Publications by authors named "Rany Shamloul"

63 Publications

Early vascular imaging and key system strategies expedite carotid revascularization after transient ischemic attack and stroke.

J Vasc Surg 2020 11 6;72(5):1728-1734. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Champlain Regional Stroke Network, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Division of Neuroscience, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: International guidelines recommend carotid revascularization within 14 days for patients with a symptomatic transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke event. However, significant delays in care persist, with only 9% of outpatients and 36% of inpatients in Ontario meeting this target. The study objective was to explore the influence of health system factors on carotid revascularization timelines.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all symptomatic TIA/stroke patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy or stenting at The Ottawa Hospital (2015-2016). The primary outcome was time from TIA/stroke to carotid revascularization. Health system variables of interest included location and timing of patient presentation, timelines to vascular imaging, and same-day collaboration between key services such as emergency, neurology, and surgery. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were used to determine statistically significant differences between groups.

Results: A total of 228 records met the inclusion criteria. The median time from TIA/stroke to carotid revascularization was 10 days, with 58% of patients meeting the 14-day guideline. Prompt patient presentation to emergency demonstrated significantly shorter timelines to surgery (7 days; P < .001). Early vascular imaging was strongly correlated with early revascularization (4-5 days; P < .001). In addition, collaboration from two or more care services enhanced timelines to surgery ranging from 2.0 to 6.5 days (P < .001-.008).

Conclusions: Early/emergency response to stroke symptoms was pivotal in achieving best practice recommendations for rapid carotid revascularization, emphasizing the need for ongoing public awareness. Emergency and ambulatory strategies to facilitate urgent vascular imaging, as well as mechanisms for same-day communication between teams require optimization to promote early revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.02.024DOI Listing
November 2020

RecoverNow: A mobile tablet-based therapy platform for early stroke rehabilitation.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0210725. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Stroke survivors frequently experience a range of post-stroke deficits. Specialized stroke rehabilitation improves recovery, especially if it is started early post-stroke. However, resource limitations often preclude early rehabilitation. Mobile technologies may provide a platform for stroke survivors to begin recovery when they might not be able to otherwise. The study objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of RecoverNow, a tablet-based stroke recovery platform aimed at delivering speech and cognitive therapy.

Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 30 acute stroke patients to use RecoverNow for up to 3 months. Allied health professionals assigned specific applications based on standard of care assessments. Participants were encouraged to take home the RecoverNow tablets upon discharge from acute care. The study team contacted participants to return for a follow-up interview 3 months after enrollment. The primary outcome of interest was feasibility, defined using 5 facets: recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, the proportion of successful follow-up interventions, and protocol deviations. We tracked barriers to tablet-based care as a secondary outcome.

Results: We successfully recruited 30 of 62 eligible patients in 15 weeks (48% recruitment rate). Participants were non-adherent to tablet-based therapy inside and outside of acute care, using RecoverNow for a median of 12 minutes a day. Retention was high with 23 of 30 patients participating in follow-up interviews (77% retention rate) and all but 3 of the 23 interviews (87%) were successfully completed. Only 2 major protocol deviations occurred: one enrollment failure and one therapy protocol violation. Barriers to tablet-based care were frequently encountered by study participants with many expressing the assigned applications were either too easy or too difficult.

Conclusions: Acute stroke patients are interested in attempting tablet-based stroke rehabilitation and are easily recruited early post-stroke. However, tablet-based therapy may be challenging due to patient, device and system-related barriers. Reducing the frequency of common barriers will be essential to keeping patients engaged in tablet-based therapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210725PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347149PMC
October 2019

RecoverNow: A patient perspective on the delivery of mobile tablet-based stroke rehabilitation in the acute care setting.

Int J Stroke 2019 02 18;14(2):174-179. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

1 Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background/aim: We previously reported the feasibility of RecoverNow (a mobile tablet-based post-stroke communication therapy in acute care). RecoverNow has since expanded to include fine motor and cognitive therapies. Our objectives were to gain a better understanding of patient experiences and recovery goals using mobile tablets.

Methods: Speech-language pathologists or occupational therapists identified patients with stroke and communication, fine motor, or cognitive/perceptual deficits. Patients were provided with iPads individually programmed with applications based on assessment results, and instructed to use it at least 1 h/day. At discharge, patients completed a 19-question quantitative and open-ended engagement survey addressing intervention timing, mobile device/apps, recovery goals, and therapy duration.

