Publications by authors named "Rao Fu"

142 Publications

CdInS/In(OH)/NiCr-LDH Multi-Interface Heterostructure Photocatalyst for Enhanced Photocatalytic H Evolution and Cr(VI) Reduction.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Nov 19;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Institute of Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, College of Optical and Electronic Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

The development of highly active and stable photocatalysts, an effective way to remediate environment pollution and alleviate energy shortages, remains a challenging issue. In this work, a CdInS/In(OH) nanocomposite was deposited in-situ on NiCr-LDH nanosheets by a simple hydrothermal method, and the obtained CdInS/In(OH)/NiCr-LDH heterostructure photocatalysts with multiple intimate-contact interfaces exhibited better photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic H evolution rate of CdInS/In(OH)/NiCr-LDH increased to 10.9 and 58.7 times that of the counterparts CdInS and NiCr-LDH, respectively. Moreover, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of Cr(VI) increased from 6% for NiCr-LDH and 75% for CdInS to 97% for CdInS/In(OH)/NiCr-LDH. The enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the formation of multi-interfaces with strong interfacial interactions and staggered band alignments, which offered multiple pathways for carrier migration, thus promoting the separation efficiency of photo-excited electrons and holes. This study demonstrates a facile method to fabricate inexpensive and efficient heterostructure photocatalysts for solving environmental problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11113122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619374PMC
November 2021

Coupling between Ribotypic and Phenotypic Traits of Protists across Life Cycle Stages and Temperatures.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Nov 24:e0173821. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen Universitygrid.12981.33, Zhuhai, China.

Relationships between ribotypic and phenotypic traits of protists across life cycle stages remain largely unknown. Herein, we used single cells of two soil and two marine ciliate species to examine phenotypic and ribotypic traits and their relationships across lag, log, plateau, cystic stages and temperatures. We found that Colpoda inflata and Colpoda steinii demonstrated allometric relationships between 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy number per cell (CNPC), cell volume (CV), and macronuclear volume across all life cycle stages. Integrating previously reported data of Euplotes vannus and Strombidium sulcatum indicated taxon-dependent rDNA CNPC-CV functions. Ciliate and prokaryote data analysis revealed that the rRNA CNPC followed a unified power-law function only if the rRNA-deficient resting cysts were not considered. Hence, a theoretical framework was proposed to estimate the relative quantity of resting cysts in the protistan populations with total cellular rDNA and rRNA copy numbers. Using rDNA CNPC was a better predictor of growth rate at a given temperature than rRNA CNPC and CV, suggesting replication of redundant rDNA operons as a key factor that slows cell division. Single-cell high-throughput sequencing and analysis after correcting sequencing errors revealed multiple rDNA and rRNA variants per cell. Both encystment and temperature affected the number of rDNA and rRNA variants in several cases. The divergence of rDNA and rRNA sequence in a single cell ranged from 1% to 10% depending on species. These findings have important implications for inferring cell-based biological traits (e.g., species richness, abundance and biomass, activity, and community structure) of protists using molecular approaches. Based on phenotypic traits, traditional surveys usually characterize organismal richness, abundance, biomass, and growth potential to describe diversity, organization, and function of protistan populations and communities. The rRNA gene (rDNA) and its transcripts have been widely used as molecular markers in ecological studies of protists. Nevertheless, the manner in which these molecules relate to cellular (organismal) and physiological traits remains poorly understood, which could lead to misinterpretations of protistan diversity and ecology. The current research highlights the dynamic nature of cellular rDNA and rRNA contents, which tightly couple with multiple phenotypic traits in ciliated protists. We demonstrate that quantity of resting cysts and maximum growth rate of a population can be theoretically estimated using ribotypic trait-based models. The intraindividual sequence polymorphisms of rDNA and rRNA can be influenced by encystment and temperature, which should be considered when interpreting species-level diversity and community structure of microbial eukaryotes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.01738-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8612162PMC
November 2021

The mTOR inhibitor everolimus attenuates tacrolimus-induced renal interstitial fibrosis in rats.

Life Sci 2021 Nov 15;288:120150. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; Department of Pharmacy, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Aims: Tacrolimus-a widely used immunosuppressant to prevent allograft rejection after organ transplantation-is nephrotoxic, increasing the risk of kidney injury accompanied by kidney fibrosis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus, is an immunosuppressant used together with tacrolimus. Although mTOR signaling inhibition has been demonstrated to exhibit antifibrotic effects, the efficacy of everolimus against tacrolimus-induced kidney fibrosis has not been explored. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effects of everolimus against tacrolimus-induced kidney fibrosis.

Main Methods: To assess antifibrotic effect of everolimus against tacrolimus-induced kidney fibrosis, male Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered vehicle or tacrolimus (5 mg/kg per day) and/or everolimus (0.2 mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks after bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min. The antifibrotic effect of everolimus was also assessed using rat kidney fibroblast cell line (NRK-49F).

Key Findings: Tacrolimus administration increased predominant profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and fibroblast activation marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and promoted the infiltration of macrophages in the kidney cortex, resulting in renal interstitial fibrosis in rats. Tacrolimus increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and kidney injuries, such as tubular dilation, vacuolization, and glomerular atrophy. Everolimus administration attenuated tacrolimus-induced kidney fibrosis and the associated abnormalities. Everolimus strongly suppressed TGF-β-induced kidney fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix protein expression by the mTOR signaling inhibition.

