Publications by authors named "Raoul Pop"

47 Publications

First-line thrombectomy strategy for anterior large vessel occlusions: results of the prospective ETIS egistry.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy, Nancy, France.

Background: The best recanalization strategy for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) remains unknown as no randomized controlled trial has simultaneously evaluated first-line stent retriever (SR) versus contact aspiration (CA) versus the combined approach (SR+CA).

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety profiles of SR, CA, and SR+CA in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated by MT.

Methods: We analyzed data of the Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke (ETIS) Registry, a prospective, multicenter, observational study of patients with AIS treated by MT. Patients with M1 and intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions between January 2015 and March 2020 in 15 comprehensive stroke centers were included. We assessed the association of first-line strategy with favorable outcomes at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), successful recanalization rates (modified Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) 2b/3), and safety outcomes.

Results: We included 2643 patients, 406 treated with SR, 1126 with CA, and 1111 with SR+CA. CA or SR+CA achieved more successful recanalization than SR for M1 occlusions (aOR=2.09, (95% CI 1.39 to 3.13) and aOR=1.69 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.53), respectively). For intracranial ICA, SR+CA achieved more recanalization than SR (aOR=2.52 (95% CI 1.32 to 4.81)), no differences were observed between CA and SR+CA. SR+CA was associated with lower odds of favorable outcomes compared with SR (aOR=0.63 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.90)) and CA (aOR=0.71 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.92)), higher odds of mortality at 3 months (aOR=1.56 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.0)) compared with CA, and higher odds of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (aOR=1.59 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3)) compared with CA.

Conclusions: Despite high recanalization rates, our results question the safety of the combined approach, which was associated with disability and mortality. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017505DOI Listing
May 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and Intravenous Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95%CI, -11.7 to - 11.3, p<0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95%CI, -13.8 to -12.7, p<0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95%CI, -13.7 to -10.3, p=0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95%CI 9.2-9.8, p<0.0001) was noted over the two later (May, June) versus the two earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
March 2021

Pathogeny of cerebral venous thrombosis in SARS-Cov-2 infection: Case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(10):e24708

Department of Neurology, Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Stroke Unit, CIC-P 1433, INSERMU1116, Nancy.

Rationale: Pathogeny of thrombosis in COVID-19 is related to interaction of SARS-Cov-2 with vascular wall through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This induces 2 pathways with immunothrombosis from activated endothelium (cytokine storm, leukocyte and platelet recruitment, and activation of coagulation extrinsic pathway), and rise of angiotensin II levels promoting inflammation. While thrombosis is widely described in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care unit, cerebrovascular diseases remains rare, in particular cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT).

Patient Concerns: We describe 2 cases of women admitted during the spring of 2020 for intracranial hypertension signs, in stroke units in Great-east, a French area particularly affected by COVID-19 pandemia.

Diagnoses: Cerebral imaging revealed extended CVT in both cases. The first case described was more serious due to right supratentorial venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation leading to herniation. Both patients presented typical pneumonia due to SARS-Cov-2 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab in only one.

Interventions: The first patient had to undergo decompressive craniectomy, and both patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy.

Outcomes: Favorable outcome was observed for 1 patient. Persistent coma, due to bi thalamic infarction, remained for the other with more serious presentation.

Lessons: CVT, as a serious complication of COVID-19, has to be searched in all patients with intracranial hypertension syndrome. Data about anticoagulation therapy to prevent such serious thrombosis in SARS-Cov-2 infection are lacking, in particular in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969213PMC
March 2021

Influence of portal vein occlusion on portal flow and liver elasticity in an animal model.

NMR Biomed 2021 Jun 25;34(6):e4498. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

ICube, CNRS UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Hepatic fibrosis causes an increase in liver stiffness, a parameter measured by elastography and widely used as a diagnosis method. The concomitant presence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) implies a change in hepatic portal inflow that could also affect liver elasticity. The main objective of this study is to determine the extent to which the presence of portal occlusion can affect the mechanical properties of the liver and potentially lead to misdiagnosis of fibrosis and hepatic cirrhosis by elastography. Portal vein occlusion was generated by insertion and inflation of a balloon catheter in the portal vein of four swines. The portal flow parameters peak flow (PF) and peak velocity magnitude (PVM) and liver mechanical properties (shear modulus) were then investigated using 4D-flow MRI and MR elastography, respectively, for progressive obstructions of the portal vein. Experimental results indicate that the reduction of the intrahepatic venous blood flow (PF/PVM decreases of 29.3%/8.5%, 51.0%/32.3% and 83.3%/53.6%, respectively) measured with 50%, 80% and 100% obstruction of the portal vein section results in a decrease of liver stiffness by 0.8% ± 0.1%, 7.7% ± 0.4% and 12.3% ± 0.9%, respectively. While this vascular mechanism does not have sufficient influence on the elasticity of the liver to modify the diagnosis of severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (F4 METAVIR grade), it may be sufficient to attenuate the increase in stiffness due to moderate fibrosis (F2-F3 METAVIR grades) and consequently lead to false-negative diagnoses with elastography in the presence of PVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4498DOI Listing
June 2021

Safety and Angiographic Efficacy of Intra-Arterial Fibrinolytics as Adjunct to Mechanical Thrombectomy: Results from the INFINITY Registry.

