cultural bias and the retention and organization of verbal information: A developmental perspective

Journal of Advances in Linguistics. 5(2), 566-581.

Journal of Advances in Linguistics

This study explores how cultural disposition and education impact the ways individuals assimilate and organize information. Students from two cultural backgrounds (individualist, collectivist) and three levels of education (elementary school, high school and university) were tested in two experiments. Findings from Experiment 1, which used a short-term memory (STM) paradigm, revealed that, contrary to a widely held theory, culture per se does not seem to foster propensities toward the use of particular memory strategies. Experiment 2, which used a concept organization paradigm, suggests that, even if cultural/educational preferences bias individuals’ approach to information in some regards, such bias is overshadowed by and interacts with other more intuitive predispositions. Findings are discussed from a cultural and educational point of view.

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November 2014
3 Reads

Could an interactive-balanced environment for reading acquisition overcome the triad risk factors: low socioeconomic status, low literacy skills and language properties?

Psychology. 5, 2200-2217.

Psychology

A large number of the scientific efforts that have investigated the issue of Arabic language acquisition have mainly focused on the implication of its Diglossic nature and orthographic complexity in reading acquisition. However, the interplay of the two factors and low-socio economic background was not addressed sufficiently. The current study follows the progress in literacy skills among atlinguistic risk Arabic native speaking kindergarten children throughout 2nd grade, and assesses its impact on reading and writing acquisition in a Diglossic context. Twenty-five at literacy risk children and 181 heterogeneous children (resembling the heterogeneity of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and literacy background in regular classes) took part in the study. The effects of an interactive-balanced reading and writing learning program were evaluated. Children were assessed both at the end of kindergarten and at the beginning of 2nd grade in the following domains: discourse, listening comprehension, phonology, morphology, syntax and vocabulary. In the post-test, reading measures were included. The results of the study indicate that the learning program succeeded in bridging the gaps in literacy skills between the at-risk children and their heterogeneous peers. However, lower performance was observed in reading measures among the former.

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October 2014
5 Reads

The complex nature of text reading difficulties: The case of bilingual children.

Psychology: Dyslexia. 5 (16), 1911-1921.

Psychology

The present research examined the effect of nature of orthography on the development of reading acquisition among children acquiring Arabic and Hebrew. Speed and accuracy measures were examined in reading texts in Arabic and in Hebrew. It was found that Arabic speakers showed an almost equal control in reading both languages. Furthermore, it was found that the speed of reading texts in Arabic among Arabic speakers was 3 times slower than reading Hebrew texts among Hebrew readers. These findings confirm that there is difficulty in identifying and decoding visual stimuli in Arabic. Furthermore, findings of the present research paper emphasizes that reading in Hebrew is faster and more precise than reading in Arabic, beyond mother tongue groups (Arab and Hebrew speakers). In addition, Hebrew readers showed a significant difference in reading in favor of reading in their mother tongue (both in accuracy and speed). In conclusion, findings of the present research suggest that there is an objective difficulty in acquiring reading of the Arabic language, and there is need for systematic intervention among those who face difficulties in the learning process.

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August 2014
6 Reads

(2014). The Influence of Diglossia on Different Types of Phonological Abilities in Arabic.

Journal of Education and Learning. 3 (3), 45-55.

Journal of Education and Learning

The present study examined the impact of diglossia, a characteristic of the Arabic language, on the development of phonological abilities in the spoken and the literary language forms. Participants were 571 children from 10 grade levels (1-7, 9, 11 and 12), which were recruited from 10 schools by taking into account two important factors: the accent factor (Bedouins, Druze and Arabs) and the geographical factor (south, Haifa, center and north). All participant were administered phonemic segmentation and phonemic deletion tasks, each comprised of two types of stimulus: spoken and literary words. The results indicated an opposite effects of the stimulus where in the phonemic segmentation tasks, an advantage was found for the spoken stimulus over the literary and in the phonemic deletion task, the advantage was recorded in the literary stimulus. In addition, a significant main effect of grade was found for both tasks. An interaction between grade and the type of stimulus was observed only in the phonemic deletion task. These differences between the two tasks may suggest that they are processed differently via the auditory and the visual modality. In addition, our findings provide evidence concerns the developmental capacity of phonemic awareness. The results, as a whole, support the notion that the effect of lexical distance on phonological awareness depends on modes of stimulus presentation.

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May 2014
6 Reads

Longitudinal data on the relations of morphological and phonological training to reading acquisition in first grade: The case of Arabic language

Psychology, 5, 918-940.