Results: Over a six-month period, we enrolled 33 participants (three did not complete the survey). Median time from stroke to initiation of tablet-based therapy was six days. Patients engaged in therapy on average 59.6 min/day and preferred communication and hand function therapies. Most patients (63.3%) agreed that therapy was commenced at a reasonable time, although half expressed an interest in starting sooner, 66.7% reported that using the device 1 h/day was enough, 64.3% would use it after discharge, and 60.7% would use it for eight weeks. Sixty-seven percent of patients expressed a need for family/friend/caregiver to help them use it.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that stroke patients are interested in mobile tablet-based therapy in acute care. Patients in the acute setting prefer to focus on communication and hand therapies, are willing to begin within days of their stroke and may require assistance with the tablets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790031DOI Listing
February 2019

RecoverNow: Feasibility of a Mobile Tablet-Based Rehabilitation Intervention to Treat Post-Stroke Communication Deficits in the Acute Care Setting.

PLoS One 2016 21;11(12):e0167950. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients' access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke.

Methods: We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability.

Results: Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female) for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most "convenient".

Conclusions: Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167950PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5176170PMC
July 2017

Fast-Track Systems Improve Timely Carotid Endarterectomy in Stroke Prevention Outpatients.

Can J Neurol Sci 2016 Sep;43(5):648-54

4The Ottawa Hospital,Division of Neurology,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute,Ottawa,Ontario,Canada.

Background: For optimal stroke prevention, best practices guidelines recommend carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for symptomatic patients within two weeks; however, 2013 Ontario data indicated that only 9% of eligible patients from outpatient Stroke Prevention Clinics (SPCs) achieved this target. The goal of our study was to identify modifiable system factors that could enhance the quality and timeliness of care among patients needing urgent CEA.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of transient ischemic attack/stroke patients assessed in Champlain Local Health Integrated Network SPCs between 2011 and 2014 who subsequently underwent CEA. Descriptive statistics were used to define patient characteristics, timelines from symptom onset to CEA, and system factors that contributed to delays or improvements in care. Multivariate analysis was used to determine statistically significant variations between groups.

Results: Seventy-five records were eligible for study inclusion. Median time from initial symptoms to CEA was 31 days, with 21.3% of patients undergoing surgery within 2 weeks. Significant delays were common in patient presentation and assessment following symptom onset, wait times for vascular imaging and neurological assessment, and time from surgical assessment to CEA completion. Rapid testing and triage, coupled with collaborative initiatives among SPC, surgical, and radiology teams were associated with significantly improved timelines.

Conclusions: Success factors for rapid CEA are multifaceted, including system changes that address public awareness of stroke and 911 response, improvements in vascular imaging access, and redesign of clinical services to promote collaboration and fast-tracking of care. Implementation of performance measures to monitor and guide clinical innovations is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2016.270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5080668PMC
September 2016

Traditional plant aphrodisiacs and male sexual dysfunction.

Phytother Res 2014 Jun;28(6):831-5

Introduction: There has been a long history of man’s fascination with better and stronger sex drive and performance across different cultures. Several literature texts from the Hindu, Egyptian, Chinese and Roman civilizations document the human endless search for substances that can enhance sexual experiences and/or treat erectile dysfunction.

Aim: This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular plant aphrodisiacs and provide evidence to support or discourage the use of any of them to enhance sexual desire and/or function in men.

Methods: We review the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs.

Results: We found very little evidence to support the use of plant aphrodisiacs in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction. The vast majority of studies were conducted on animals with very few clinical studies. Available data suggest a beneficial effect of ginseng as a pro-sexual supplement and not an independent treatment for male sexual dysfunction.

Conclusions: Trans-culturally, many herbal therapies show some potential benefits in improving men’s sexual function; however, adequate studies on the specific benefits and health risks associated with their use are needed. We strongly recommend the design and execution of well-controlled clinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of plant aphrodisiacs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5074DOI Listing
June 2014

The effect of vasectomy on the sexual life of couples.

J Sex Med 2014 Sep 12;11(9):2239-42. Epub 2014 May 12.

Department of Urology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

Introduction: There are several contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy, reversible as well as nonreversible ones. The sexual satisfaction of couples is affected by many types of contraceptives used.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the effect of vasectomy on the sexual life and satisfaction of couples.