Significance: We demonstrated that everolimus attenuates tacrolimus-induced renal interstitial fibrosis in rats. Owing to its protective effect against tacrolimus-induced kidney fibrosis, everolimus may be useful when used concomitantly with tacrolimus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.120150DOI Listing
November 2021

Sequential Enzymatic Digestion of Different Cartilage Tissues: A Rapid and High-Efficiency Protocol for Chondrocyte Isolation, and Its Application in Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

Cartilage 2021 Nov 15:19476035211057242. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: The classic chondrocyte isolation protocol is a 1-step enzymatic digestion protocol in which cartilage samples are digested in collagenase solution for a single, long period. However, this method usually results in incomplete cartilage dissociation and low chondrocyte quality. In this study, we aimed to develop a rapid, high-efficiency, and flexible chondrocyte isolation protocol for cartilage tissue engineering.

Design: Cartilage tissues harvested from rabbit ear, rib, septum, and articulation were minced and subjected to enzymatic digestion using the classic protocol or the newly developed sequential protocol. In the classic protocol, cartilage fragments were subjected to one 12-hour digestion. In the sequential protocol, cartilage fragments were sequentially subjected to 2-hour first digestion, followed by two 3-hour digestions. The collected cells were then subjected to analyses of cell-yield efficiency, viability, proliferation, phenotype, and cartilage matrix synthesis capacity.

Results: Overall, the sequential protocol exhibited higher cell-yield efficiency than the classic protocol for the 4 cartilage types. The cells harvested from the second and third digestions demonstrated higher cell viability, more proliferative activity, a better chondrocyte phenotype, and a higher cartilage-specific matrix synthesis ability than those harvested from the first digestion and after the classic 1-step protocol.

Conclusions: The sequential protocol is a rapid, flexible, high-efficiency chondrocyte isolation protocol for different cartilage tissues. We recommend using this protocol for chondrocyte isolation, and in particular, the cells obtained after the subsequent 3-hour sequential digestions should be used for chondrocyte-based therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19476035211057242DOI Listing
November 2021

Improved stability and aqueous solubility of β-carotene via encapsulation in self-assembled bioactive oleanolic acid nanoparticles.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 30;373(Pt B):131498. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt; Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Electronic address:

Poor water solubility and stability of β-carotene (Car) greatly hinder its application in foods. Herein, naturally occurring bioactive oleanolic acid (OA) was used as a nanocarrier to overcome these shortcomings by fabricating Car-loaded OA nanoparticles (Car/OA NPs). Through optimization, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity reached 80.7% and 32.6%, respectively. Systematic characterization suggested that Car was successfully encapsulated, and hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the main forces facilitating the self-assembly and encapsulation. Compared with free Car, Car/OA NPs exhibited significantly improved water dispersibility and enhanced stability against UV radiation, heat, ionic strength, and acidic conditions. Further, Car/OA NPs provided gastric protection, delayed-release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and controlled release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Additionally, both OA NPs and Car/OA NPs showed markedly inherent hepatoprotective effects. This work demonstrates that OA NPs can be used as inherent bioactive nanocarriers to deliver hydrophobic nutrients and bioactive food components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131498DOI Listing
October 2021

Ethylenediurea offers moderate protection against ozone-induced rice yield loss under high ozone pollution.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Feb 30;806(Pt 3):151341. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Key Laboratory of Agrometeorology of Jiangsu Province, School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Tropospheric ozone (O) is the main phytotoxic air pollutant threatening food security, while ethylenediurea (EDU) can effectively mitigate O-induced crop yield loss. EDU's mode of action, however, remains unclear, and the underlying physiological mechanisms of mitigating O-induced crop yield loss are poorly understood. We cultivated hybrid rice seedlings under two O treatments (NF, nonfiltered ambient air; and NF60, ambient air plus 60 ppb O) and sprayed foliage with 0 or 450 ppm EDU every ten days and determine photosynthesis-related traits, biomass indicators, and yield components. We found that EDU significantly increased the leaf nitrogen (N) allocation to photosynthesis (N) and the grain N accumulation, while the grain N accumulation was positively correlated with N and root biomass. EDU significantly increased the rice yield mainly by increasing the individual grain weight rather than the number of panicles and grains. While EDU protected from yield loss, the degree of protection was only 31% under NF60 treatment, thus EDU was unable to offer complete protection under high O pollution. These results will be conducive to a better understanding of the EDU protection mechanism and better application of EDU under high O pollution in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151341DOI Listing
February 2022

Metasurfaces with single-sized antennas for reconstructing full-color holographic images without cross talk.

