Publications by authors named "Ranjana H Advani"

141 Publications

Characteristics and Outcome of Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma in North America: A Retrospective Multi-Institutional Experience.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Division of Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA.

Background: Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is rare and clinicaldata from non-Asian countries are lacking. It is unclear whether outcomes and diseasenatural history is similar to reported Asian series. We assessed characteristics and outcomes of patients with ENKTL from major North American centers.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with newly-diagnosedCD56 + ENKTL and studied disease characteristics and clinical outcomes.

Results: 121 patients with ENKTL diagnosed between June 1990 and November 2012 were identified. Eighty-three patients (69%) had stage I/II disease and were treatedwith combined modality therapy (CMT) (n=53), chemotherapy alone (CT) (n=14) orradiotherapy alone (RT) (n=16). Thirty-eight patients (31%) had stage III/IV diseaseand were treated with CMT (n=12), CT (n=23), or RT (n=3). The median follow-up forthe entire cohort was 51 months. Patients with stage I/II disease, compared to thosewith stage III/IV disease, had superior 2-year progression free survival (PFS) 43% vs19% (p=0.03) and overall survival (OS) 59% vs 29% (p=0.004). Outcomes were similarfor stage I/II patients who received CMT vs RT alone with 2-year PFS (53% vs 47%;p=0.91) and OS (67% vs 67%; p=0.58). No significant differences in outcomes werenoted based on race/ethnicity.

Conclusions: This series represents a large experience of ENKTL treated at several major North American academic centers.

Our Data Are Consistent With Asian Studies: 1) majority of patients present with early-stage disease; 2) overall poor outcome regardless of race/ethnicity; 3) CMT likely yields favorable outcomes for suitable candidates with early-stage disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.10.004DOI Listing
October 2021

Venetoclax in Previously Treated Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 18:JCO2101194. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Bing Center for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Purpose: BCL2 is overexpressed and confers prosurvival signaling in malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Venetoclax is a potent BCL2 antagonist and triggers in vitro apoptosis of WM cells. The activity of venetoclax in WM remains to be clarified.

Patients And Methods: We performed a multicenter, prospective phase II study of venetoclax in patients with previously treated WM (NCT02677324). Venetoclax was dose-escalated from 200 mg to a maximum dose of 800 mg daily for up to 2 years.

Results: Thirty-two patients were evaluable, including 16 previously exposed to Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKis). All patients were -mutated, and 17 carried mutations. The median time to minor and major responses was 1.9 and 5.1 months, respectively. Previous exposure to BTKis was associated with a longer time to response (4.5 1.4 months; < .001). The overall, major, and very good partial response rates were 84%, 81%, and 19%, respectively. The major response rate was lower in those with refractory versus relapsed disease (50% 95%; = .007). The median follow-up time was 33 months, and the median progression-free survival was 30 months. mutations did not affect treatment response or progression-free survival. The only recurring grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse event was neutropenia (n = 14; 45%), including one episode of febrile neutropenia. Laboratory tumor lysis without clinical sequelae occurred in one patient. No deaths have occurred.

Conclusion: Venetoclax is safe and highly active in patients with previously treated WM, including those who previously received BTKis. mutation status did not affect treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.01194DOI Listing
November 2021

NCCN Guidelines® Insights: B-Cell Lymphomas, Version 5.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 11;19(11):1218-1230

Moffitt Cancer Center.

In the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas has resulted in the development of novel targeted therapies, such as small molecule inhibitors of select kinases in the B-cell receptor pathway, antibody-drug conjugates, and small molecules that target a variety of proteins (eg, CD-19, EZH2, and XPO-1-mediated nuclear export). Anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, first approved for relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, has also emerged as a novel treatment option for R/R follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. These NCCN Guideline Insights highlight the new targeted therapy options included in the NCCN Guidelines for B-Cell Lymphomas for the treatment of R/R disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0054DOI Listing
November 2021

The landscape of tumor cell states and ecosystems in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Cancer Cell 2021 Oct 30;39(10):1422-1437.e10. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Institute for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Biological heterogeneity in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is partly driven by cell-of-origin subtypes and associated genomic lesions, but also by diverse cell types and cell states in the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, dissecting these cell states and their clinical relevance at scale remains challenging. Here, we implemented EcoTyper, a machine-learning framework integrating transcriptome deconvolution and single-cell RNA sequencing, to characterize clinically relevant DLBCL cell states and ecosystems. Using this approach, we identified five cell states of malignant B cells that vary in prognostic associations and differentiation status. We also identified striking variation in cell states for 12 other lineages comprising the TME and forming cell state interactions in stereotyped ecosystems. While cell-of-origin subtypes have distinct TME composition, DLBCL ecosystems capture clinical heterogeneity within existing subtypes and extend beyond cell-of-origin and genotypic classes. These results resolve the DLBCL microenvironment at systems-level resolution and identify opportunities for therapeutic targeting (https://ecotyper.stanford.edu/lymphoma).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.08.011DOI Listing
October 2021