Psychology

The purpose of this study was to examine the development of morphological and phonological awareness and their impact on later reading skills. Two training programs (morphological and phonological awareness) were conducted in kindergarten and were compared to no-intervention control group. Phonological and morphological tests and other general abilities were measured for 90 children at kindergarten as pre and post intervention tests. Tests in reading and spelling were carried out at the middle of grade 1. Results showed that the morphological and the phonological intervention programs enhanced both phonological and morphological awareness, in comparison to the control group, with a small advantage for the morphological group. In grade 1, no significant differences were found between the intervention groups and the control group in reading and spelling measures. Altogether the results of the current study suggest that the intervention programs were less effective than expected in the first graders compared to results of Carlisle (1995) and Lyster (2002), but support former findings found by Ibrahim et al. (2007). This result may relate in part to the additional visual complexity of Arabic orthography. The psycholinguistic implications of these findings including a gender effect are discussed.

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April 2014
6 Reads

The impact of orthographic connectivity on visual word recognition in Arabic: A cross-sectional study.

Reading and Writing. 27 (8), 1416–1436.

Reading and Writing

This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters' connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third, sixth and ninth grade native Arabic speakers during a lexical decision task, using fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and nonconnected (NCw) Arabic words and pseudowords. Effects of grade on word recognition (in RTs and accuracy) and word superiority were predicted to occur. Also, in the third grade, recognition of NCw was predicted to be faster and more accurate than recognition of Cw, because in previous studies NCw were assumed to be visually less complex. In sixth and ninth grades, due to the frequent exposure to connected forms, the recognition of Cw was predicted to be as fast as or faster and more accurate than NCw. The findings largely supported the first and the second hypotheses. As for the third graders, a mixed pattern was obtained, suggesting that the participants were probably in a transitional phase. The results from sixth graders clearly showed that NCw yielded the slowest response times and the lowest accuracy scores across connectivity conditions. Finally, for ninth graders, the absence of connectivity effects on the speed of processing was attributed to the use of very frequent and highly automatized words.

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March 2014
3 Reads

How does speed and accuracy in reading related to reading comprehension Arabic

Psicológica, 35, 251-276.

Psicológica

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of decoding efficiency to the development of reading comprehension among skilled adult native Arabic speakers. In addition, we tried to investigate the influence of Arabic vowels on reading accuracy, reading speed, and therefore to reading comprehension. Seventy-five Arabic native speakers read fully pointed, unpointed and pseudowords lists of Arabic and silent reading comprehension of pointed and unpointed paragraphs were tested. Reading speed and accuracy measures revealed a slowest and less accurate in reading pseudowords, and fastest and most accurate in reading unpointed words with pointed word naming speed and accuracy in between. Subjects who were fast and accurate in reading isolated words were also fast and accurate in reading all varieties of printed words. Pearson correlation procedures indicated that silent reading comprehension of pointed and unpointed Arabic texts was uncorrelated with either oral reading speed or accuracy. Our findings with regard to the cross-linguistic research literature as well as the specific features of Arabic language are discussed.

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February 2014
5 Reads

Exploring the phenotype of developmental phonological dyslexia: evidence from error analysis paradigm

Reading Psychology. 35(7), 683-701.

Reading Psychology

The dominant error types were investigated as a function of phonological processing (PP) deficit severity in four groups of impaired readers. For this aim, an error analysis paradigm distinguishing between four error types was used. The findings revealed that the different types of impaired readers were characterized by differing predominant error types. The dysphonetic errors predominated in readers with severe PP deficit and the morphological errors predominated in those with moderate deficits. Finally, readers with attention difficulties showed a predominance of semiphonetic errors. These findings were discussed in relation to reading disability subtypes and their clinical implications.

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January 2014
4 Reads

How do previously acquired languages affect acquisition of English as forign language: The case of Circassian

Written Language and Literacy. 17(1), 40-61.

Written Language and Literacy

The present study aims to examine the linguistic and orthographic proximity hypothesis in new script acquisition by comparing the performance of Circassian L1 speaking children who are emerging quadri-literates with Hebrew L1 speaking children who are emerging biliterates. Tests in decoding and spelling various English target conventions were conducted. Thirty 10 year old Circassian L1 speaking children were compared to 46 Hebrew L1 speaking children. Results show that the group of Circassian L1 speaking children outperformed the group of Hebrew L1 speaking children and showed a significant advantage in decoding and spelling target orthographic conventions. There were no significant differences between the two groups on decoding and spelling the silent 〈e〉, which provided a challenge for both groups. The results provide support for the linguistic and orthographic proximity hypothesis whereby phonemes and orthographic characteristics that exist in a child’s first or additional language system and writing system facilitate acquisition of orthographic conventions in a new language and writing system.

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January 2014
3 Reads

Number processing in Arabic and Hebrew bilinguals: Evidence supporting the distance effect

Japanease Journal of Psychology, 56 (2), 153–167.