Opt Lett 2021 Nov;46(21):5417-5420

Designing a color hologram with conventional metasurfaces usually resorts to a supercell strategy or single-sized approach with different incident angles. However, these designs still have their own drawbacks that need to be further solved. Herein, we show a new, to the best of our knowledge, single-sized strategy to design full-color geometric meta-holograms by utilizing the conjugation property of two circularly polarized lights with opposite handedness and diffraction dispersion. The experimentally captured holographic color images are reconstructed with high quality and without cross talk, which agrees well with our theoretical prediction. Moreover, only with an appropriate combination of wavelength and polarization state can color images be observed accurately. Our strategy provides a simple and effective approach for full-color meta-holography and offers significant potential in image display, information storage, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.442477DOI Listing
November 2021

Bufalin enhances the killing efficacy of NK cells against hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting MICA shedding.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 19;101(Pt B):108195. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China; Laboratory of Integrative Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Bufalin, as a Chinese traditional anti-tumor agent, has been studied about inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis of liver cancer, however, there are few reports on immune modulating function. We used the human liver cancer cell lines along with 91 pathologically-verified postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens to assess immune modulating function of bufalin. We found that bufalin directly balances stimulatory and inhibitory receptors on the surface of NK cells and indirectly activates natural killer (NK) cells by inhibiting MICA shedding, which prevented immune escape and indirectly enhanced NKG2D-dependent immune surveillance. This study showed that bufalin can directly or indirectly regulate the immune response, which provides a new theoretical basis for the clinical application of "Huachansu injection".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108195DOI Listing
October 2021

Effectiveness of E-SBIRT intervention in community healthcare institution in China: study proposal for a randomised controlled trial.

Gen Psychiatr 2021 24;34(5):e100486. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in addressing substance use problem. However, owing to the shortage of counsellors, it has not been widely used in China. With the development of smart medicine, we developed a web-based electronic SBIRT (E-SBIRT) program and explored the effectiveness of E-SBIRT in reducing substance use in China.

Methods: A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in primary healthcare institutions. Four primary healthcare institutions will be selected and randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group (each institution will recruit 60 participants, and in total, 240 participants will be recruited). The control group will get a pamphlet of drug abuse prevention, and the intervention group will get the E-SBIRT intervention and the pamphlet. Both groups will receive baseline and follow-up assessment at 1 and 3 months after the intervention. The primary outcome is the change in scores on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Use Involvement Screening Test, and the secondary outcomes include changes in motivation, depression, anxiety, positive/negative emotion, self-esteem, addiction knowledge and addiction severity index.

Conclusions: If the 'E-SBIRT' program is found to be effective, it will be an accessible, affordable and widely implementable intervention to help participants at moderate risk of substance use to reduce their consumption. The potential benefit is to provide early intervention to high-risk patients in time and reduce the harmful consequences to individuals and society.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03452241.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2021-100486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475130PMC
September 2021

Novel monkey mAbs induced by a therapeutic vaccine targeting the hepatitis B surface antigen effectively suppress hepatitis B virus in mice.

Antib Ther 2021 Oct 29;4(4):197-207. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health and School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.

Background: We have previously obtained a mouse anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) antibody E6F6 with long-lasting serum HBsAg clearance effects. The E6F6 epitope-based protein CR-T3-SEQ13 (HBsAg aa 113-135) vaccination therapy in cynomolgus monkeys induced long-term polyclonal antibodies-mediated clearance of HBsAg in the HBV transgenic (HBV-Tg) mice.

Methods: We isolated monoclonal antibodies from CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys, compared their therapeutic effects with E6F6, identified their epitopes on HBsAg, determined the pharmacokinetics and studied their physical property.

Results: A panel of anti-HBsAg mAbs was generated through memory B cell stimulatory culture. Two lead monkey-human chimeric antibodies, C1-23 and C3-23, effectively suppressed HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV-Tg mice. The humanized antibodies and humanized-mouse reverse chimeric antibodies of two antibodies exhibited comparable HBsAg clearance and viral suppression efficacy as those versions of E6F6 in HBV-Tg mice. Humanized antibody hu1-23 exhibited more efficacy HBsAg-suppressing effects than huE6F6-1 and hu3-23 in HBV-Tg mice at dose levels of 10 and 20 mg/kg. Evaluation of the binding sites indicates that the epitope recognized by hu1-23 is located in HBsAg aa 118-125 and 121-125 for hu3-23. Physical property study revealed that hu1-23 and hu3-23 are stable enough for further development as a drug candidate.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the CR-T3-SEQ13 protein is a promising HBV therapeutic vaccine candidate, and hu1-23 and hu3-23 are therapeutic candidates for the treatment of chronic hepatitis b. Moreover, the generation of antibodies from the epitope-based vaccinated subjects may be an alternative approach for novel antibody drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abt/tbab020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8499627PMC
October 2021

Multiplexing meta-hologram with separate control of amplitude and phase.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(17):27696-27707

Metasurfaces have shown their unique capabilities to manipulate the phase and/or amplitude properties of incident light at the subwavelength scale, which provides an effective approach for constructing amplitude-only, phase-only or even complexed amplitude meta-devices with high resolution. Most of meta-devices control the amplitude and/or phase of the incident light with the same polarization state; however, separately controlling of amplitude and phase of the incident light with different polarization states can provide a new degree of freedom for improving the information capacity of metasurfaces and designing multifunctional meta-devices. Herein, we combine the amplitude manipulation and geometric phase manipulation by only reconfiguring the orientation angle of the nanostructure and present a single-sized design strategy for a multiplexing meta-hologram which plays the dual roles: a continuous amplitude-only meta-device and a two-step phase-only meta-device. Two different modulation types can be readily switched merely by polarization controls. Our approach opens up the possibilities for separately and independently controlling of amplitude and phase of light to construct a multiplexing meta-hologram with a single-sized metasurface, which can contribute to the advanced research and applications in multi-folded optical anti-counterfeiting, optical information hiding and optical information encoding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.435986DOI Listing
August 2021

Hand-related action words impair action anticipation in expert table tennis players: Behavioral and neural evidence.