Multicenter analysis of geriatric fitness and real-world outcomes in older patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 09;5(18):3623-3632

Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis across 10 US academic medical centers to evaluate treatment patterns and outcomes in patients age ≥60 years with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) from 2010-2018. Among 244 eligible patients, median age was 68, 63% had advanced stage (III/IV), 96% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) 0-2, and 12% had documented loss of ≥1 activity of daily living (ADL). Medical comorbidities were assessed by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric (CIRS-G), where n = 44 (18%) had total scores ≥10. Using multivariable Cox models, only ADL loss predicted shorter progression-free (PFS; hazard ratio [HR] 2.13, P = .007) and overall survival (OS; HR 2.52, P = .02). Most patients (n = 203, 83%) received conventional chemotherapy regimens, including doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD; 56%), AVD (14%), and AVD with brentuximab vedotin (BV; 9%). Compared to alternative therapies, conventional regimens significantly improved PFS (HR 0.46, P = .0007) and OS (HR 0.31, P = .0003). Survival was similar following conventional chemotherapy in those ages 60-69 vs ≥70: PFS HR 0.88, P = .63; OS HR 0.73, P = .55. Early treatment discontinuation due to toxicity was more common with CIRS-G ≥10 (28% vs 12%, P = .016) or documented geriatric syndrome (28% vs 13%, P = .02). A competing risk analysis demonstrated improved disease-related survival with conventional therapy (HR 0.29, P = .02) and higher mortality from causes other than disease or treatment with high CIRS-G or geriatric syndromes. This study suggests conventional chemotherapy regimens remain a standard of care in fit older patients with cHL, and highlights the importance of geriatric assessments in defining fitness for cHL therapy going forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004645DOI Listing
September 2021

Outcomes and prognostic factors in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: final report from the international T-cell Project.

Blood 2021 07;138(3):213-220

Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with Transplant Surgery, Oncology and Regenerative Medicine Relevance (CHIMOMO), University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a unique subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) with distinct clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. We performed a subset analysis of 282 patients with AITL enrolled between 2006 and 2018 in the international prospective T-cell Project (NCT01142674). The primary and secondary end points were 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively. We analyzed the prognostic impact of clinical covariates and progression of disease within 24 months (POD24) and developed a novel prognostic score. The median age was 64 years, and 90% of patients had advanced-stage disease. Eighty-one percent received anthracycline-based regimens, and 13% underwent consolidative autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in first complete remission (CR1). Five-year OS and PFS estimates were 44% and 32%, respectively, with improved outcomes for patients who underwent ASCT in CR1. In multivariate analysis, age ≥60 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >2, elevated C-reactive protein, and elevated β2 microglobulin were associated with inferior outcomes. A novel prognostic score (AITL score) combining these factors defined low-, intermediate-, and high-risk subgroups with 5-year OS estimates of 63%, 54%, and 21%, respectively, with greater discriminant power than established prognostic indices. Finally, POD24 was a powerful prognostic factor with 5-year OS of 63% for patients without POD24 compared with only 6% for patients with POD24 (P < .0001). These data will require validation in a prospective cohort of homogeneously treated patients. Optimal treatment of AITL continues to be an unmet need, and novel therapeutic approaches are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493974PMC
July 2021

DLBCL-Morph: Morphological features computed using deep learning for an annotated digital DLBCL image set.

Sci Data 2021 05 20;8(1):135. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, United States.

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Though histologically DLBCL shows varying morphologies, no morphologic features have been consistently demonstrated to correlate with prognosis. We present a morphologic analysis of histology sections from 209 DLBCL cases with associated clinical and cytogenetic data. Duplicate tissue core sections were arranged in tissue microarrays (TMAs), and replicate sections were stained with H&E and immunohistochemical stains for CD10, BCL6, MUM1, BCL2, and MYC. The TMAs are accompanied by pathologist-annotated regions-of-interest (ROIs) that identify areas of tissue representative of DLBCL. We used a deep learning model to segment all tumor nuclei in the ROIs, and computed several geometric features for each segmented nucleus. We fit a Cox proportional hazards model to demonstrate the utility of these geometric features in predicting survival outcome, and found that it achieved a C-index (95% CI) of 0.635 (0.574,0.691). Our finding suggests that geometric features computed from tumor nuclei are of prognostic importance, and should be validated in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00915-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137959PMC
May 2021