Japanease Journal of Psychology

In the current study, a direct assessment of the effect of language lexicalsyntactic structure and magnitude semantic access on numerical processing was made by contrasting the performance of Arabic/Hebrew bilinguals in a digital (Hindidigits/Arabic-digits) and verbal numerical comparison task (Arabic, an inverted language:Units-Decades, Hebrew, a non-inverted language: Decades-Units). Our data revealed in the digital presentation format (Experiment 1) a regular distance effect in Arabic language-Hindi digits and Hebrew language-Arabic digits, characterized by an inverse relation between reaction times and numerical distance with no difference in the mean reaction times of participants in Arabic-L1 and Hebrew-L2. This indicates that both lexical digits of two-digit numbers in L1 and L2 are similarly processed and semantically accessed. However in the verbal presentation format (Experiment 2) a similar pattern of distance effect was found, but the mean reaction times in Arabic were lower than in Hebrew in each numerical distance. This indicates that the processing of two-digit number words in L1 and L2 is semantically accessed and determined by the syntactic structure of each language.

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January 2014
5 Reads

The effect of the internal connectedness of written Arabic words on the process of the visual recognition: A comparison between skilled and dyslexic readers

Writing Systems Research. 5(2), 214-233.

Writing Systems Research

Previous research has suggested that reading Arabic is more challenging than reading Hebrew or English, even among native Arabic readers due to the visual complexity of the Arabic orthography. In particular, the fact that most of the Arabic letters connect to each other and change their basic form according to their place in the written word (beginning, middle or end) has been hypothesised to constitute a visual load affecting reading efficiency. Here, we tested this visual complexity hypothesis by manipulating word-internal orthographic connectivity during visual word recognition. Fifty-eight adult skilled readers and 20 disabled readers of Arabic performed a lexical-decision task using words (and nonwords) whose letters were naturally fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and nonconnected (NCw). Behavioural measures for words as a function of word connectivity (and word frequency) were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The results revealed that within both groups of readers, higher accuracy rates were measured for the Cw rather than for the NCw, with PCw falling in between. The analysis of the individual standard deviations of the response times within each word condition revealed that Cw yielded a response variance lower than NCw, again with PCw in between. These results indicate that Cw tend to be processed more efficiently and accurately than NCw, in both reader groups. The results presented here extend recent findings in normal readers and indicate that word connectivity does not negatively impact word recognition processes among adults. The psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

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December 2013
3 Reads

Bilingualism and Measures of Spontaneous and Reactive Cognitive Flexibility

Psychology: Advances on cognitive psychology, 4, 7A, 1-10.

Psychology

In this study, we assessed possible consequences of bilingualism on executive function among adults. Three groups of adults were tested with a series of tests designed to tap two types of cognitive flexibility: reactive flexibility and spontaneous flexibility (The experimental groups comprised bilinguals equally proficient in Hebrew and English (balanced), Hebrew-dominant bilinguals and English-dominant bilingual participants). The results revealed several significant differences where the balanced bilinguals performed better relative to individuals from the same cultural background. In both types of flexibility tasks, the balanced-bilinguals were found to be superior to the Hebrew-dominant group but not compared to those who mastered English as their primary language. A significant difference between the balanced-bilingual group and the Hebrew-dominant group was found in the task which required spontaneous cognitive flexibility and the one which required reactive cognitive flexibility. The comparison of these unique findings with other findings in the literature and their psycholinguistic implications are discussed.

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December 2013
3 Reads

Beginning readers in Arabic and the distance between literary and spoken Arabic.

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

Creative Education. 4(5), 307-314.

Creative Education

Two groups of kindergarten children received a battery of phonological awareness, reading, and general abilities tests across a two-year period. One of the groups received phonological training whereas the other (control) group did not. Results indicated that children who received intervention improved in certain phonological awareness skills tested at the end of kindergarten but not in reading skills tested at the end of 1st year. These findings are in contrast to findings compared to those found by Carlisle (1995) and Lyster (2002) in English, but were in line with the findings found by Ibrahim et al. (2007) in Arabic and support the notion that normal Arab child encounters special difficulties in reading acquisition. The psycholinguistic basis and implications of these findings are discussed.

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October 2013
5 Reads

The influence of orthographic structure on printed word learning in Arabic

Writing Systems Research. 5(2), 189-213.

The present study focuses on the specific question of letter ligatures in reading Arabic in the context of Share’s self-teaching framework for printed word learning. The study examined the hypothesis that novel letter strings with connecting letters are harder to decode initially but easier to learn (orthographically) in the long run. As hypothesised, the findings showed that connectedness helps the reader learn the word-specific orthographic forms of individual words: Although post-test reading speeds were no faster for the connected items, spelling was superior. Thus, there is modest support for the view that position-specific letter-forms joined in a single contiguous word-form may promote orthographic learning. Unexpectedly, words with many consonant diacritics were found to slow reading considerably. The psycholinguistic implications of these findings are discussed in light of recent data and models of visual word recognition in Arabic.