Methods: Seventy-six couples took part in this evaluation and filled out respective questionnaires before and after vasectomy. All the questionnaires were evaluated statistically for differences in the respective sexual domain scores.

Main Outcome Measures: Standardized questionnaires were used. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) as well as postoperative pain score were completed by men. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was completed by the female partner. For statistical analysis, the T-Square Test was used.

Results: The average age of couples, who chose the vasectomy procedure, was 37 years for women and 39 years for men. The contraception method most frequently used prior to the vasectomy was the birth control pill. For the male partner, the IIEF showed no significant change in the respective domains. Out of the 76 couples, 93% of the males and 96% of their female partners would recommend and do vasectomy again. The postoperative pain score was 3.5 on 0-10 scale, and there were no postoperative complications reported. The best improvement of the sexual function was noticed for the female partners. The FSFI showed a significant improvement in the domains desire (P < 0.05), arousal (P < 0.05), orgasm (P < 0.05), lubrication (P < 0.05), and satisfaction (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: This is the first report to our very best knowledge that showed the positive impact of vasectomy on sexual satisfaction of couples. Vasectomy is a safe operation with minimal complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12567DOI Listing
September 2014

Psychotropics and sexual dysfunction.

Cent European J Urol 2014 27;66(4):466-71. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery University of Ottawa, Department of Andrology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is common in patients taking antipsychotics, and is the most bothersome symptom and adverse drug effect compromising treatment compliance. Mechanisms involved in psychotropics-induced SD are either largely unknown or poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an updated analysis of SD associated with the use of psychotropic drugs in psychiatric patients.

Results: Contemporary evidence from available studies demonstrates that SD rates are drug-related rather than drug-class specific, and that these rates vary widely. Mechanisms involved in psychotropics-induced SD are either largely unknown or poorly understood. Our understanding of psychotropics-induced SD is limited by the inability to differentiate whether these effects are really drug-induced or due to different inclusion criteria.

Conclusions: Rigorous research, basic and clinical, is needed to understand the exact incidence, severity and mechanisms involved in the development of SD induced by various psychotropic treatment regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2013.04.art22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992451PMC
June 2014

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for sexual dysfunction.

J Sex Med 2014 Apr;11(4):1097-1098

Greta and John Hansen Chair in Men's Health ResearchUniversity of Ottawa; Department of SurgeryUniversity of Ottawa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12516DOI Listing
April 2014

A study of the possible effects of repeated intracorporeal self-injection of vasoactive drugs in patients with elevated end diastolic velocity during pharmacopenile duplex ultrasonography.

Cent European J Urol 2013 13;66(2):210-4. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Andrology Department, Cairo University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt ; Department of Urology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Introduction: The aim of the work is to evaluate the effect of repeated intracavernosal self-injection of vasoactive drugs in patients with elevated End Diastolic Velocity (>5 cm/sec) during pharmacopenile duplex ultrasonography (PPDU).

Methods: Duplex evaluation was performed to the patients on self-injection therapy for comparison of end diastolic velocity and resistive index before and after completing the eight doses of IC self-injection.

Results: After the 8 trials of home therapy, 21 (52.5%) patients showed improvement in the duplex parameters regarding the end diastolic velocity, ten of them showed improvement in the EDV to the level of <5 cm/sec. The effect of different factors that may contribute to the improvement in EDV to <5 cm/sec are shown in the table 2. Age was the only predictive factor for successful response to home therapy intracavernous injection (ICI). Improvement in erectile response was assessed before and after the course of the therapy. Erection response to ICI during penile duplex improved in only six patients (E4 & E4-5)) to the point that it was sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance, 3 of them (7.5%) regained spontaneous erection and stopped using ICI (table 3). The IIEF score was 10.6 ±2.8 before the home therapy and it became 14 ±3.9 one month after completing the treatment course (P value <0.001).

Conclusions: Early rehabilitation of the patients with venous leakage ED using ICI may help to regain normal erection and avoid unnecessary penile prosthesis surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2013.02.art25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3936150PMC
February 2014

Correlation between seminal lead and cadmium and seminal parameters in idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermic males.

Cent European J Urol 2013 26;66(1):84-92. Epub 2013 Apr 26.