Brentuximab Vedotin Combined With Chemotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Early-Stage, Unfavorable-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 07 28;39(20):2257-2265. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: To improve curability and limit long-term adverse effects for newly diagnosed early-stage (ES), unfavorable-risk Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: In this multicenter study with four sequential cohorts, patients received four cycles of brentuximab vedotin (BV) and doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD). If positron emission tomography (PET)-4-negative, patients received 30-Gy involved-site radiotherapy in cohort 1, 20-Gy involved-site radiotherapy in cohort 2, 30-Gy consolidation-volume radiotherapy in cohort 3, and no radiotherapy in cohort 4. Eligible patients had ES, unfavorable-risk disease. Bulk disease defined by Memorial Sloan Kettering criteria (> 7 cm in maximal transverse or coronal diameter on computed tomography) was not required for cohorts 1 and 2 but was for cohorts 3 and 4. The primary end point was to evaluate safety for cohort 1 and to evaluate complete response rate by PET for cohorts 2-4.

Results: Of the 117 patients enrolled, 116 completed chemotherapy, with the median age of 32 years: 50% men, 98% stage II, 86% Memorial Sloan Kettering-defined disease bulk, 27% traditional bulk (> 10 cm), 52% elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 21% extranodal involvement, and 56% > 2 involved lymph node sites. The complete response rate in cohorts 1-4 was 93%, 100%, 93%, and 97%, respectively. With median follow-up of 3.8 years (5.9, 4.5, 2.5, and 2.2 years for cohorts 1-4), the overall 2-year progression-free and overall survival were 94% and 99%, respectively. In cohorts 1-4, the 2-year progression-free survival was 93%, 97%, 90%, and 97%, respectively. Adverse events included neutropenia (44%), febrile neutropenia (8%), and peripheral neuropathy (54%), which was largely reversible.

Conclusion: BV + AVD × four cycles is a highly active and well-tolerated treatment program for ES, unfavorable-risk Hodgkin lymphoma, including bulky disease. The efficacy of BV + AVD supports the safe reduction or elimination of consolidative radiation among PET-4-negative patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00108DOI Listing
July 2021

Brentuximab vedotin in combination with nivolumab in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: 3-year study results.

Blood 2021 08;138(6):427-438

City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA.

This phase 1-2 study evaluated brentuximab vedotin (BV) combined with nivolumab (Nivo) as first salvage therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). In parts 1 and 2, patients received staggered dosing of BV and Nivo in cycle 1, followed by same-day dosing in cycles 2 to 4. In part 3, both study drugs were dosed, same day, for all 4 cycles. At end of study treatment, patients could undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) per investigator discretion. The objective response rate (ORR; N = 91) was 85%, with 67% achieving a complete response (CR). At a median follow-up of 34.3 months, the estimated progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 3 years was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65% to 86%) and 91% (95% CI, 79% to 96%) for patients undergoing ASCT directly after study treatment. Overall survival at 3 years was 93% (95% CI, 85% to 97%). The most common adverse events (AEs) prior to ASCT were nausea (52%) and infusion-related reactions (43%), all grade 1 or 2. A total of 16 patients (18%) had immune-related AEs that required systemic corticosteroid treatment. Peripheral blood immune signatures were consistent with an activated T-cell response. Median gene expression of CD30 in tumors was higher in patients who responded compared with those who did not. Longer-term follow-up of BV and Nivo as a first salvage regimen shows durable efficacy and impressive PFS, especially in patients who proceeded directly to transplant, without additional toxicity concerns. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02572167.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009178DOI Listing
August 2021

Correlation of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography parameters and clinical features to predict outcome for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Jul;42(7):792-799

Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Purpose: To determine if the correlation between different metabolic parameters along with clinical features can create an improved model of prognostication for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients with DLBCL. All patients had a baseline and an interim 18F-FDG PET/CT. Seventy-nine also had an end-of-treatment PET/CT (EOT-PET). For each scan, we collected standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), SUVmaxsum, SUVmeansum, MTVsum, and TLGsum. These metabolic parameters were combined with clinical features in order to identify a new prognostic model. The predictive value of interim PET and EOT-PET using Deauville score was also determined.