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September 2013
3 Reads

Bi-cultural aspects of second language learning in the bilingual context

The Asian EFL Journal, 15(4), 64-88.

The Asian EFL Journal

Taking into account the effect of diglossia in Arabic and its orthographic complexity, this study is aiming to investigate differences between Arabic-speaking (L1) and Hebrew-speaking (L1) parents' self-reports on their children's language practice at home within the framework of Family Language Policy. Additionally, we (the researchers) aim to examine how children's language practice at home as a part of their Family Language Policy were linked to their word and text reading accuracy and rate in Arabic versus Hebrew. Native Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking 3rd and 4th grade children from two bilingual Arabic/Hebrew-speaking schools participated. Speed and accuracy measures were examined in reading words, pseudo words, and texts in Arabic and Hebrew. We have seen that measures of speed and accuracy of reading in Hebrew among Hebrew speakers were significantly higher than measures of reading in Arabic among Arabic speakers. In addition, Hebrew speakers gained poor results in reading Arabic (L2) compared to Arabic speakers in Hebrew (L2). Our conclusion was that Hebrew speakers did not succeed in transferring their proficiency and success in reading in their mother tongue to success in reading the second language. The psycholinguistic and the socio-linguistic explanations and implications of these findings are discussed.

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August 2013
3 Reads

Essential Tremor Prevalence is Low in the Druze Population in Northern Israel.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2012 22;2. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology and the Cognitive Neurology Unit, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel ; Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

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Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570042PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8GF0S7HDOI Listing
July 2013
10 Reads
1 Citation

Electronic reading and writing in spoken and written Arabic: A case study

Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 3 (9), 1497-1508.

Theory and Practice in Language Studies

Reading and writing disabilities and generalized cognitive dysfunction are developmental in origin and are likely linked to abnormalities in brain function. In this article, we detail selective reading and writing disturbances in the spoken and written Arabic orthography of an Arab teenager (RL) who communicates with his friends via readable and understandable electronic messages. We examine the performance of RL, who was diagnosed as learning disabled, in his reading and writing of Arabic words and text in Latin orthography compared to his reading and writing in Arabic orthography. Cognitive and verbal abilities in Arabic and Latin electronic orthography were tested using traditional pen and paper as well as electronic devices. The results underline the importance of the effect of the type of Arabic orthography on reading and writing fluency.

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July 2013
3 Reads

How do typographical factors affect reading text and comprehension performance in Arabic?

Hum Factors 2013 Apr;55(2):323-32

The Arab Center for Mind, Brain & Behavior (ACMBB), P.O.B 6079, Sakhnin 30810, Israel.

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0018720812452302
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720812452302DOI Listing
April 2013
9 Reads
1.694 Impact Factor

How does Arabic orthographic connectivity modulate brain activity during visual word recognition: an ERP study.

Brain Topogr 2013 Apr 3;26(2):292-302. Epub 2012 Aug 3.

Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, 31905, Haifa, Israel.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10548-012-0241-2
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10548-012-0241-2DOI Listing
April 2013
5 Reads
3.470 Impact Factor

Reading in Arabic: New evidence for the role of vowel signs

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

Creative Education, 4, 248-253.

Creative Education

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vowelization on reading Arabic orthography. Native children speakers of Arabic were asked to read aloud words (vowelized and unvowelized) and pseu-dowords. The results showed that unvowelized words were read aloud more quickly and more accurately than the shallow fully vowelized Arabic words. The disadvantage of vowelized words in both speed and accuracy was therefore unexpected, and, furthermore, inconsistent with findings from several other rele-vant studies. The results suggested that Arab children used a different perceptual and coding strategy when the stimuli differ in their lexical feature (word vs pseudoword) and visual/orthographic feature (vowelized vs unvowelized).

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March 2013
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How does type of orthography affect reading in Arabic and Hebrew as first and second languages?

Open Journal of Modern Linguistics.3(1), 40-46.

Open Journal of Modern Linguistics

This study aimed to examine the effects of visual characteristics of Arabic orthography on learning to read compared to Hebrew among Arabic and Hebrew bilinguals in an elementary bilingual education framework. Speed and accuracy measures were examined in reading words and non-words in Arabic and Hebrew as follows: Arabic words and non-words composed of connected and similar letters, words and non-words composed of connected and non-similar letters, and words and non-words composed of unconnected letters. In Hebrew, words and non-words composed of similar letters and non-similar letters. It was found that Arabic speakers showed an almost equal control in all reading tasks in both languages whereas, Hebrew speakers showed better performance in their mother tongue in all reading tasks. In Arabic, the best performance was in reading words and non-words that was unconnected. Based on these findings, it was concluded that Hebrew speakers did not succeed in transferring their good ability in reading their mother tongue to reading the second language, apparently due to the unique nature of the Arabic orthography. Our findings with regard to the cross-linguistic research literature as well as the specific features of Arabic language are discussed.