J Stroke 2021 Jan 31;23(1):91-102. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Data on safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) fibrinolytics as adjunct to mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are sparse.

Methods: INtra-arterial FIbriNolytics In ThrombectomY (INFINITY) is a retrospective multi-center observational registry of consecutive patients with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion ischemic stroke treated with MT and adjunctive administration of IA fibrinolytics (alteplase [tissue plasminogen activator, tPA] or urokinase [UK]) at 10 European centers. Primary outcome was the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II definition. Secondary outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months.

Results: Of 5,612 patients screened, 311 (median age, 74 years; 44.1% female) received additional IA after or during MT (194 MT+IA tPA, 117 MT+IA UK). IA fibrinolytics were mostly administered for rescue of thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 0-2b after MT (80.4%, 250/311). sICH occurred in 27 of 308 patients (8.8%), with an increased risk in patients with initial TICI0/1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 5.0 per TICI grade decrease) or in those with intracranial internal carotid artery occlusions (aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 12.5). In patients with attempted rescue of TICI0-2b and available angiographic follow-up, 116 of 228 patients (50.9%) showed any angiographic reperfusion improvement after IA fibrinolytics, which was associated with mRS ≤2 (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.9).

Conclusions: Administration of IA fibrinolytics as adjunct to MT is performed rarely, but can improve reperfusion, which is associated with better outcomes. Despite a selection bias, an increased risk of sICH seems possible, which underlines the importance of careful patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2020.01788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900401PMC
January 2021

Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care.

Int J Stroke 2021 Mar 29:1747493021991652. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

Aims: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers.

Results: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010375PMC
March 2021

Intraoperative Perfusion Assessment in Enhanced Reality Using Quantitative Optical Imaging: An Experimental Study in a Pancreatic Partial Ischemia Model.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jan 8;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Research Institute against Digestive Cancer (IRCAD), 67000 Strasbourg, France.

To reduce the risk of pancreatic fistula after pancreatectomy, a satisfactory blood flow at the pancreatic stump is considered crucial. Our group has developed and validated a real-time computational imaging analysis of tissue perfusion, using fluorescence imaging, the fluorescence-based enhanced reality (FLER). Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is another emerging technology, which provides tissue-specific spectral signatures, allowing for perfusion quantification. Both imaging modalities were employed to estimate perfusion in a porcine model of partial pancreatic ischemia. Perfusion quantification was assessed using the metrics of both imaging modalities (slope of the time to reach maximum fluorescence intensity and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), for FLER and HSI, respectively). We found that the HSI-StO2 and the FLER slope were statistically correlated using the Spearman analysis (R = 0.697; = 0.013). Local capillary lactate values were statistically correlated to the HSI-StO2 and to the FLER slope (R = -0.88; < 0.001 and R = -0.608; = 0.0074). HSI-based and FLER-based lactate prediction models had statistically similar predictive abilities ( = 0.112). Both modalities are promising to assess real-time pancreatic perfusion. Clinical translation in human pancreatic surgery is currently underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826658PMC
January 2021

European Multicenter Study of ET-COVID-19.

Stroke 2021 01 23;52(1):31-39. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Interventional Neuroradiology Department, CHRU Colmar, France (F.B., P.A.L.).

Background And Purpose: Acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion can be concurrent with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion in patients with COVID-19 are substantially unknown. Our aim was to study early outcomes after MT in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: Multicenter, European, cohort study involving 34 stroke centers in France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Data were collected between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020. Consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases with large vessel occlusion, who were treated with MT, were included. Primary investigated outcome: 30-day mortality.

Secondary Outcomes: early neurological improvement (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement ≥8 points or 24 hours National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 0-1), successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade ≥2b), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Results: We evaluated 93 patients with COVID-19 with large vessel occlusion who underwent MT (median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 59-79]; 63 men [67.7%]). Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 17 (interquartile range, 11-21) and 8 (interquartile range, 7-9), respectively. Anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke represented 93.5% of cases. The rate modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 was 79.6% (74 patients [95% CI, 71.3-87.8]). Thirty-day mortality was 29% (27 patients [95% CI, 20-39.4]). Early neurological improvement was 19.5% (17 patients [95% CI, 11.8-29.5]), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 5.4% (5 patients [95% CI, 1.7-12.1]). Patients who died at 30 days exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count, higher levels of aspartate, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). After adjustment for age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and successful reperfusion, these biological markers remained associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 [95% CI, 1.21-5.98] per SD-log decrease in lymphocyte count, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.22-5.77] per SD-log increase in aspartate, and 4.30 [95% CI, 1.43-12.91] per SD-log increase in LDH).

Conclusions: The 29% rate of 30-day mortality after MT among patients with COVID-19 is not negligible. Abnormalities of lymphocyte count, LDH and aspartate may depict a patient's profiles with poorer outcomes after MT. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04406090.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031514DOI Listing
January 2021

Response to Ganau letter 'The continuous quest for a more tailored approach to anesthetic management of patients undergoing endovascular therapy for acute stroke'.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 4;13(3):e3. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Centre Nancy, Nancy, Lorraine, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016989DOI Listing
March 2021

A Novel Technique to Improve Anastomotic Perfusion Prior to Esophageal Surgery: Hybrid Ischemic Preconditioning of the Stomach. Preclinical Efficacy Proof in a Porcine Survival Model.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 14;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Research Institute against Digestive Cancer (IRCAD), 67000 Strasbourg, France.