Results: Baseline SUVmaxsum and SUVmeansum were significantly correlated to overall survival (OS) (P value = 0.012 and 0.011, respectively). The percentage change of MTV and TLG sum from baseline to EOT was predictive of progression-free survival (PFS) (P value = 0.003 and 0.022, respectively). The combination of either Deauville score at the EOT and SUVmaxsum at baseline significantly predicted OS (P value <0.001); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, presence of extranodal disease and percentage change of MTVsum from baseline to EOT were significant predictors of PFS (P value = 0.001).

Conclusions: SUVmaxsum and SUVmeansum at baseline and percentage change in MTV and TLG sum from baseline to EOT are predictors of outcome in DLBCL patients. These metabolic parameters combined to Deauville score and some clinical features could be used together to stratify patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0000000000001398DOI Listing
July 2021

Autologous stem cell transplantation after anti-PD-1 therapy for multiply relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(6):1648-1659

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ.

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) can be curative for patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Based on studies suggesting that anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can sensitize patients to subsequent chemotherapy, we hypothesized that anti-PD-1 therapy before ASCT would result in acceptable outcomes among high-risk patients who progressed on or responded insufficiently to ≥1 salvage regimen, including chemorefractory patients who are traditionally considered poor ASCT candidates. We retrospectively identified 78 HL patients who underwent ASCT after receiving an anti-PD-1 mAb (alone or in combination) as third-line or later therapy across 22 centers. Chemorefractory disease was common, including 42 patients (54%) refractory to ≥2 consecutive systemic therapies immediately before anti-PD-1 treatment. Fifty-eight (74%) patients underwent ASCT after anti-PD-1 treatment, while 20 patients (26%) received additional therapy after PD-1 blockade and before ASCT. Patients received a median of 4 systemic therapies (range, 3-7) before ASCT, and 31 patients (41%) had a positive pre-ASCT positron emission tomography (PET) result. After a median post-ASCT follow-up of 19.6 months, the 18-month progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 81% (95% CI, 69-89) and 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87-99), respectively. Favorable outcomes were observed for patients who were refractory to 2 consecutive therapies immediately before PD-1 blockade (18-month PFS, 78%), had a positive pre-ASCT PET (18-month PFS, 75%), or received ≥4 systemic therapies before ASCT (18-month PFS, 73%), while PD-1 nonresponders had inferior outcomes (18-month PFS, 51%). In this high-risk cohort, ASCT after anti-PD-1 therapy was associated with excellent outcomes, even among heavily pretreated, previously chemorefractory patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993097PMC
March 2021

Stage I-II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab and chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 08 23;62(8):1840-1849. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

We set to identify prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort of consecutive patients with stage I-II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy from 2001 through 2017 at our institution. We identified 143 patients with median follow-up of 7.7 years. The majority were male (59.4%), had stage II (53.1%), had stage-modified IPI 0-1 (smIPI, 58.1%), and had non-bulky disease (<7 cm, 68.5%). 99 patients (69.2%) received rituximab-chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, and 44 patients (30.8%) received rituximab-chemotherapy alone. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 81.2% and 88.9%, respectively. The 5-year PFS for those with smIPI 0-1 versus 2-4 was 89.5% versus 69.7%, respectively ( = 0.005). Bulky disease (≥7 cm) was associated with worse PFS and OS on univariable and multivariable analyses ( < 0.05). Patients with smIPI 0-1 without bulky disease have excellent outcomes. However, patients with smIPI 2-4 or bulky disease have a high risk of progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1876859DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-Term Outcomes of Patients With Early Stage Nonbulky Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With Combined Modality Therapy in the Stanford V Trials (the G4 and G5 Studies).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 06 30;110(2):444-451. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Purpose: Combined modality therapy (CMT) is standard therapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (ESHL). We previously reported excellent outcomes with the abbreviated Stanford V regimen. Herein we report updated results with median follow-up >10 years on survival, therapy-related late effects, and impact of disease risk factors on patient outcomes.

Methods And Materials: The G4 and G5 studies enrolled patients with stage I-IIA nonbulky ESHL. Patients received 8 weeks of Stanford V chemotherapy followed by 30 Gy modified involved-field radiation therapy (mIFRT) (G4) or Stanford V-C + 20 Gy mIFRT (G5). Patients were categorized as favorable or unfavorable risk per German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) criteria and outcomes between groups compared.

Results: A total of 129 patients were enrolled (68 favorable and 61 unfavorable risk). In the G4 study (n = 87), at median follow-up of 19.7 years, 5-, 10-, and 15-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 95.4%/97.7%, 91.8%/96.5%, and 91.8%/95.3%, respectively. In the G5 study (n = 42), at median follow-up of 13.5 years, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year PFS and OS were 92.9%/100%, 92.9%/100%, and 88.4%/91.9%, respectively. PFS (P = .86) and OS (P = .86) were not significantly different between studies. There were also no significant differences between studies in patients with favorable or unfavorable risk for PFS (F: P = .53; U: P = .96), OS (F: P = .99; U: P = .78), secondary malignancies (F: P = .74; U: P = 1.0), and cardiovascular complications (F: no cases; U: P = 1.0).