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January 2013
3 Reads

The cognitive basis of diglossia in Arabic: Evidence from a repetition priming study within and between languages.

Authors:
Raphiq Ibrahim

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2009 2;2:93-105. Epub 2009 Sep 2.

Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, Department of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218773PMC
October 2012
5 Reads

Performance in L1 and L2 observed in Arabic-Hebrew bilingual aphasic following brain tumor: A case constitutes double dissociation.

Authors:
Raphiq Ibrahim

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2008 2;1:11-9. Epub 2008 Oct 2.

University of Haifa and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218755PMC
October 2012
5 Reads

Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults.

J Integr Neurosci 2012 Sep 30;11(3):225-42. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Learning Disabilities Department, University of Haifa, Haifa, 31905, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219635212500197DOI Listing
September 2012
9 Reads
1.121 Impact Factor

The contribution of the two hemispheres to lexical decision in different languages.

Behav Brain Funct 2012 Jan 9;8. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

The Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities and Learning Disabilities Department, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

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http://behavioralandbrainfunctions.biomedcentral.com/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-8-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349568PMC
January 2012
7 Reads
1.972 Impact Factor

Perceptual load in the reading of Arabic: Effects of orthographic visual complexity on detection

Writing Systems Research. 3(2), 117—127.

Writing Systems Research

Previous research has suggested that reading Arabic is slower than reading Hebrew or English, even among native Arabic readers. We tested the hypothesis that at least part of the difficulty in reading Arabic is due to the visual complexity of Arabic orthography. Third- and sixth-grade native readers of Arabic who were studying Hebrew in school were asked to detect a vowel diacritic in the context of Hebrew words and nonwords, Arabic words and nonwords (including connected and unconnected Arabic letters), and nonletter stimuli that resembled Arabic or Hebrew letters. Participants were better at detecting target vowels in Hebrew than in any of the Arabic conditions. Moreover, target detection in Arabic was better for letter strings containing connected letters than for those containing unconnected letters. The findings extend previous results on Hebrew versus Arabic reading and support a perceptual load account of the source of processing difficulty in reading Arabic. Performance in the Arabic conditions did not reveal a word superiority effect, suggesting that even by sixth grade, reading is not automatized to the point where it can compensate for the the visual complexity of the orthography.

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October 2011
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Publication Preview Source How does dissociation between written and oral forms affect reading: Evidence from auxiliary verbs in Arabic

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

Journal of Research in Reading, 34, 2, 2011, pp 247–262.

Journal of Research in Reading

In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from theoral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in whichauxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact wasexploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects readingmeasures like letter detection task and therefore to validate the phenomenon of themissing-letter effect (MLE) and to replicate previous studies. In addition, the studyexamined whether auxiliary verbs in Arabic are considered as functional elementsthat constitute part of the structural frame. Sixty native Arabic speakers read apassage while looking for a target letter that was embedded in a preposition, anauxiliary verb or a content word. Results showed the typical MLE with moreomissions for the preposition than for the content words. However, the results withthe auxiliary verb are less clear. The functional and the syntactic roles of auxiliaryverbs in Arabic are discussed.

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January 2011
3 Reads

How do bilinguals handle interhemispheric integration? Evidence from a cross-language study.

Authors:
Raphiq Ibrahim

J Integr Neurosci 2009 Dec;8(4):503-23

The Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, Department of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel.

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December 2009
23 Reads
1.121 Impact Factor

Listening with an accent: speech perception in a second language by late bilinguals.

J Psycholinguist Res 2009 Oct 4;38(5):447-57. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Learning Disabilities Department, Haifa University, Haifa, 31905, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9099-1DOI Listing
October 2009
6 Reads

Neurocognitive aspects of processing Arabic and Hebrew

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

Brain Research Journal. 2 (4), 261-280.

Brain Research Journal. Nova Publisher

The aim of this chapter is to explore the neuro-cognitive basis of the difficulties that the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual encounters in processing Arabic language as a result of the diglossic situation in Arabic (Spoken Arabic and Modern Standard, or Literary Arabic). Furthermore, the chapter discusses the unique features of Arabic language that might contribute to the inhibition and slowness of reading acquisition and might even hinder the acquisition of basic academic skills. In the first section, two case studies of a Arabic-Hebrew aphasic patients (MH and MM) presented, with different disturbances in the two languages, Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2). They exhibited a complementary pattern of severe impairment of either L1 (Arabic) or L2 (Hebrew) constituting a double dissociation. These results suggested that the principles governing the organization of lexical representations in the brain are not similar for the two languages. The second section focuses on the functional architecture of reading in Hebrew and in Arabic. The effects of characteristics of Arabic and Hebrew as Semitic languages, on hemispheric functioning were systematically examined. These patterns are compared with the modal findings in the literature, which are usually based on English. Also, the effects of the absence of almost all vowel information, the orthographies of the two languages, and their non-concatenative morphological structure were investigated. It was shown that when languages make different types of demands upon the cognitive system, interhemispheric interaction is dynamic and is suited to these demands. In that regard both Arabic and Hebrew require a higher level of interhemispheric interaction than does English.