Esophagectomy often presents anastomotic leaks (AL), due to tenuous perfusion of gastric conduit fundus (GCF). Hybrid (endovascular/surgical) ischemic gastric preconditioning (IGP), might improve GCF perfusion. Sixteen pigs undergoing IGP were randomized: (1) Max-IGP ( = 6): embolization of left gastric artery (LGA), right gastric artery (RGA), left gastroepiploic artery (LGEA), and laparoscopic division (LapD) of short gastric arteries (SGA); (2) Min-IGP ( = 5): LGA-embolization, SGA-LapD; (3) Sham ( = 5): angiography, laparoscopy. At day 21 gastric tubulation occurred and GCF perfusion was assessed as: (A) Serosal-tissue-oxygenation (StO) by hyperspectral-imaging; (B) Serosal time-to-peak (TTP) by fluorescence-imaging; (C) Mucosal functional-capillary-density-area (FCD-A) index by confocal-laser-endomicroscopy. Local capillary lactates (LCL) were sampled. Neovascularization was assessed (histology/immunohistochemistry). Sham presented lower StO and FCD-A index (41 ± 10.6%; 0.03 ± 0.03 respectively) than min-IGP (66.2 ± 10.2%, -value = 0.004; 0.22 ± 0.02, -value < 0.0001 respectively) and max-IGP (63.8 ± 9.4%, -value = 0.006; 0.2 ± 0.02, -value < 0.0001 respectively). Sham had higher LCL (9.6 ± 4.8 mL/mol) than min-IGP (4 ± 3.1, -value = 0.04) and max-IGP (3.4 ± 1.5, -value = 0.02). For StO, FCD-A, LCL, max- and min-IGP did not differ. Sham had higher TTP (24.4 ± 4.9 s) than max-IGP (10 ± 1.5 s, -value = 0.0008) and min-IGP (14 ± 1.7 s, non-significant). Max- and min-IGP did not differ. Neovascularization was confirmed in both IGP groups. Hybrid IGP improves GCF perfusion, potentially reducing post-esophagectomy AL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602144PMC
October 2020

Treatment with flow diverter stent during pregnancy.

Neuroradiology 2020 Nov 22;62(11):1507-1510. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Interventional Neuroradiology Department, Strasbourg University Hospitals, Strasbourg, France.

Intracranial aneurysms are rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. If treatment is necessary, surgery was traditionally preferred over embolization in case of ongoing pregnancy, due to concerns regarding foetal radiation exposure. We present a case of 21 mm unruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm diagnosed during pregnancy and treated with flow diversion. Foetal radiation dose was estimated between 1 and 5 mGy, well below recommended limits. Double antiplatelet therapy with prasugrel and aspirin was administered between week 17 and week 37, followed by uneventful vaginal delivery at 39 weeks. The new-born infant did not present any clinical abnormalities. Post-natal angiography showed complete aneurysm occlusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of flow diverter stent placement during ongoing pregnancy. Although a good outcome was observed in this case, this result should be interpreted with caution. Further studies are needed in order to better define the safety profiles of intracranial stents and double antiplatelet therapies during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02474-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of emergent carotid stenting during endovascular therapy for acute anterior circulation stroke patients with tandem occlusion: A multicenter, randomized, clinical trial (TITAN) protocol.

Int J Stroke 2021 Apr 9;16(3):342-348. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Caen University Hospital, Caen, France.

Background And Hypothesis: There is no consensus on the optimal endovascular management of the extracranial internal carotid artery steno-occlusive lesion in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to tandem occlusion. We hypothesized that intracranial mechanical thrombectomy plus emergent internal carotid artery stenting (and at least one antiplatelet therapy) is superior to intracranial mechanical thrombectomy alone in patients with acute tandem occlusion.

Study Design: TITAN is an investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study. Eligibility requires a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS)≤2 (no upper age limit), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)≥6, Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS)≥6, and tandem occlusion on the initial catheter angiogram. Tandem occlusion is defined as large vessel occlusion (intracranial internal carotid artery , M1 and/or M2 segment) and extracranial severe internal carotid artery stenosis ≥90% (NASCET) or complete occlusion. Patients are randomized in two balanced parallel groups (1:1) to receive either intracranial mechanical thrombectomy plus internal carotid artery stenting (and at least one antiplatelet therapy) or intracranial mechanical thrombectomy alone within 8 h of stroke onset. Up to 432 patients are randomized after tandem occlusion confirmation on angiogram.

Study Outcomes: The primary outcome measure is complete reperfusion rate at the end of endovascular procedure, assessed as a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) 3, and ≥4 point decrease in NIHSS at 24 h. Secondary outcomes include infarct growth, recurrent clinical ischemic event in the ipsilateral carotid territory, type and dose of antiplatelet therapy used, mRS at 90 (±15) days and 12 (±1) months. Safety outcomes are procedural complications, stent patency, intracerebral hemorrhage, and death. Economics analysis includes health-related quality of life, and costs utility comparison, especially with the need or not of endarterectomy.