Department of Andrology, Cairo University, Egypt and Department of Urology, University of Ottawa, Canada.

Introduction: The exact causes of the decline in semen quality are not yet known, environmental factors have been considered to play an important role. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are two of the well-known reproductive toxicants to which humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally and can lead to negative effects on the testicular functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma of men with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia in comparison to fertile healthy controls and to correlate these levels with conventional semen parameters, sperm hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) percentage, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage, and semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.

Material And Methods: Thirty infertile male patients with idiopathic oligo and/or asthenozoospermia and thirty healthy fertile men, which was the control group, were included in the study. Lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm HOS, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS assay were measured in all subjects.

Results: There was a significant increase in seminal lead and cadmium levels among infertile males in comparison to controls. There were significant negative correlations between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and certain semen parameters especially progressive sperm motility and vitality (HOS). Importantly, significant positive correlations were noted between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS level in infertile men and controls on the other hand.

Conclusions: Thus, men with idiopathic male infertility had higher levels of lead and cadmium in their semen which correlated with impairment of sperm motility and vitality percentages and more importantly with higher sperm DNA fragmentation% and semen ROS level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2013.01.art28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921854PMC
February 2014

Cell phone usage and erectile function.

Cent European J Urol 2013 26;66(1):75-7. Epub 2013 Apr 26.

Department of Andrology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: The objective of this pilot study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on erectile function (EF) in men.

Material And Methods: We recruited 20 consecutive men complaining of erectile dysfunction (ED) for at least six months (Group A), and another group of 10 healthy men with no complaints of ED (Group B). Anamnesis, basic laboratory investigations, and clinical examinations were performed. All men completed the German version of the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) for evaluation of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), as well as another questionnaire designed by our clinicians that assessed cell phone usage habits.

Results: There was no significant difference between both groups regarding age, weight, height, and total testosterone (Table 1). The SHIM scores of Group A were significantly lower than that of Group B, 11.2 ±5 and 24.2 ±2.3, respectively. Total time spent talking on the cell phone per week was not significantly higher in Group A over B, 17.6 ±11.1 vs. 12.5 ±7 hours. Men with ED were found to carry their 'switched on' cell phones for a significantly longer time than those without ED, 4.4 ±3.6 vs. 1.8 ±1 hours per day.

Conclusions: We found a potential correlation with cell phone usage and a negative impact on EF. Further large-scale studies confirming our initial data and exploring the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2013.01.art23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921848PMC
February 2014

Clinical and laboratory profiles of a large cohort of patients with different grades of varicocele.

Cent European J Urol 2013 26;66(1):71-4. Epub 2013 Apr 26.

Department of Urology, Medical University Graz, Austria.

Objective: In this retrospective study we attempted to report our own data on the different clinical parameters in association with the presence and severity of varicocele in a large group of Austrian men.

Methods: The records of 1,111 consecutive patients with clinical varicocele from 1993 to 2010 were evaluated. The presence, grade, and side of any varicocele were recorded. Semen samples, serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels, and testicular volume were assessed.

Results: The mean age was 28.8 (±7.3) years. Three hundred seventeen (28.5%) patients presented with grade I varicocele, 427 (38.4%) with grade II varicocele, and 367 (33%) with grade III varicocele. Correlation between different grades of varicocele and semen quality indicated an over-representation of oligospermia and asthenoteratospermia in the group of grade III varicocele (p <0.05), whereas other parameters of semen quality showed no significant difference between the three groups. Serum testosterone levels and BMI were significantly associated (p <0.05) with the grade of varicocele, but no association was found with the other parameters analyzed.

Conclusions: Our analysis showed a significant relationship between the grade of varicocele and semen analysis. Moreover, higher testosterone levels and lower body mass index were associated with the higher grade of varicocele and decreased semen quality. More prospective studies are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2013.01.art22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921831PMC
February 2014

Addressing the barriers to optimal management of penile fracture.

Can Urol Assoc J 2013 Jul-Aug;7(7-8):258-9

Greta and John Hansen Chair in Men's Health Research, Division of Urology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.1560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758942PMC
September 2013

Drug addiction and sexual dysfunction.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2013 Sep;42(3):585-92

Department of Andrology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

This article attempts to review the most current and the well-established facts concerning drug addiction and sexual dysfunction. Surprisingly, even though alcohol is prevalent in many societies with many myths surrounding its sexual-enhancing effects, current scientific research cannot provide a solid conclusion on its effect on sexual function. Unfortunately, the same concept applies to tobacco smoking; however, most of the current knowledge tends to support the notion that it, indeed, can negatively affect sexual function. Similar ambiguities also prevail with substances of abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2013.06.003DOI Listing
September 2013

Sexual function in women with stress urinary incontinence treated with the SPARC sling system.