Psychophysiology 2022 Jan 18;59(1):e13942. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

School of Psychology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

Athletes extract kinematic information to anticipate action outcomes. Here, we examined the influence of linguistic information (experiment 1, 2) and its underlying neural correlates (experiment 2) on anticipatory judgment. Table tennis experts and novices remembered a hand- or leg-related verb or a spatial location while predicting the trajectory of a ball in a video occluded at the moment of the serve. Experiment 1 showed that predictions by experts were more accurate than novices, but experts' accuracy significantly decreased when hand-related words versus spatial locations were memorized. For nonoccluded videos with ball trajectories congruent or incongruent with server actions in experiment 2, remembering hand-related verbs shared cognitive resources with action anticipation only in experts, with heightened processing load (increased P3 amplitude) and more efficient conflict monitoring (decreased N2 amplitude) versus leg-related verbs. Thus, action anticipation required updating of motor representations facilitated by motor expertize but was also affected by effector-specific semantic representations of actions, suggesting a link from language to motor systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13942DOI Listing
January 2022

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Pall.) Kuntze and its phylogenetic implications.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 27;6(9):2757-2758. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China.

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of (Pall.) Kuntze was assembled and characterized in the present study. The mitochondrial genome was 347,227 bp in length and had a GC content of 43.84%, including 24 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and three ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that was close to and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1967805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405100PMC
August 2021

Inhibition of heat shock protein family A member 8 attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via astrocyte NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway : HSPA8 inhibition protects spinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Aug 6;18(1):170. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of ICU, Wuxi 9Th Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Wuxi, 214000, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Astrocyte over-activation and extensive neuron loss are the main characteristic pathological features of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCII). Prior studies have placed substantial emphasis on the role of heat shock protein family A member 8 (HSPA8) on postischemic myocardial inflammation and cardiac dysfunction. However, it has never been determined whether HSPA8 participates in astrocyte activation and thus mediated neuroinflammation associated with SCII.

Methods: The left renal artery ligation-induced SCII rat models and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced rat primary cultured astrocytes were established. The lentiviral vector encoding short hairpin RNA targeting HSPA8 was delivered to the spinal cord by intrathecal administration or to culture astrocytes. Then, the spinal neuron survival, gliosis, and nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and its related pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed.

Results: SCII significantly enhanced the GFAP and HSPA8 expression in the spinal cord, resulting in blood-brain barrier breakdown and the dramatical loss of spinal neuron and motor function. Moreover, injury also increased spinal nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation, NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation, and subsequent interleukin (IL)-1β as well as IL-18 secretion. Silencing the HSPA8 expression efficiently ameliorated the spinal cord tissue damage and promoted motor function recovery after SCII, through blockade of the astrocyte activation and levels of phosphorylated NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18. Further in vitro studies confirmed that HSPA8 knockdown protected astrocytes from OGD/R-induced injury via the blockade of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that knockdown of HSPA8 inhibits spinal astrocytic damage after SCII, which may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for SCII treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02220-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349068PMC
August 2021

Long-Term Complications from Diced Cartilage in Rhinoplasty: A Meta-analysis.

Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

To analyze the incidences of long-term complications and revision surgery associated with diced cartilage grafts in dorsal augmentation rhinoplasty. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for clinical studies on the use of diced cartilage for dorsal augmentation published. A meta-analysis was conducted to pool the estimated rates of infection, overcorrection, visible irregularity, absorption, and revision surgery. A total of 14 studies involving 2380 patients were included in the systematic review. The combined rates were 11.5% for overall complications and 5.3% for revision surgery. The rates of the most frequently reported complications were 4.5% for infection, 5.3% for visible irregularity, 0.7% for overcorrection, and 0.5% for absorption. There was no significant difference in the rates of visible irregularity ( = 0.23) and revision surgery ( = 0.71) among the wrapped diced cartilage, glued diced cartilage, and free diced cartilage groups. This meta-analysis presents the first comprehensive and quantitative report of long-term complications associated with diced cartilage in dorsal augmentation rhinoplasty. Infection and visible irregularity were the most frequently reported complications. The rates of irregularity and revision surgery were not correlated with the diced cartilage packing methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpsam.2021.0002DOI Listing
August 2021

Acetaldehyde Excitation of Lateral Habenular Neurons via Multiple Cellular Mechanisms.