Discussion: TITAN is the first randomized trial directly comparing two types of treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation tandem occlusion, and especially assessing the safety and efficacy of emergent internal carotid artery stenting associated with at least one antiplatelet therapy in the acute phase of stroke reperfusion.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03978988.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493020929948DOI Listing
April 2021

Local anesthesia versus general anesthesia during endovascular therapy for acute stroke: a propensity score analysis.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 2;13(3):207-211. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Centre Nancy, Nancy, Lorraine, France.

Background: To date, the choice of optimal anesthetic management during endovascular therapy (EVT) of acute ischemic stroke patients remains subject to debate. We aimed to compare functional outcomes and complication rates of EVT according to the first-line anesthetic management in two comprehensive stroke centers: local anesthesia (LA) versus general anesthesia (GA).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected databases, identifying all consecutive EVT for strokes in the anterior circulation performed between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018 in two EVT-capable stroke centers. One center performed EVT under LA in the first intention, while the other center systematically used GA. Using propensity score analysis, the two groups underwent 1:1 matching, then procedural metrics, complications, and clinical outcomes were compared. Good outcome was defined as 90 days modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤2, and successful recanalization as modified Thrombolysis In Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) 2b-3.

Results: During the study period, 219 patients were treated in the LA center and 142 in the GA center. Using the propensity score, 97 patients from each center were matched 1:1 according to the baseline characteristics. Local anesthesia was associated with a significantly lower proportion of good outcome (36.1% vs 52.0%, OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.87; p=0.039), lower rate of successful recanalization (70.1% vs 95.8%, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.39; p<0.001), and more procedural complications (14.4% vs 3.0%, OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.09 to 14.28; p=0.018). There were no significant differences in 90-day mortality or symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation rates.

Conclusions: In this study, systematic use of GA for stroke EVT was associated with better clinical outcomes, higher recanalization rates, and fewer procedural complications compared with patients treated under LA as the primary anesthetic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-015916DOI Listing
March 2021

Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke Amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: Decreased Activity, and Increased Care Delays.

Stroke 2020 07 20;51(7):2012-2017. Epub 2020 May 20.

Neuroradiology Department, CH Sainte-Anne, Paris, France (B.K., W.B.H., G.B.).

Background And Purpose: The efficiency of prehospital care chain response and the adequacy of hospital resources are challenged amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, with suspected consequences for patients with ischemic stroke eligible for mechanical thrombectomy (MT).

Methods: We conducted a prospective national-level data collection of patients treated with MT, ranging 45 days across epidemic containment measures instatement, and of patients treated during the same calendar period in 2019. The primary end point was the variation of patients receiving MT during the epidemic period. Secondary end points included care delays between onset, imaging, and groin puncture. To analyze the primary end point, we used a Poisson regression model. We then analyzed the correlation between the number of MTs and the number of COVID-19 cases hospitalizations, using the Pearson correlation coefficient (compared with the null value).

Results: A total of 1513 patients were included at 32 centers, in all French administrative regions. There was a 21% significant decrease (0.79; [95%CI, 0.76-0.82]; <0.001) in MT case volumes during the epidemic period, and a significant increase in delays between imaging and groin puncture, overall (mean 144.9±SD 86.8 minutes versus 126.2±70.9; <0.001 in 2019) and in transferred patients (mean 182.6±SD 82.0 minutes versus 153.25±67; <0.001). After the instatement of strict epidemic mitigation measures, there was a significant negative correlation between the number of hospitalizations for COVID and the number of MT cases ( -0.51; =0.04). Patients treated during the COVID outbreak were less likely to receive intravenous thrombolysis and to have unwitnessed strokes (both <0.05).

Conclusions: Our study showed a significant decrease in patients treated with MTs during the first stages of the COVID epidemic in France and alarming indicators of lengthened care delays. These findings prompt immediate consideration of local and regional stroke networks preparedness in the varying contexts of COVID-19 pandemic evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030373DOI Listing
July 2020

Primary Brain Rhabdomyosarcoma Causing Extracranial Metastases: Case Report with Narrative Review of Atypical Presentations and Their Diagnostic Challenges.

World Neurosurg 2020 06 27;138:363-368. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Neurosurgery Department, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor originating from striated muscle cells. It accounts for only 3% of all soft tissue sarcomas in adults, and its metastases can also reach the central nervous system. Only sporadic cases of primary brain rhabdomyosarcoma (PBRMS) have been reported so far.

Case Description: We discuss the atypical presentation and diagnostic challenge of PBRMS in a 65-year-old man. He presented with a 3-day history of progressive right hemiparesis caused by an unspecific left frontoparietal heterogeneously enhancing lesion. Total body computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans performed at baseline did not reveal other secondarisms. The patient underwent radical excision of the lesion, which allowed to establish the diagnosis, with immunohistochemical staining positive for desmin and myogenin. Stereotactic radiotherapy guaranteed local disease control; nonetheless, the patient also required adjuvant chemotherapy when he developed large right lung metastases 6 months postoperatively.