Biomed Res Int 2013 14;2013:957547. Epub 2013 Jul 14.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Graz (MUG), Graz, Austria.

Aim: To evaluate the impact of SPARC on female sexual function.

Methods: 151 women with a mean age of 60 ± 11.90 and SUI had a complete urodynamic investigation and underwent SPARC operation. 98 women completed the validated female sexual function index questionnaire (FSFI) at baseline and 94 women at follow-up. A minimum follow-up of 12 months was required for study inclusion.

Results: 52/98 women were sexually active at baseline. Postoperatively only 33 patients were sexually active. The FSFI score of all 33 pre- and postoperative sexually active women increased from 25.3 ± 5.7 at baseline to 27.4 ± 4.8 at follow-up (P = 0.1). Scores of women with reduced sexual function at baseline increased significantly in the domains desire, arousal, and lubrication as well as orgasm and satisfaction and total FSFI-score (P = 0.002) postoperatively.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the SPARC-sling procedure for SUI did not negatively interfere with female sexual function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/957547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3727096PMC
March 2014

Evaluation of surgical outcome of penile augmentation and lengthening procedures.

Urol Int 2013 9;90(4):465-9. Epub 2013 Mar 9.

Department of Andrology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Our study included 280 patients complaining of small-sized penis. They were seen in the outpatient clinic of the Andrology Department, Kasr El Aini, Cairo University. Patients were collected from 2002 till 2008 and classified into 4 categories from an etiological point of view. Eleven patients (3.9%) were operated upon according to fine selection criteria; six patients were selected for lengthening procedures, while two patients were selected for increasing girth procedures and three patients for combined operation of lengthening and increasing girth techniques. Seven patients showed subjective satisfaction after lengthening procedures and four patients showed subjective satisfaction after increasing girth techniques. In conclusion, detailed analysis of short penis complaint with a proper diagnosis and patient education are required for accurate management of patients complaining of a short penis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000347044DOI Listing
January 2014

Erectile dysfunction.

Lancet 2013 Jan 5;381(9861):153-65. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Department of Urology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Erectile dysfunction is a common clinical entity that affects mainly men older than 40 years. In addition to the classical causes of erectile dysfunction, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, several common lifestyle factors, such as obesity, limited or an absence of physical exercise, and lower urinary tract symptoms, have been linked to the development of erectile dysfunction. Substantial steps have been taken in the study of the association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Erectile dysfunction is a strong predictor for coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular assessment of a non-cardiac patient presenting with erectile dysfunction is now recommended. Substantial advances have occurred in the understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction that ultimately led to the development of successful oral therapies, namely the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. However, oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have limitations, and present research is thus investigating cutting-edge therapeutic strategies including gene and cell-based technologies with the aim of discovering a cure for erectile dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60520-0DOI Listing
January 2013

Impact of cannabis use on male sexual health.

J Sex Med 2011 Apr 26;8(4):971-5. Epub 2011 Jan 26.

Department of Urology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Cannabis (marijuana) is the most widely used illicit drug globally. Given the prevalence of nonprescription illicit drug abuse, there is a growing interest in the study of its potential effects on male sexual health. In this review, we discuss the effects of cannabis on male sexual health.

Objective: In this review, we discuss the effects of cannabis on male sexual health. METHODS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Critical review of scientific literature examining the impact of cannabis use on male sexual health.

Results: Studies examining the effects of cannabis use on male sexual function have been limited in both quality and quantity. Most results of these studies are conflicting and contradictory. While some did outline the beneficial effects of cannabis in enhancing erectile function, others did not. However, recent animal and in vitro studies have identified potential links between cannabis and sexual health. It appears that cannabis may actually have peripheral antagonizing effects on erectile function by stimulating specific receptors in the cavernous tissue.