J Neurosci 2021 09 29;41(36):7532-7545. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, & Neuroscience Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, 07103

Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first metabolite of ethanol, is implicated in several of ethanol's actions, including the reinforcing and aversive effects. The neuronal mechanisms underlying ACD's aversive effect, however, are poorly understood. The lateral habenula (LHb), a regulator of midbrain monoaminergic centers, is activated by negative valence events. Although the LHb has been linked to the aversive responses of several abused drugs, including ethanol, little is known about ACD. We, therefore, assessed ACD's action on LHb neurons in rats. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ACD increased cFos protein expression within the LHb and that intra-LHb infusion of ACD induced conditioned place aversion in male rats. Furthermore, electrophysiological recording in brain slices of male and female rats showed that bath application of ACD facilitated spontaneous firing and glutamatergic transmission. This effect of ACD was potentiated by an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor, disulfiram (DS), but attenuated by the antagonists of dopamine (DA) receptor (DAR) subtype 1 (SCH23390) and subtype 2 (raclopride), and partly abolished by the pretreatment of DA or DA reuptake blocker (GBR12935; GBR). Moreover, application of ACD initiated a depolarizing inward current ( ) and enhanced the hyperpolarizing-activated currents in LHb neurons. Bath application of Rp-cAMPs, a selective cAMP-PKA inhibitor, attenuated ACD-induced potentiation of EPSCs and Finally, bath application of ZD7288, a selective blocker of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, attenuated ACD-induced potentiation of firing, EPSCs, and These results show that ACD exerts its aversive property by exciting LHb neurons via multiple cellular mechanisms, and new treatments targeting the LHb may be beneficial for alcoholism. Acetaldehyde (ACD) has been considered aversive peripherally and rewarding centrally. However, whether ACD has a central aversive property is unclear. Here, we report that ACD excites the lateral habenula (LHb), a brain region associated with aversion and negative valence, through multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. Intra-LHb ACD produces significant conditioned place aversion. These results suggest that ACD's actions on the LHb neurons might contribute to its central aversive property and new treatments targeting the LHb may be beneficial for alcoholism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2913-20.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425984PMC
September 2021

Sulforaphane activates anti-inflammatory microglia, modulating stress resilience associated with BDNF transcription.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

MOE Key Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Biology, Clinical Translational Center for Targeted Drug, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Sulforaphane (SFN) is an organic isothiocyanate and an NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) inducer that exerts prophylactic effects on depression-like behavior in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, is widely accepted for its antidepressant effects and role in stress resilience. Here, we show that SFN confers stress resilience via BDNF upregulation and changes in abnormal dendritic spine morphology in stressed mice, which is accompanied by rectifying the irregular levels of inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SFN activated Nrf2 to promote BDNF transcription by binding to the exon I promoter, which is associated with increased Nrf2, and decreased methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2), a transcriptional suppressor of BDNF, in BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, SFN inhibited the pro-inflammatory phenotype and activated the anti-inflammatory phenotype of microglia, which was associated with increased Nrf2 and decreased MeCP2 expression in microglia of stressed mice. Hence, our findings support that Nrf2 induces BDNF transcription via upregulation of Nrf2 and downregulation of MeCP2 in microglia, which is associated with changes in the morphology of damaged dendritic spines in stressed mice. Meanwhile, the data presented here provide evidence for the application of SFN as a candidate for the prevention and intervention of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00727-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Guar gum-derived galactomannan induces inflammatory responses and increased energy expenditure in the intestine.

Food Funct 2021 Aug 2;12(16):7480-7489. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Guar gum-derived galactomannan (GGGM) has been widely used in the food industry for a long time and its adverse impacts have been scarcely reported. Galactomannan is considered to have a structure similar to the surface components of certain pathogens, and the present study was thus conducted to investigate if oral administration of GGGM could cause physiological effects that were hypothesized to be related to intestinal inflammatory responses. The results showed that oral administration of GGGM resulted in compromises on growth performance, an increase of the relative weight of spleen and epididymal fat, and an elevation of the α1-acid glycoprotein content in both serum and livers of mice. With regard to energy metabolism-related indices, the activities of intestinal lactic dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase were all increased by the GGGM treatment in both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the latter of which also showed an elevation in the consumption of reducing sugar by intestinal epithelial cells along with a reduced viability of these cells in response to the GGGM treatment. Notably, the GGGM treatment triggered intestinal inflammatory responses that were evidenced by the increased expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 both in vivo and in vitro, which were at least partially responsible for the increased energy expenditure in the intestine and the retardation of growth. The results of this study could expand our knowledge of GGGM administration and provide integrated insights into the consumption of GGGM-containing foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01143jDOI Listing
August 2021

Long-Term Suppression of c-Jun and nNOS Preserves Ultrastructural Features of Lower Motor Neurons and Forelimb Function after Brachial Plexus Roots Avulsion.