Conclusions: PBRMS can be hardly distinguished from other malignant brain tumors during preoperative radiologic workup; only histology can raise the suspicion of primary or metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma, depending on the presence of other distant lesions. Our review of the literature demonstrates that prognosis is poor: 44% of patients die within 1 year from diagnosis. Overall, survival seems to correlate with radical resection, tolerance of stereotactic or if necessary full neuraxis radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Given the high relapse rate, close monitoring and restaging are imperative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.110DOI Listing
June 2020

Endovascular versus surgical treatment for improvement of oculomotor nerve palsy caused by unruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Oct 5;12(10):964-967. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Strasbourg, Strasbourg, Alsace, France.

Background: There is no consensus regarding the best treatment option for unruptured aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery (PCom) presenting with oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP). We aimed to assess predictors of ONP recovery in a multicenter series of consecutive patients.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of prospective databases in three tertiary neurosurgical centers was carried out, selecting patients with ONP caused by unruptured PCom aneurysms, treated by surgical clipping or embolization, between January 2006 and December 2013. Patient files and imaging studies were used to extract ophthalmological assessments, treatment outcomes, and follow-up data. Predictors of ONP recovery during follow-up were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: We identified 55 patients with a median ONP duration before treatment of 11 days (IQR 4.5-18); the deficit was complete in 27 (49.1%) and incomplete in 28 (50.9%) cases. Median aneurysm size was 7 mm (IQR 5-9). Twenty-four (43.6%) patients underwent surgical clipping and 31 (56.4%) embolization as the primary treatment. Overall, ONP improved in 40 (72.7%) patients and persisted/recurred in 15 (27.3 %). Surgery, interval to complete treatment <4 weeks, aneurysm recurrence during follow-up, and retreatment during follow-up were significantly correlated with ONP outcome in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of ONP improvement were interval to complete treatment <4 weeks (OR 5.15, 95% CI 1.37 to 23.71, p=0.015) and aneurysm recurrence during follow-up (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47, p=0.003).

Conclusion: There was no significant difference in ONP recovery between surgical clipping and embolization. The best predictor for ONP recovery was timely, complete, and durable aneurysm exclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-015802DOI Listing
October 2020

Balloon-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms using the Eclipse 2L double lumen balloon.

Interv Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 13;26(3):291-299. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Interventional Neuroradiology Department, Strasbourg University Hospitals, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Eclipse 2L is a new double lumen balloon microcatheter for neurovascular use, with several design features that separate it from previous generation devices. We aimed to report our initial experience of balloon-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms using the Eclipse 2L balloon.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective single-center review of patients who underwent balloon-assisted coiling with the Eclipse 2L balloon, for ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms between 1 June 2016 and 31 December 2018. Cases with adjunctive use of stents and recurrences of previously embolized aneurysms were excluded. Patient files were used to extract aneurysm characteristics, complications, immediate and long-term results.

Results: We identified 120 patients with 126 aneurysms, of which 83 (65.8%) unruptured. Average aneurysm size was 5.9 mm (standard deviation 3.2 mm), with a dome-to neck-ratio of 1.7 (SD 0.6). Most aneurysms (79.3%) were wide necked. Immediate angiographic exclusion (Raymond-Roy grade I-II) was obtained in 95.1% of cases (81.7% grade I and 13.4% grade II). Procedural morbidity was 3.2% with no procedural mortality. Follow-up imaging was available for 115 aneurysms (91.2%). After an average follow-up period of 8.9 months (SD 7.3 months), 96.5% of aneurysms presented class I-II occlusion. Two aneurysms (1.7%) were retreated during follow-up.

Conclusion: Balloon-assisted coiling using the Eclipse 2L double lumen balloon is feasible for aneurysms in a wide range of locations in the anterior and posterior circulation. The angiographic results and complication rates compare favorably with previously published studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1591019919895676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254628PMC
June 2020

Intracranial Metastases from Prostate Carcinoma: Classification, Management, and Prognostication.

World Neurosurg 2020 Feb 31;134:e559-e565. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hautepierre University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Prostate carcinomas rarely metastasize to the central nervous system but, when they do, dural localizations are as common as and far more aggressive than intraparenchymal ones. Those metastases can be further classified according to their extension toward the subdural or extradural space and can frequently simulate other pathologic conditions including chronic subdural hematomas, abscess, and primary bone tumors. Beside the challenges of the preoperative differential diagnostic and complexity of surgical planning and operative excision, subdural metastases seem to carry a much poorer prognosis.

Methods: A series of consecutive patients admitted during a 12-year period through our oncall pathway for subdural/extradural collections or intraparenchymal lesions found, on histologic analysis, to represent intracranial prostate cancer metastases was retrospectively reviewed.

Results: A total of 19 patients were included, but only 3 were diagnosed with small cell prostate carcinoma, while the majority had a primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Metastases could be classified as pure subdural space lesions, dural-based lesions, extradural/bony lesions, and pure intraparenchymal lesions. All patients with subdural metastases and 3 out of 5 patients with dural-based lesions required an emergency intervention due to rapidly deteriorating neurologic status. The mean follow-up in our series was 37 months; only subdural localizations had a remarkably unfavorable outcome.

Conclusions: Supported by our experience and the review of the literature, we suggest that a low threshold for contrast-enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging is advisable in case of suspicious subdural collection, even in an emergency setting, for patients with previous medical history of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.10.125DOI Listing
February 2020

Fluorescence-enabled assessment of adrenal gland localization and perfusion in posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery in a preclinical model.