Conclusions: Given the prevalence of cannabis use, and the potential relationships between use and the development of potentially hazardous effects on male sexual function, we encourage renewed use of research resources to determine in-depth mechanistic knowledge, and new clinically oriented studies examining the effect of cannabis on male sexual function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02198.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Is treatment of hemorrhagic radiation cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen effective?

Urol Int 2010 13;84(4):467-70. Epub 2010 Mar 13.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. bader1971 @ gmx.at

Objective: We report our own experience with the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) for the management of postradiation hemorrhagic cystitis.

Methods: We reviewed retrospectively 14 patients from 2001 to 2007 with different pelvic organ malignancies who developed radiation cystitis after irradiation. Patients received 100% oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber at a pressure of 2.5 atmospheres absolute, 60 min bottom time, once a day, 7 days a week for at least 1 month. In principle, 30 HBO treatments per course were performed. After every course of HBO treatments, therapeutic effect was evaluated. The mean duration of follow-up of all patients was 18 months (range: 1-6 years).

Results: Patients were divided into 2 groups, group 1 (treatment group, n = 10) and group 2 (without treatment, n = 4). The mean duration between the onset of hematuria and the beginning of HBO therapy was 8.9 months (range: 3-34). Group 2 did not receive HBO because they were not healthy enough. Only 2 patients (20%) of group 1 recovered from their hemorrhagic cystitis. Group 1 had a significantly lower cure rate of postirradiation hemorrhagic cystitis in comparison to group 2.

Conclusions: Our experience with the use of HBO did not yield favorable results. Randomized well-controlled studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000296289DOI Listing
September 2010

Sexual selection and genital evolution: an overview.

J Sex Med 2010 May 25;7(5):1734-40. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Department of Andrology, Sexology and STDs, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Genital morphology (especially male) among the animal kingdom is characterized by extensive differences that even members of closely related species with similar general morphology may have remarkably diverse genitalia.

Aim: To present the sexual medicine specialist with a basic understanding of the current hypotheses on genital evolution with an emphasis on the sexual selection theories.

Methods: A review of current literature on the theories of genital evolution.

Main Outcome Measures: Analysis of the supporting evidence for the sexual selection theories of genital evolution.

Results: Several theories have been proposed to explain genital evolution. Currently, the sexual selection theories are being considered to present valid and solid evidence explaining genital evolution. However, other theories, including sexual conflict, are still being investigated. All theories of genital evolution have their own weaknesses and strengths.

Conclusions: Given that many complex biological mechanisms, mostly unknown yet, are involved in the process of genital evolution, it is thus reasonable to conclude that not one theory can independently explain genital evolution. It is likely that these mechanisms may prove to have synergistic rather than exclusive effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01712.xDOI Listing
May 2010

Clinical parameters and semen analysis in 716 Austrian patients with varicocele.

Urology 2010 May 9;75(5):1069-73. Epub 2010 Feb 9.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Objectives: To evaluate different clinical parameters in association with the presence and severity of varicocele in a large group of Austrian men.

Methods: Records of 716 consecutive patients with clinical varicocele and infertility, who visited our andrology unit from 2001 to 2007, were retrospectively evaluated. The presence, grade, and side of any varicocele were recorded; varicoceles were confirmed by Doppler sonography. Semen samples, serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and testosterone levels were also assessed in all patients.

Results: Mean age was 29.6 +/- 0.3 years; 30% of patients presented with grade I varicocele, 39.0% with grade II, and 30.3% with grade III varicocele. About 33.3% of patients presented with normozoospermia, followed by asthenozoospermia (17.9%), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome (14.2%), and oligozoospermia (13.2%). Sperm density significantly decreased with increasing grade of varicocele. Body mass index was inversely proportional to varicocele. Serum testosterone levels were higher in grade III varicoceles (5.7 +/- 0.2 nmol/L) compared with grade I (4.9 +/- 0.2 nmol/L) and grade II (5.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L) varicoceles (P <.001; range, 0.4-16.6 nmol/L).

Conclusions: To our knowledge the current report is the first to describe a direct relationship between grade of varicocele and semen quality. Grade III varicocele was associated with decreased semen quality and, interestingly, with higher testosterone levels. Our study confirmed previous reports regarding the relationship between varicoceles and body mass index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2009.11.042DOI Listing
May 2010

Priapism: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management.

J Sex Med 2010 Jan;7(1 Pt 2):476-500

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.