Cells 2021 06 28;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Anatomy, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Brachial plexus root avulsions cause debilitating upper limb paralysis. Short-term neuroprotective treatments have reported preservation of motor neurons and function in model animals while reports of long-term benefits of such treatments are scarce, especially the morphological sequelae. This morphological study investigated the long-term suppression of c-Jun- and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) (neuroprotective treatments for one month) on the motor neuron survival, ultrastructural features of lower motor neurons, and forelimb function at six months after brachial plexus roots avulsion. Neuroprotective treatments reduced oxidative stress and preserved ventral horn motor neurons at the end of the 28-day treatment period relative to vehicle treated ones. Motor neuron sparing was associated with suppression of c-Jun, nNOS, and pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and caspases at this time point. Following 6 months of survival, neutral red staining revealed a significant loss of most of the motor neurons and ventral horn atrophy in the avulsed C6, 7, and 8 cervical segments among the vehicle-treated rats ( = 4). However, rats that received neuroprotective treatments c-Jun JNK inhibitor, SP600125 ( = 4) and a selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole ( = 4), retained over half of their motor neurons in the ipsilateral avulsed side compared. Myelinated axons in the avulsed ventral horns of vehicle-treated rats were smaller but numerous compared to the intact contralateral ventral horns or neuroprotective-treated groups. In the neuroprotective treatment groups, there was the preservation of myelin thickness around large-caliber axons. Ultrastructural evaluation also confirmed the preservation of organelles including mitochondria and synapses in the two groups that received neuroprotective treatments compared with vehicle controls. Also, forelimb functional evaluation demonstrated that neuroprotective treatments improved functional abilities in the rats. In conclusion, neuroprotective treatments aimed at suppressing degenerative c-Jun and nNOS attenuated apoptosis, provided long-term preservation of motor neurons, their organelles, ventral horn size, and forelimb function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10071614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307634PMC
June 2021

The Current Role of Dexmedetomidine as Neuroprotective Agent: An Updated Review.

Brain Sci 2021 Jun 25;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518100, China.

Dexmedetomidine, selective α2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine, has been widely used clinically for sedation and anesthesia. The role of dexmedetomidine has been an interesting topic of neonatological and anesthetic research since a series of advantages of dexmedetomidine, such as enhancing recovery from surgery, reducing opioid prescription, decreasing sympathetic tone, inhibiting inflammatory reactions, and protecting organs, were reported. Particularly, an increasing number of animal studies have demonstrated that dexmedetomidine ameliorates the neurological outcomes associated with various brain and spinal cord injuries. In addition, a growing number of clinical trials have reported the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for decreasing the rates of postoperative neurological dysfunction, such as delirium and stroke, which strongly highlights the possibility of dexmedetomidine functioning as a neuroprotective agent for future clinical use. Mechanism studies have linked dexmedetomidine's neuroprotective properties with its modulation of neuroinflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and synaptic plasticity via the α2-adrenergic receptor, dependently or independently. By reviewing recent advances and preclinical and clinical evidence on the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine, we hope to provide a complete understanding of the above mechanism and provide insights into the potential efficacy of this agent in clinical use for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11070846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301952PMC
June 2021

Knowledge and prevalence of energy drinks consumption in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional survey of adolescents.

Gen Psychiatr 2021 25;34(3):e100389. Epub 2021 May 25.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: In recent years, energy drinks (EDs) have been widely used among young people around the world. The extensive use of EDs also affects the sleep and exercise of adolescents.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of EDs, the knowledge, attitude towards EDs and associated factors of EDs consumption among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

Methods: A total of 4608 adolescents completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing EDs use history, knowledge and attitude towards EDs. Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) was used to assess their life events. All participants were divided into two groups based on whether they used them or not. t-test and χ test were used to compare the differences between the two groups, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the related factors for EDs consumption.

Results: 70.5% of the participants reported having ever used EDs. The main avenues to getting information on EDs were from advertisements. 67.56% of them believed that EDs had adverse effects on health. 22.09% of the participants and 31.55% of their parents took a negative attitude towards EDs. Compared with the non-consumption group, participants in the consumption group were likely to be male, with older age, identified EDs more correctly and did not believe EDs had adverse effects, with more positive attitude and higher ASLEC score. Logistic regression results showed that gender, age, attitude of parents and themselves, knowledge of EDs and ASLEC score significantly predicted EDs consumption.

Conclusion: EDs consumption was popular among adolescents in Shanghai, and the tailored intervention programmes need to be developed based on the characteristics of adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154921PMC
May 2021

A chromosome-level Camptotheca acuminata genome assembly provides insights into the evolutionary origin of camptothecin biosynthesis.

Nat Commun 2021 06 10;12(1):3531. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Bio-resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Camptothecin and its derivatives are widely used for treating malignant tumors. Previous studies revealed only a limited number of candidate genes for camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata, and it is still poorly understood how its biosynthesis of camptothecin has evolved. Here, we report a high-quality, chromosome-level C. acuminata genome assembly. We find that C. acuminata experiences an independent whole-genome duplication and numerous genes derive from it are related to camptothecin biosynthesis. Comparing with Catharanthus roseus, the loganic acid O-methyltransferase (LAMT) in C. acuminata fails to convert loganic acid into loganin. Instead, two secologanic acid synthases (SLASs) convert loganic acid to secologanic acid. The functional divergence of the LAMT gene and positive evolution of two SLAS genes, therefore, both contribute greatly to the camptothecin biosynthesis in C. acuminata. Our results emphasize the importance of high-quality genome assembly in identifying genetic changes in the evolutionary origin of a secondary metabolite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23872-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192753PMC
June 2021