Surg Endosc 2020 03 23;34(3):1401-1411. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, 1, Place de l'Hôpital, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenal access represents a challenge in orientation and working space creation. The aim of this experimental acute study was to evaluate the impact of computer-assisted quantitative fluorescence imaging on adrenal gland identification and assessment of intraoperative remnant perfusion for adrenal resection in the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach.

Methods: Six pigs underwent simultaneous (n = 5) or sequential (n = 1) bilateral posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (n = 12). Fluorescence imaging was obtained via intravenous administration of 3 mL of Indocyanine Green (ICG) and by switching the camera systems to near-infrared mode (D-LIGHT P, KARL STORZ; Germany). Fluorescence-based visualization of adrenal glands before vascular division (n = 4), after the main vascular pedicle ligation (negative control, n = 1) or after adrenal resection (n = 7), was followed by completion adrenalectomy. The fluorescence signal intensity dynamics were recorded and analyzed using proprietary software. For each pixel, the slope of fluorescence signal intensity evolution over time was translated into a color-coded perfusion cartography, which was superimposed onto real-time images obtained with the corresponding left and right camera systems. Quantitative fluorescence signal analysis in the regions of interest (ROIs) served to assess adrenal remnant perfusion in divided adrenal glands.

Results: In the retroperitoneum, the vascular anatomy was illuminated in fluorescence imaging first. The adrenal glands were promptly highlighted after primary intravenous ICG administration (n = 9) or showed a fluorescence signal intensity increase upon reinjection (n = 3). Quantitative fluorescence analysis showed a statistically significant difference between perfused and ischemic segments in divided glands (p = 0.0156).

Conclusions: Fluorescence imaging provides real-time guidance during minimally invasive adrenal surgery. Prior to dissection, it allows to easily discriminate the adrenal gland from surrounding retroperitoneal structures. After adrenal gland division, ICG injection associated with a computer-assisted quantitative analysis helps to distinguish between well-perfused and ischemic segments. Further studies are underway to establish the correlation between remnant perfusion and viability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-06997-3DOI Listing
March 2020

Embolization of very small (≤3 mm) unruptured intracranial aneurysms: A large single-center experience on treatment of unruptured versus ruptured cases.

World Neurosurg 2019 Aug 17;128:e1087-e1095. Epub 2019 May 17.

Interventional Neuroradiology Department, Strasbourg University Hospitals, Strasbourg, France; iHU Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Objective: In selected cases, embolization can be indicated for very small unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Previous studies reported high intraprocedural rupture rates. Recent improvements of endovascular devices and availability of small, soft platinum coils may lead to improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Methods: Retrospective review of embolizations for unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms with maximal diameter ≤3 mm between January 1, 2009, and January 15, 2018. Infectious aneurysms were excluded. Patient files were used to extract aneurysm characteristics, complications, and immediate and long-term results.

Results: We identified 99 embolizations for 97 patients with 100 aneurysms, of which 70 aneurysms were unruptured. Initial success rate was 92.9%. We observed 1 asymptomatic intraprocedural perforation of an unruptured aneurysm, accounting for 1.4% of unruptured cases (1% of all embolizations). Neurological morbidity was 2.8% for unruptured aneurysms and 3.3% for ruptured aneurysms (P = 0.89). There was no procedural mortality. Follow-up was available for 85 (93.4%) patients. After 28.2 months (2-77), there was no aneurysmal bleeding; 2 (2.2%) aneurysms needed retreatment. Long-term results (30.5 months [3-77]) were available for all unruptured aneurysms. Among 64 successfully embolized unruptured aneurysms, 5 (7.8%) had residual neck filling and 1 (1.5%) needed retreatment. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics or complications between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms.

Conclusions: In the context of technical evolution of endovascular devices, we observed a procedural perforation rate lower than previously reported, low morbidity and no mortality. Further prospective studies are warranted to update our knowledge about safety of embolization for very small intracranial aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.05.070DOI Listing
August 2019

Gastrointestinal Hormones Manipulation to Counteract Metabolic Syndrome Using Duodenal Targeted Embolization.

Surg Innov 2019 Jun 28;26(3):280-292. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

1 IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, Strasbourg, France.

Purpose: Targeted embolization of gastrointestinal (GI) arteries can modify hormonal production. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the embolization of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) on the activity of foregut mucosa.

Methods: The GDA's duodenal branch was embolized in 12 Yucatan pigs using 100-300 µm (group A; n = 4) or 300-500 µm (group B; n = 4) microspheres, followed by coiling of the branch. In 4 animals (sham), only saline was injected. The levels of GI hormones (ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP], glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], insulin, peptide YY [PYY], leptin) and the gene expression of sodium-glucose-linked transporter-1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2) were assessed before (T0), 1 hour (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T4) after embolization.

Results: In group A, a segmental duodenal stenosis occurred in all cases, which required balloon dilatation. There was a significant drop in the baseline glycemia in group A at T1 and T4 versus sham. Ghrelin was reduced in group A versus baseline and versus group B at T2 and T3 and versus sham at T1 and T3. Insulin was significantly lower in group A versus B at T1 and at T4 but not versus sham. SGLT-1 expression increased in B and sham at T4, while it remained stable in group A. GLUT-2 expression increased in sham at T4 but not in A or B.