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October 2009
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Language status and hemispheric involvement in reading: evidence from trilingual Arabic speakers tested in Arabic, Hebrew, and English.

Neuropsychology 2009 Mar;23(2):240-54

Learning Disabilities Department, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014193DOI Listing
March 2009
7 Reads
3.270 Impact Factor

Selective deficit of second language: a case study of a brain-damaged Arabic-Hebrew bilingual patient.

Authors:
Raphiq Ibrahim

Behav Brain Funct 2009 Mar 12;5:17. Epub 2009 Mar 12.

Department of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-5-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2669804PMC
March 2009
4 Reads
1.972 Impact Factor

Speaking Hebrew with an accent: Empathic capacity or other non-personal factors

International Journal of Bilingualism. 12.3, 195-207.

International Journal of Bilingualism

The study examines a hypothesis that the degree of accent in L2 is related to a measure of ego permeability. Native Hebrew speakers, native Russian-speaking immigrants, and Arabic-speaking Israeli natives participated. All were students at the University of Haifa, where the language of instruction is Hebrew. The participants were recorded producing two speech segments and the recorded segments of speech were played to a group of 20 native Hebrew speakers, who rated the degree of accent in each segment on a scale from 1 (no accent) to 5 (heavy accent). These participants also completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) developed by Davis (1980), which has been translated into Hebrew and validated (Even, 1993). The scale yields a single numerical score that is a reflection of empathic capacity. We looked at the correlations between the “heaviness” of the accent of L2 speakers and a measure of empathy. These revealed strong correlations between degree of accent and empathy scores in the Russian-speaking group, but not in the Arabic-speaking group. The sociolinguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

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October 2008
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Does visual and auditory word identification have a language-selective input?: Evidence from word processing in Semitic languages

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

The Linguistics Journal, 3, (2), 82-102.

The Linguistics Journal

The goal of this study was to compare performance differences of Native Arabic speakers in identifying spoken words and written words in the Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2) languages, and to examine whether such difference in performance patterns are related to the factors like; type of language and frequency of exposure to each modality (visual, auditory). Two lexical decision experiments were performed, in which the response times (reaction time- RT) and error rates were compared. In addition, each subject completed a structured questionnaire that examined the level of exposure to speech and reading in each language. The results showed a frequency effect within the language (for each language- Arabic and Hebrew) and within the presentation form (spoken or written), with longer reaction times in lexical decision tasks when the stimuli was presented orally in comparison to the visual presentation. A significant interaction was found between perceptual modalities and the language in which the stimuli were presented. Reaction times to Hebrew words were faster when the words were presented visually, while reaction time times for the Literary Arabic words were faster when they were presented orally. The results of the language exposure questionnaire revealed that in both languages, students whose exposure to a particular modality was greater performed faster and more accurate in that modality. These findings can be explained with the fact that mature Arab students read more in Hebrew at schools and hear more in Literary Arabic Consequently, Arab linguistic experience in a second language (L2) relies more on visual modality, and that affects significantly the language processing of this modality.

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August 2008
3 Reads

Does exposure to second spoken language facilitate word reading ability

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

The Linguistics Journal, 2, (1), 143-161.

The Linguistics Journal

This study examines the relationship of reading skills to previous exposure to a second language. Its purpose is to provide direct evidence of a causal role for bilingualism in reading acquisition. Single word reading, connected text measures, and vocabulary measures are compared among three groups of first graders of monolingual Hebrew speakers, bilingual Russian-Hebrew speakers and monolingual Arab speakers. One-way ANOVA and correlations between the measure of reading speed and errors of text and measures of vocabulary are compared in Hebrew and Arabic groups. The results reveal that language experience affects reading, as Russian-Hebrew bilinguals are faster and more accurate in reading text than monolingual Hebrew children, and both are better than Arabic children. It was concluded that exposure to a second language in early childhood positively affects reading skills at the first-grade level. This finding concurs with other reports showing that bilingualism is a powerful predictor of the speed and effieciency of reading acquisition (Da Fontoura and Siegel, 1995).

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October 2007
3 Reads

Metalinguistic awareness and reading performance: a cross language comparison.