Introduction: Priapism describes a persistent erection arising from dysfunction of mechanisms regulating penile tumescence, rigidity, and flaccidity. A correct diagnosis of priapism is a matter of urgency requiring identification of underlying hemodynamics.

Aims: To define the types of priapism, address its pathogenesis and epidemiology, and develop an evidence-based guideline for effective management.

Methods: Six experts from four countries developed a consensus document on priapism; this document was presented for peer review and debate in a public forum and revisions were made based on recommendations of chairpersons to the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. This report focuses on guidelines written over the past decade and reviews the priapism literature from 2003 to 2009. Although the literature is predominantly case series, recent reports have more detailed methodology including duration of priapism, etiology of priapism, and erectile function outcomes.

Main Outcome Measures: Consensus recommendations were based on evidence-based literature, best medical practices, and bench research.

Results: Basic science supporting current concepts in the pathophysiology of priapism, and clinical research supporting the most effective treatment strategies are summarized in this review.

Conclusions: Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management of priapism are necessary to spare patients ineffective interventions and maximize erectile function outcomes. Future research is needed to understand corporal smooth muscle pathology associated with genetic and acquired conditions resulting in ischemic priapism. Better understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of stuttering ischemic priapism will offer new avenues for medical intervention. Documenting erectile function outcomes based on duration of ischemic priapism, time to interventions, and types of interventions is needed to establish evidence-based guidance. In contrast, pathogenesis of nonischemic priapism is understood, and largely attributable to trauma. Better documentation of onset of high-flow priapism in relation to time of injury, and response to conservative management vs. angiogroaphic or surgical interventions is needed to establish evidence-based guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01625.xDOI Listing
January 2010

Natural aphrodisiacs.

Authors:
Rany Shamloul

J Sex Med 2010 Jan 30;7(1 Pt 1):39-49. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

Queen's University-Pharmacology, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal.

Aim: This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function.

Methods: Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs.

Main Outcome Measures: Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women.

Results: There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited.

Conclusions: The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01521.xDOI Listing
January 2010

The Arabic version of the Erection Hardness Score.

J Sex Med 2009 Dec 15;6(12):3501-3. Epub 2009 Sep 15.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01501.xDOI Listing
December 2009

Erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases and depression: interaction of therapy.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009 Sep;10(13):2107-17

Suez Canal University, Department of Urology, Ismailia, Egypt.

Several studies have revealed the intimate associations between erectile dysfunction (ED), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and depression. Whether the physicians should also screen for the other two components when a patient presents with one component of this triad is still an important question to be answered. These three components had been classified as independent medical conditions managed by unrelated medical services. Recently, the potential effect of medications of each condition on the other conditions had gained a lot of interest. The aim of the current review is to discuss the integrative view of association between cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction and depression, and to address the two direction impact of pharmacotherapy for IHD and depression on erectile function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14656560903089326DOI Listing
September 2009

Your job and your erection.

Authors:
Rany Shamloul

J Sex Med 2009 Aug 2;6(8):2341-2. Epub 2009 Jun 2.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01331.xDOI Listing
August 2009

An evidence-based perspective to the medical treatment of male infertility: a short review.

Urol Int 2009 19;82(2):125-9. Epub 2009 Mar 19.

Andrology and Sexology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient preferences and values.

Aim: This narrative review aims to assist the physicians to make informed decisions based on the best available evidence in the area of male infertility and the patients' own preferences and values.

Methods: In this review we present the current state of knowledge and uncertainties about the medical management of male infertility. We describe the best available evidence from systematic reviews, randomized controlled studies and observational studies where appropriate.

Results: Data from the literature suggest that gonadotropin treatment of male infertility can lead to a significant increase in pregnancy rates, however larger studies are needed to confirm such findings. Studies including combinations of antiestrogens, antioxidants and androgens are promising but need confirmation with further research.

Conclusions: Most current combination therapies consist of orphan medications without industry support. Andrology research centers and other dedicated departments and units need to conduct randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration, sample number and robust design for groups most likely to benefit from antiestrogens, L-carnitine, antioxidants, and combination therapy. The ease of administration, low cost and mild side effects of antiestrogens justify their utility despite insufficient evidence of effect as monotherapies. Randomized controlled trials assessing other forms of medical therapy and combination therapy are available but are still in the preliminary stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000200785DOI Listing
April 2009