Publications by authors named "Ranjena Maloni"

7 Publications

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Adrenalectomy During Radical Nephrectomy- Incidence and Oncologic Outcomes From the Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) -A Modern Era, Nationwide, Multicenter Cohort.

Urology 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Urology Division, Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterize proportion of patients receiving adrenalectomy, adrenal involvement prevalence and oncologic outcomes of routine adrenalectomy in contemporary practice. Ipsilateral adrenalectomy was once standard during radical nephrectomy. However, benefit of routine adrenalectomy has been questioned because adrenal involvement of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is low.

Methods: All patients receiving radical nephrectomy in the Canadian Kidney Cancer information system, a collaborative prospective cohort populated by 14 major Canadian centers, between January 2011 to February 2020 were included. Patients were excluded if they had non-RCC histology, multiple tumors, contralateral tumors, metastatic disease or previous history of RCC. Patient demographic, clinical, and surgical information were summarized and compared. Cox-proportional hazards was used for multivariable analysis.

Results: During study period, 2759 patients received radical nephrectomy, of these, 831(30.1%) had concomitant adrenalectomy. Pathological adrenal involvement was identified in 102 (3.7%overall; 12.3%of adrenalectomy). Median follow-up was 21.6months (Interquartile range 7.0-46.5). Patients with adrenalectomy had higher venous tumor thrombus (30.3% vs 9.6%; P <.0001), higher T stage (71.1% vs 43.4% pT3/4; P <.0001), lymph node metastases (17.6% vs 10.7%; P = .0035), Fuhrman grades (71.4% of Fuhrman grades 3/4 vs 56.2%; P <.0001) and increased proportion of clear cell histology (79.3% vs 74.5%; P = .0074) compared to the no adrenalectomy group. Adrenalectomy patients had higher risk of recurrence (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.04-1.47; P = .019) and no difference in survival (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.86-1.38, P = .48).

Conclusion: Adrenalectomy is not associated with better oncological outcome of recurrence/survival. Adrenalectomy should be reserved for patients with radiographic adrenal involvement and/or intra-operative adrenal involvement.
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June 2021

Determining generalizability of the Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) to the entire Canadian kidney cancer population.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Oct;14(10):E499-E506

Department of Medicine and Urology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Introduction: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) has prospectively collected data on patients with renal tumors since January 1, 2011 from 16 sites within 14 academic centers in six provinces. Canadian kidney cancer experts have used CKCis data to address several research questions. The goal of this study was to determine if the CKCis cohort is representative of the entire Canadian kidney cancer population, specifically regarding demographic and geographic distributions.

Methods: The CKCis prospective cohort was analyzed up to December 31, 2018. Baseline demographics and tumor characteristics were analyzed, including location of patients' residence at the time of CKCis entry. Geographic data is presented by province, rural vs. urban via postal code information (2 digit=0) and by Canadian urban boundary files. To determine the proportion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients that CKCis captures, CKCis accruals were compared to projected Canadian Cancer Society RCC incidence in 2016-2017 and the incidence from the 2016 Canadian Cancer Registry. To determine if the CKCis baseline data is representative, it was compared to registry data and other published data when registry data was not available.

Results: This CKCis cohort includes 10 298 eligible patients: 66.6% male, median age 62.6 years; 14.6% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis and 70.4% had clear-cell carcinomas. The CKCis cohort captures about 1250 patients per year, which represents approximately 20% of the total kidney cancer incidence. The proportion of patients captured per province did vary from 13-43%. Rural patients make up 17% of patients, with some baseline differences between rural and urban patients. There appears to be no major differences between CKCis patient demographics and disease characteristics compared to national data sources. Canadian heat maps detailing patient location are presented.

Conclusions: CKCis contains prospective data on >10 000 Canadian kidney cancer patients, making it a valuable resource for kidney cancer research. The baseline demographic and geographic data do appear to include a broad cross-section of patients and seem to be highly representative of the Canadian kidney cancer population. Moving forward, future projects will include determining if CKCis cancer outcomes are also representative of the entire Canadian kidney cancer population and studying variations across provinces and within rural vs. urban areas.
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October 2020

Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada consensus statement on the role of adjuvant therapy after nephrectomy for high-risk, non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A comprehensive analysis of the literature and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Can Urol Assoc J 2018 Jun;12(6):173-180

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Introduction: The Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada (KCRNC) collaborated to prepare this consensus statement about the use of target agents as adjuvant therapy in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (nmRCC) after nephrectomy. We reviewed the published data and performed a meta-analysis of studies that focused on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

Methods: A systematic literature search identified seven trials on adjuvant target therapy in nmRCC. Three trials, the ASSURE, S-TRAC, and PROTECT, focused on VEGFR TKIs and represented the focus of the study, including a meta-analysis combining their data on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: The ASSURE trial showed no DFS or OS benefit of TKIs over placebo after one year of adjuvant sorafenib or sunitinib. In contrast, the S-TRAC trial showed improved DFS after one year of adjuvant sunitinib using central review process, but not using investigator review process. No OS benefit was recorded in either study. Recently, the PROTECT trial also showed no DFS or OS benefit when one year of adjuvant pazopanib was compared to placebo. Meta-analyses of the pooled DFS and OS estimates from all three trials resulted in DFS and OS hazard ratios of 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.04) and 1.04 (95% CI 0.89-1.22), respectively.

Conclusions: Data from three available clinical trials of adjuvant VEGFR TKIs vs. placebo do not currently support the use of adjuvant TKI therapy as standard of care after nephrectomy for nmRCC. At this time, adjuvant TKI-based adjuvant therapy is not recommended for routine use after nephrectomy for high-risk nmRCC, but highly motivated patients may benefit from a discussion with their oncologist regarding the risks and benefits of adjuvant TKI.
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June 2018

A Phase II, Randomized, Open-Label Study of Neoadjuvant Degarelix versus LHRH Agonist in Prostate Cancer Patients Prior to Radical Prostatectomy.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 04 18;23(8):1974-1980. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada.

Degarelix, a new gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist with demonstrated efficacy as first-line treatment in the management of high-risk prostate cancer, possesses some theoretical advantages over luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues in terms of avoiding "testosterone flare" and lower follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. We set out to determine whether preoperative degarelix influenced surrogates of disease control in a randomized phase II study. Thirty-nine patients were randomly assigned to one of three different neoadjuvant arms: degarelix only, degarelix/bicalutamide, or LHRH agonist/bicalutamide. Treatments were given for 3 months before prostatectomy. Patients had localized prostate cancer and had chosen radical prostatectomy as primary treatment. The primary end point was treatment effect on intratumoral dihydrotestosterone levels. Intratumoral DHT levels were higher in the degarelix arm than both the degarelix/bicalutamide and LHRH agonist/bicalutamide arms (0.87 ng/g vs. 0.26 ng/g and 0.23 ng/g, < 0.01). No significant differences existed for other intratumoral androgens, such as testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone. Patients in the degarelix-only arm had higher AMACR levels on immunohistochemical analysis ( = 0.01). Serum FSH levels were lower after 12 weeks of therapy in both degarelix arms than the LHRH agonist/bicalutamide arm (0.55 and 0.65 vs. 3.65, < 0.01), and inhibin B levels were lower in the degarelix/bicalutamide arm than the LHRH agonist/bicalutamide arm (82.14 vs. 126.67, = 0.02). Neoadjuvant degarelix alone, compared with use of LHRH agonist and bicalutamide, is associated with higher levels of intratumoral dihydrotestosterone, despite similar testosterone levels. Further studies that evaluate the mechanisms behind these results are needed. .
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April 2017