J Psycholinguist Res 2007 Jul;36(4):297-317

Learning Disabilities Department, University of Haifa, Haifa, 31905, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-006-9046-3DOI Listing
July 2007
11 Reads

Morphological structure and hemispheric functioning: the contribution of the right hemisphere to reading in different languages.

Neuropsychology 2007 Jul;21(4):470-84

Psychology Department, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.21.4.470DOI Listing
July 2007
5 Reads
3.270 Impact Factor

Phonemic and graphemic encoding in processing Arabic script

Israeli Journal of Neurology, 19, 25-27.

Israeli Journal of Neurology

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July 2007
3 Reads

Morpho-Phonemic similarity within and between languages: A factor to be considered in processing Arabic and Hebrew

Authors:
Ibrahim R.

Reading and Writing, 19, (6), 563-586.

Reading and Writing

The goal of the present study was to explore the pattern of lexical connections between translation equivalents represented in the cognitive system of an Arabic-Hebrew bilingual. To achieve this goal, repetition priming effects (reaction times (RTs) and accuracy measures) were compared between translation equivalents in the two forms of Arabic, Spoken Arabic (SA) and Literary Arabic (LA), with those between translation equivalents in Hebrew and LA, in native Arabic students living in Israel. While these students master Hebrew as well as they master LA, they consider it as a second language. LA targets were preceded by cognate and non-cognate translation equivalents in SA or Hebrew either immediately (Lag 0) or separated by four unrelated words (Lag 4), in a lexical decision task. The participants were requested to make a word/non-word decision regardless of language. Across languages, morpho-phonemic similarities augmented the repetition priming effects. At Lag 0 this effect was larger when the primes were in Hebrew than when they were in SA. At Lag 4, however, the priming effect between Hebrew and LA was significantly reduced (and even absent for non-cognates). In contrast, the priming effect between Spoken and Literary Arabic was only slightly attenuated. The conclusion was that, despite the intensive daily use and psychological proximity, Spoken and Literary Arabic are represented as first and second languages in the cognitive system of the native Arabic reader, entertaining distinct lexica. However, the strength of the lexical associations between translation equivalents is influenced by the frequency of concomitant use.

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October 2006
3 Reads

Do languages with cognate relationships have advantages in second language acquisition

The Linguistics Journal, 1, (3), 66-96.

The Linguistics Journal

Second-language students usually use various strategies in learning second language (Bialystock, 1991). This article is concerned with cognitive evidence bearing on the nature of the units stored in the mental lexicons of speakers of Semitic languages, Arabic and Hebrew. On the basis of lexical connections between translation equivalents represented in the cognitive system of Arabic Hebrew bilingual, I suggest that cognate words that have phonological overlap can influence the recognition of translation equivalents. I review documented language literature and that lead to the same conclusion and discuss evidence for the morphemic status of templates from repetition priming effects (reaction times (RTs) and accuracy measures) were compared between translation equivalents in forms of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Hebrew. MSA targets were preceded by cognate and non-cognate translation equivalents in Hebrew immediately in a lexical decision task. The participants were requested to make a word/nonword decision regardless of language. The larger priming effects between Hebrew-MSA cognate words than non-cognate suggests that cognate’s relationship affects acquisition of second language regardless of the mother tongue. The conclusion was that, the strength of the lexical associations between translation equivalents is influenced not only by the frequency of concomitant use but rather by their cognate status.

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May 2006
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Is literary Arabic a second language for native Arab speakers?: Evidence from semantic priming study.

J Psycholinguist Res 2005 Jan;34(1):51-70

Cognitive Neurology Unit, Department of Neurology, Rambam Medical Center, P.O. Box 9602, Haifa 31096, Israel.

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January 2005
8 Reads

Morphological and orthographic effects on hemispheric Processing of nonwords: A Cross-linguistic comparison

Reading and Writing,17, 691-705.

Reading and Writing

We tested the effects of morphological and orthographic differences between English, Hebrew, and Arabic on the functioning of the two cerebral hemispheres. University students who were native speakers of each of the three languages performed a lateralized consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) identification task. The stimuli were presented vertically in three conditions: left visual field (LVF), right visual field (RVF), and bilaterally (BVF). Three dependent measures were used: (1) exposure duration of the stimuli in order to achieve a 50% error rate, (2) total number of errors in each presentation condition and (3) the difference between errors on the first letter and errors on the last letter, a qualitative measure of sequential processing. Arabic readers required longer exposure durations of the syllables in order to achieve a 50% error rate than Hebrew readers, who in turn, required longer exposure durations than native English readers. Readers of all three languages evinced left hemisphere specialization for this linguistic task and a bilateral advantage. The qualitative patterns revealed that the Arabic and Hebrew speakers showed the same hemispheric difference pattern, that was different from the one shown by English readers, and that Arabic readers showed a qualitative pattern suggesting higher levels of sequential processes in both hemisphere than readers of Hebrew and English. We interpret this as reflecting the adaptation of hemispheric abilities to reading languages that differ in morphological structure and orthography.