Three-dimensional nanorod array for label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of microRNA pneumoconiosis biomarkers.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 25;261:120015. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Novel approaches are required to overcome the challenges associated with conventional microRNA (miRNA) detection methods and realize the early diagnosis of diseases. This work describes a novel label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method for the detection of the miRNA biomarkers for pneumoconiosis on a three-dimensional Au-coated ZnO nanorod array (Au-ZnO NRA). The Au-ZnO NRA substrate, which was fabricated via a modified seeding method combined with ion sputtering, provided a high enhancement factor and good spatial uniformity of the signal. With the Au-ZnO NRA, the SERS spectra of miRNAs were obtained in 30 s without labeling at room temperature. Density functional theory calculations were performed to understand the structural fingerprints of the miRNAs. Principal component analysis was carried out to identify the pneumoconiosis biomarkers based on their fingerprint SERS signals. Dual-logarithm linear relationships between the SERS intensity and the miRNA concentration were proposed for quantitative analysis. The label-free SERS method has limits of detection on the femtomolar level, which is much lower than the concentrations of the miRNA biomarkers for pneumoconiosis in lung fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120015DOI Listing
November 2021

A Highly Sensitive Refractive Index Sensor Based on a V-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber with a High Refractive Index Range.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 29;21(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China.

This paper proposes a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) refractive index sensor based on the photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The optical properties of the PCF are investigated by modulating the refractive index of a liquid analyte. The finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate and analyze the PCF structure. After optimization, the fiber can achieve high linearity of 0.9931 and an average refractive index sensitivity of up to 14,771.4 nm/RIU over a refractive index range from 1.47 to 1.52, with the maximum wavelength sensitivity of 18,000.5 nm/RIU. The proposed structure can be used in various sensing applications, including biological monitoring, environmental monitoring, and chemical production with the modification and analysis of the proposed structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21113782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198803PMC
May 2021

Bone defect reconstruction via endochondral ossification: A developmental engineering strategy.

J Tissue Eng 2021 Jan-Dec;12:20417314211004211. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Traditional bone tissue engineering (BTE) strategies induce direct bone-like matrix formation by mimicking the embryological process of intramembranous ossification. However, the clinical translation of these clinical strategies for bone repair is hampered by limited vascularization and poor bone regeneration after implantation in vivo. An alternative strategy for overcoming these drawbacks is engineering cartilaginous constructs by recapitulating the embryonic processes of endochondral ossification (ECO); these constructs have shown a unique ability to survive under hypoxic conditions as well as induce neovascularization and ossification. Such developmentally engineered constructs can act as transient biomimetic templates to facilitate bone regeneration in critical-sized defects. This review introduces the concept and mechanism of developmental BTE, explores the routes of endochondral bone graft engineering, highlights the current state of the art in large bone defect reconstruction via ECO-based strategies, and offers perspectives on the challenges and future directions of translating current knowledge from the bench to the bedside.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20417314211004211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020769PMC
March 2021

Endocannabinoid signaling in the lateral habenula regulates pain and alcohol consumption.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 04 14;11(1):220. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, Physiology & Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Hyperalgesia, which often occurs in people suffering from alcohol use disorder, may drive excessive drinking and relapse. Emerging evidence suggests that the lateral habenula (LHb) may play a significant role in this condition. Previous research suggests that endocannabinoid signaling (eCBs) is involved in drug addiction and pain, and that the LHb contains core components of the eCBs machinery. We report here our findings in rats subjected to chronic ethanol vapor exposure. We detected a substantial increase in endocannabinoid-related genes, including Mgll and Daglb mRNA levels, as well as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) protein levels, as well as a decrease in Cnr1 mRNA and type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) protein levels, in the LHb of ethanol-exposed rats. Also, rats withdrawing from ethanol exposure displayed hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conversely, intra-LHb injection of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597, or the CB1R agonist WIN55,212-2 produced an analgesic effect, regardless of ethanol or air exposure history, implying that alcohol exposure does not change eCB pain responses. Intra-LHb infusion of the CB1R inverse agonist rimonabant eliminated the analgesic effect of these chemicals. Rimonabant alone elicited hyperalgesia in the air-, but not ethanol-exposed animals. Moreover, intra-LHb JZL184, URB597, or WIN55,212-2 reduced ethanol consumption in both homecages and operant chambers in rats exposed to ethanol vapor but not air. These findings suggest that LHb eCBs play a pivotal role in nociception and facilitating LHb eCBs may attenuate pain in drinkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01337-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046806PMC
April 2021

Sex effects on clinical features in LRRK2 G2385R carriers and non-carriers in Parkinson's disease.

BMC Neurosci 2021 03 26;22(1):22. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology & Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated To Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 197 Rui jin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Background: Differences of genotypes between male and female have been studied in Parkinson's disease (PD), but limited research has focused on the comparison between sexes with LRRK2 G2385 variant.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore sex effects in the same genetic subtype and role of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2385R variants in the same sex in PD.

Methods: 613 PD patients were recruited from the Movement Disorders Clinic in Ruijin Hospital. We did not include healthy controls in this study. The data collected includes demographic information, disease history, scores of motor and non-motor symptoms scales, midbrain transcranial sonography and DNA. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between clinical features and sex in LRRK2 G2385R carriers and non-carriers, as well as the association between the clinical features and LRRK2 G2385R variants in male and female sex.