Conclusions: GDA embolization induced a decrease in ghrelin production and influenced expression of glucose carriers in the foregut mucosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1553350619838098DOI Listing
June 2019

Intracranial Solitary Fibrous Tumors: A Heterogeneous Entity with an Uncertain Clinical Behavior.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jun 1;126:e48-e56. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms originating in the meninges and characterized by very different biologic and clinical behaviors. Benign histotypes, such as hemangiopericytomas, are now considered a cellular phenotypic variant of this heterogeneous group of rare spindle-cell tumors. Owing to their rarity and resemblance to other, more common brain tumors, ISFTs are often poorly recognized and remain a diagnostic challenge.

Methods: We describe a surgical series of 29 patients treated for ISFTs confirmed histologically and through immunohistochemistry. We attempt to provide a focus on the natural history of these pathologies and the need for tailored management.

Results: This was a retrospective consecutive series of 29 patients with either solitary fibrous tumor (n = 14) or hemangiopericytoma (n = 15) over a 10-year period. Mean follow-up time was 37.71 months. Recurrence rate was 42.9% for solitary fibrous tumors versus 26.7% for hemangiopericytomas. STAT6 expression was 66.7% in hemangiopericytomas versus 42.9% in SFTs.

Conclusions: Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (characterized by positive expression of mainly STAT6 but also CD34, Bcl-2 protein, and vimentin) are key in diagnosis and management of ISFTs. Although ISFTs are still considered benign lesions with very rare aggressive evolution, their clinical behavior is largely unpredictable. This study highlights the importance of relying on immunohistochemistry for a thorough definition of the management strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.142DOI Listing
June 2019

Compression Syndromes of the Vertebral Artery at the Craniocervical Junction.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:151-158

Service de neurochirurgie, CHU, Strasbourg, France.

Compression syndromes of the vertebral artery that occur at the craniocervical junction are extremely rare causes of haemodynamic insufficiency of the posterior cerebral circulation. The aetiology of the compression syndrome may be a malformation, trauma, tumour, infection or degenerative pathology. This may lead to dynamic vertebral artery occlusion where the vessel courses around the atlas and the axis-the so-called V3 segment. This in turn may result in insufficient collateral flow to the posterior fossa. The clinical picture is a vertebrobasilar insufficiency syndrome of variable expression ranging from vertigo to posterior fossa stroke. The typical clinical presentation is syncope occurring during rotation of the head, also known as 'bow hunter's syndrome'. The workup is based on dynamic angiography and computed tomography angiography. The treatment of choice is surgical vascular decompression, resulting in a good clinical outcome. However, in some instances, atlantoaxial fusion may be indicated. Alternatively, conservative and endovascular options have to be considered in inoperable patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_22DOI Listing
August 2019

Beam hardening artifacts of liquid embolic agents: comparison between Squid and Onyx.

J Neurointerv Surg 2019 Jul 19;11(7):706-709. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Interventional Neuroradiology Department, Strasbourg University Hospitals, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Initial clinical experience with Squid shows subjectively reduced artifacts on post-embolization CT scans compared with Onyx. To further investigate these observations, we aimed to perform a comparison of artifacts between Squid and Onyx in a controlled in vitro model.

Materials And Methods: Onyx 18 and all four variants of Squid (Squid 18, Squid 18 low density (LD), Squid 12, Squid 12 LD) were each injected in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) compatible test tubes. The tubes containing precipitated embolic material were inserted in a CT phantom for conventional and flat panel CT acquisitions. Beam hardening artifacts were quantified using objective and subjective measurements.

Results: Objective evaluation of artifacts within regions of interest (ROIs) placed around the embolic material on CT and flat panel CT images demonstrated significantly lower noise and Hounsfield unit (HU) range values for all four Squid products compared with Onyx 18. On both CT and flat panel CT, LD variants of Squid 18 and Squid 12 had significantly lower noise and HU range values than their normal density counterparts on longitudinal ROIs. When using subjective measures for diagnostic value within ROIs placed around the embolic material on both CT and flat panel CT images, the number of non-diagnostic ROIs was significantly higher for Onyx 18 than for all four Squid variants.

Conclusion: All four variants of Squid induced fewer beam hardening artifacts than Onyx 18 on CT and flat panel CT acquisitions. LD variants of Squid induced fewer artifacts than their normal density counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2018-014542DOI Listing
July 2019

Mechanical thrombectomy for repeated cerebral tumor embolism from a thoracic sarcomatoid carcinoma.

J Neurointerv Surg 2018 Oct 24;10(10):e26. Epub 2018 May 24.

Interventional Neuroradiology, Hopitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Cerebral embolism originating from intracardiac tumors represents a rare cause of stroke and has been documented in both adult and pediatric populations. We present a patient recently diagnosed with a right pulmonary hilum tumor, invading the pulmonary veins and the left atrium. Two consecutive episodes of large cerebral vessel occlusion in separate vascular territories occurred in the same day and were treated by mechanical thrombectomy. Embolic material retrieved on both occasions contained tumor fragments with peripheral endothelialization. To our knowledge, this is the first report with histological confirmation of cerebral embolism from an invasive extracardiac tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2017-013092.repDOI Listing
October 2018

Evolution of Prophylaxis Protocols for Venous Thromboembolism in Neurosurgery: Results from a Prospective Comparative Study on Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin, Elastic Stockings, and Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices.