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October 2004
3 Reads

Orthography and the hemispheres: visual and linguistic aspects of letter processing.

Neuropsychology 2004 Jan;18(1):174-84

Institute of Information Processing and Decision Making, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.18.1.174DOI Listing
January 2004
4 Reads
3.270 Impact Factor

Text processing and perceptual characteristics of Arabic orthography

Israeli Journal of Neurology, 9, 22-24.

Israeli Journal of Neurology

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October 2002
3 Reads

The characteristics of arabic orthography slow its processing.

Neuropsychology 2002 Jul;16(3):322-6

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July 2002
5 Reads
3.270 Impact Factor

Bilingual is as bilingual does: Metalinguistic abilities of Arabic-speaking children

Applied Psycholinguistics, 21(4), 451-471.

Applied Psycholinguistics, 21(4), 451-471.

The study explores the effects of the relationship between exposure to two languages in childhood and metalinguistic abilities. Arabic-speaking children who had been exposed to both spoken and literary Arabic were compared to Russian–Hebrew bilinguals and Hebrew monolinguals. All of the children were in kindergarten or first grade. The tests included language arbitrariness, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. As compared to the Hebrew monolinguals, the Russian–Hebrew bilinguals revealed the following pattern: higher performance on arbitrariness and phonological awareness tasks and lower performance on the vocabulary measure. The results of the Arab children mimicked those of the Russian–Hebrew bilinguals and differed from those of the Hebrew monolinguals. We conclude that exposure to literary Arabic requires the same intensive language analyses as those demanded of children exposed to languages as different as Russian and Hebrew.

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October 2001
3 Reads

Phonological processing of second language phonemes: A selective deficit in a bilingual aphasic

Language Learning, 49.1, 121-141.

Language Learning, 49.1, 121-141.

We present a case study of a Russian-Hebrew bilingual transcortical sensory aphasic. In general, aphasic symptoms are similar in the 2 languages, with Hebrew being somewhat more impaired. However, the patient reveals a difference in her ability to perceive phonemes in the context of Hebrew words that is dependent on whether they are presented in a Russian or a native accent. This finding is interpreted as showing that a mediating mechanism that assimilates second language phonemes to native language phonological categories is differentially damaged. Implications for models of speech perception in general and second language phonetic perception in particular are discussed.

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October 1999
3 Reads

New evidence for phonological processing during visual word recognition: The case of Arabic

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 309-323.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

Lexical decision and naming were examined with words and pseudowords in literary Arabic and with transliterations of words in a Palestinian dialect that has no written form. Although the transliterations were visually unfamiliar, they were not easily rejected in lexical decision, and they were more slowly accepted in phonologically based lexical decision. Naming transliterations of spoken words was slower than naming of literary words and pseudowords. Apparently, phonological computation is mandatory for both lexical decision and naming. A large frequency effect in both lexical decision and naming suggests that addressed phonology is an option for familiar orthographic patterns. The frequency effect on processing transliterations indicated that lexical phonology is involved with prelexical phonological computation even if addressed phonology is not possible. These data support a combination between a cascade-type process, in which partial products of the grapheme-to-phoneme translation activate phonological units in the lexicon, and an interactive model, in which the activated lexical units feed back, shaping the prelexical phonological computation process.

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October 1996
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Psycholinguistic Challenges in Processing Arabic Language

Authors:
Ibrahim R

International Journal of Psychology Research. 4, 3(4), 361-389.

International Journal of Psychology Research. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

The 2006 PISA (Program for International Student Assessment ) report of worldwide scholastic achievements showed that about 50% of Israeli Arabic students were found to exhibit the lowest reading achievement scores in the PISA tests (level 1 and below) as compared to the other participating groups. Also, the MEITZAV national testing program in Israel (2001-2002) showed an achievement gap in language skills (reading and reading comprehension) between Arab students and Jewish students in the school systems. This gap was larger than those found in the other areas tested (mathematics, science and technology, and English). The aim of this chapter is to explore the cognitive basis of these difficulties, specifically the diglossic situation in Arabic. Furthermore, the chapter discusses the unique features of the Arabic language that might contribute to the inhibition and slowness of reading acquisition and might even hinder the acquisition of basic academic skills. Finally, a model with a comprehensive basis (cognitive and neurocognitive) will be built in order to explain the complex linguistic situation of beginning Arabic learners. This chapter is concerned with the cognitive evidence bearing on the nature of the mechanisms of language processing in Arabic which has critical linguistic characteristics and a diglossic factor. Additionally, other aspects, including a neurofunctional perspective, will be discussed.

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6 Reads