Results: Sex distribution is similar in LRRK2 G2385R carriers and non-carriers. In male sex, LRRK2 G2385R carriers showed lower risk in cognitive impairment compared with non-carriers (OR = 0.301, p = 0.003, 95%CI 0.135-0.668). In female sex, LRRK2 G2385R carriers showed lower risk in autonomic dysfunction compared with non-carrier (OR = 0.401, p = 0.040, 95%CI 0.167-0.960). In LRRK2 G2385R non-carriers, female sex showed lower risk of impairment in activity of daily living (OR = 0.610, p = 0.021, 95%CI 0.400-0.928), excessive daytime sleepiness (OR = 0.555, p = 0.007, 95%CI 0.361-0.853), substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (OR = 0.448, p = 0.019, 95%CI 0.228-0.878), autonomic dysfunction frequency (OR = 0.626, p = 0.016, 95%CI 0.428-0.917) and higher risk in mood disorders (OR = 1.691, p = 0.022, 95%CI 1.078-2.654) compared with male. In LRRK2 G2385R carriers, female sex showed a lower risk of autonomic dysfunction (OR = 0.294, p = 0.024, 95%CI 0.102-0.849) compared with male.

Conclusion: In contrast to male PD patients, a more benign disease course was observed in female in both LRRK2 G2385R carriers and non-carriers. However, sex differences were less notable in PD with LRRK2 G2385R variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12868-021-00623-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004448PMC
March 2021

Cancer cells escape autophagy inhibition via NRF2-induced macropinocytosis.

Cancer Cell 2021 05 18;39(5):678-693.e11. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Departments of Pharmacology and Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Many cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), depend on autophagy-mediated scavenging and recycling of intracellular macromolecules, suggesting that autophagy blockade should cause tumor starvation and regression. However, until now autophagy-inhibiting monotherapies have not demonstrated potent anti-cancer activity. We now show that autophagy blockade prompts established PDAC to upregulate and utilize an alternative nutrient procurement pathway: macropinocytosis (MP) that allows tumor cells to extract nutrients from extracellular sources and use them for energy generation. The autophagy to MP switch, which may be evolutionarily conserved and not cancer cell restricted, depends on activation of transcription factor NRF2 by the autophagy adaptor p62/SQSTM1. NRF2 activation by oncogenic mutations, hypoxia, and oxidative stress also results in MP upregulation. Inhibition of MP in autophagy-compromised PDAC elicits dramatic metabolic decline and regression of transplanted and autochthonous tumors, suggesting the therapeutic promise of combining autophagy and MP inhibitors in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.02.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119368PMC
May 2021

From Lingering to Rift: Metasurface Decoupling for Near- and Far-Field Functionalization.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 17;33(16):e2007507. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Metasurfaces, simultaneously operating in near- and far-fields, can be employed as a promising candidate to implement different functions, thus significantly improving the information density, security, and system integration. Recent works have showcased some approaches for decoupling-at-large between near- and far-field functionalities, but unfortunately, their coupling effects are just reduced and mitigated to some extent rather than eradicated, which in turn leads to the performance limitation of metadevices. Herein, we propose a general platform for the complete rift between near- and far-field functionalities, enabled by strictly decoupled manipulation of optical amplitude and phase, leading to their distinct functions in the near- and far-fields, respectively. This concept is experimentally demonstrated by integrating the functions of a phase-only metalens and an amplitude-only grayscale-imaging nanoprint into a single-cell metasurface. Because of their completely decoupled functions, both meta-elements show high-performance characteristics, i.e., imaging quality close to the diffraction limit and high-definition grayscale-imaging with resolution as high as 63 500 dots per inch (dpi). The validated recipe may empower advanced explorations and applications in highly integrated nano-optoelectronics requiring high performance and less crosstalk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202007507DOI Listing
April 2021

On-axis three-dimensional meta-holography enabled with continuous-amplitude modulation of light.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):6147-6157

Conventional three-dimensional (3D) holography based on recording interference fringes on a photosensitive material usually has unavoidable zero-order light, which merges with the holographic image and blurs it. Off-axis design is an effective approach to avoid this problem; however, it in turn leads to the waste of at least half of the imaging space for holographic reconstruction. Herein, we propose an on-axis 3D holography based on Malus-assisted metasurfaces, which can eliminate the zero-order light and project the holographic image in the full transmission space. Specifically, each nanostructure in the metasurface acts as a nano-polarizer, which can modulate the polarization-assisted amplitude of incident light continuously, governed by Malus law. By carefully choosing the orientation angles of nano-polarizers, the amplitude can be both positive and negative, which can be employed to extinct zero-order light without affecting the intensity modulation for holographic recording. We experimentally demonstrate this concept by projecting an on-axis 3-layer holographic images in the imaging space and all experimental results agree well with our prediction. Our proposed metasurface carries unique characteristics such as ultracompactness, on-axis reconstruction, extinction of zero-order light and broadband response, which can find its market in ultracompact and high-density holographic recording for 3D objects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.416084DOI Listing
February 2021
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