World Neurosurg 2018 Jan 13;109:e510-e516. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VT) in neurosurgical practice is astonishingly high, representing a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prophylaxis strategies include elastic stockings, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of 2 different VT prophylaxis protocols implemented in a European neurosurgical center.

Methods: All patients admitted for neurosurgical intervention between 2012 and 2016 were stratified as low, moderate, and high risk of VT and received a combination of elastic stockings and LMWH. The protocol was modified in 2014 with the inclusion of perioperative IPC devices for all patients and only in the high-risk group also postoperatively.

Results: At time of post-hoc analysis, data obtained from patients included in this study before 2014 (Protocol A, 3169 patients) were compared with those obtained after the introduction of IPC (Protocol B, 3818 patients). Among patients assigned to protocol A, 73 (2.3%) developed deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and 28 (0.9%) developed pulmonary embolism (PE), 9 of which were fatal (0.3%). Among patients assigned to protocol B, 32 developed DVT (0.8%) and 7 (0.18%) developed PE, with 2 eventually resulting in the death of the patient. A post-hoc analysis confirmed that the use of preoperative LMWH was not associated with a statistically significant greater risk of postoperative bleeding.

Conclusions: This study, despite its limitations of the nonrandomized design, seems to suggest that perioperative IPC devices are a non-negligible support in the prophylaxis of clinically symptomatic DVT and PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.10.012DOI Listing
January 2018

Linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating response to thermal gradient: from bench tests to the real-time assessment during in vivo laser ablations of biological tissue.

J Biomed Opt 2017 Sep;22(9):1-9

Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Rome, Italy.

The response of a fiber optic sensor [linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG)] to a linear thermal gradient applied on its sensing length (i.e., 1.5 cm) has been investigated. After these bench tests, we assessed their feasibility for temperature monitoring during thermal tumor treatment. In particular, we performed experiments during ex vivo laser ablation (LA) in pig liver and in vivo thermal ablation in animal models (pigs). We investigated the following: (i) the relationship between the full width at half maximum of the LCFBG spectrum and the temperature difference among the extremities of the LCFBG and (ii) the relationship between the mean spectrum wavelength and the mean temperature acting on the LCFBG sensing area. These relationships showed a linear trend during both bench tests and LA in animal models. Thermal sensitivity was significant although different values were found with regards to bench tests and animal experiments. The linear trend and significant sensitivity allow hypothesizing a future use of this kind of sensor to monitor both temperature gradient and mean temperature within a tissue undergoing thermal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.22.9.097002DOI Listing
September 2017

Risk of Deep vein thrombosis in neurosurgery: State of the art on prophylaxis protocols and best clinical practices.

J Clin Neurosci 2017 Nov 7;45:60-66. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Dept of Neurosurgery, Strasbourg University Hospital, France.

Objective: To analytically discuss some protocols in Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary Embolism (PE) prophylaxis currently use in Neurosurgical Departments around the world.

Data Sources: Analysis of the prophylaxis protocols in the English literature: An analytical and narrative review of literature concerning DVT prophylaxis protocols in Neurosurgery have been conducted by a PubMed search (back to 1978).

Data Extraction: 80 abstracts were reviewed, and 74 articles were extracted.

Data Analysis: The majority of DVT seems to develop within the first week after a neurosurgical procedure, and a linear correlation between the duration of surgery and DVT occurrence has been highlighted. The incidence of DVT seems greater for cranial (7.7%) than spinal procedures (1.5%). Although intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices provided adequate reduction of DVT/PE in some cranial and combined cranial/spinal series, low-dose subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) further reduced the incidence, not always of DVT, but of PE. Nevertheless, low-dose heparin-based prophylaxis in cranial and spinal series risks minor and major postoperative haemorrhages: 2-4% in cranial series, 3.4% minor and 3.4% major haemorrhages in combined cranial/spinal series, and a 0.7% incidence of major/minor haemorrhages in spinal series.

Conclusion: This analysis showed that currently most of the articles are represented by case series and case reports. As long as clear guidelines will not be defined and universally applied to this diverse group of patients, any prophylaxis for DVT and PE should be tailored to the individual patient with cautious assessment of benefits versus risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017.08.008DOI Listing
November 2017

Mechanical thrombectomy for repeated cerebral tumor embolism from a thoracic sarcomatoid carcinoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2017 Aug 11;2017. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Interventional Neuroradiology, Hopitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Cerebral embolism originating from intracardiac tumors represents a rare cause of stroke and has been documented in both adult and pediatric populations. We present a patient recently diagnosed with a right pulmonary hilum tumor, invading the pulmonary veins and the left atrium. Two consecutive episodes of large cerebral vessel occlusion in separate vascular territories occurred in the same day and were treated by mechanical thrombectomy. Embolic material retrieved on both occasions contained tumor fragments with peripheral endothelialization. To our knowledge, this is the first report with histological confirmation of cerebral embolism from an invasive extracardiac tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-013092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5753705PMC
August 2017