Conclusions: The G4 and G5 studies achieve high rates of durable remission; 20 versus 30 Gy mIFRT and cyclophosphamide substituted for mechlorethamine did not compromise nodal control, PFS, or OS in both favorable and unfavorable risk disease. These results support the efficacy of CMT in early-stage disease and lower-dose radiation therapy in patients with favorable and nonbulky unfavorable ESHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.12.039DOI Listing
June 2021

Partial response or better at six months is prognostic of superior progression-free survival in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia patients treated with ibrutinib.

Br J Haematol 2021 02 18;192(3):542-550. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Bing Center for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Ibrutinib is associated with durable responses in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM). We hypothesized that response depth is predictive of progression-free survival (PFS) in WM patients treated with ibrutinib. Using landmark analyses, we evaluated response depth in two cohorts of WM patients treated with ibrutinib monotherapy. The learning cohort was composed of 93 participants from two clinical trials, and the validation cohort of 190 consecutive patients treated off clinical trial. Rates of partial response (PR) or better at six months in learning and validation cohorts were 64% and 71% respectively (P = 0·29). In the learning cohort, three-year PFS rates for patients who attained PR or better at six months versus not were 81% and 57% respectively (P = 0·009). In the validation cohort, three-year PFS rates for patients who attained PR or better at six months versus not were 83% and 54% respectively (P = 0·008). In multivariate analyses, attaining PR or better at six months was associated with superior PFS in the learning [hazard ratio (HR) 0·38; P = 0·01] and validation cohorts (HR 0·18; P = 0·004). Attaining PR at six months on ibrutinib emerges as an intermediate outcome of interest and should be validated as surrogate for PFS in clinical trials evaluating Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors in WM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17225DOI Listing
February 2021

Consensus treatment recommendations from the tenth International Workshop for Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Nov;7(11):e827-e837

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia is an indolent B-cell lymphoma with clearly defined criteria for diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and response, which was established by consensus panels at previous International Workshops for Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (IWWM). The treatment options for Waldenström macroglobulinaemia continued to be researched after the publication of the eighth IWWM consensus recommendations in 2016, and at the tenth IWWM in New York, USA (October, 2018) an international consensus panel was formed to update treatment recommendations. Participants were selected as members of the consensus panel based on their expertise on Waldenström macroglobulinaemia. The initial live discussion took place during the tenth IWWM meeting and two separate teleconferences were held in June, 2019, and January, 2020, to refine recommendations. No external or financial support was received for the elaboration of these recommendations. According to these updated consensus recommendations, alkylating drugs (bendamustine, cyclophosphamide) and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, ixazomib), both in combination with rituximab, as well as BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib), alone or in combination with rituximab, are preferred first-line therapy options for symptomatic patients with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia. In previously treated patients with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia who had an initial durable response, reuse of a previous regimen or another primary therapy regimen are acceptable options. Novel BTK inhibitors (acalabrutinib, zanubrutinib, tirabrutinib) and the BCL2 antagonist venetoclax appear safe and active, and represent emerging options for the treatment of Waldenström macroglobulinaemia. The choice of therapy should be guided by the patient's clinical profile, genomic features, and drug availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30224-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Pembrolizumab followed by AVD in untreated early unfavorable and advanced-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood 2021 03;137(10):1318-1326

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Pembrolizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody targeting programmed death-1 protein, has demonstrated efficacy in relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). To assess the complete metabolic response (CMR) rate and safety of pembrolizumab monotherapy in newly diagnosed cHL, we conducted a multicenter, single-arm, phase 2 investigator-initiated trial of sequential pembrolizumab and doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD) chemotherapy. Patients ≥18 years of age with untreated, early, unfavorable, or advanced-stage disease were eligible for treatment. Thirty patients (early unfavorable stage, n = 12; advanced stage, n = 18) were treated with 3 cycles of pembrolizumab monotherapy followed by AVD for 4 to 6 cycles, depending on stage and bulk. Twelve had either large mediastinal masses or bulky disease (>10 cm). After pembrolizumab monotherapy, 11 patients (37%) demonstrated CMRs, and an additional 7 of 28 (25%) patients with quantifiable positron emission tomography computed tomography scans had >90% reduction in metabolic tumor volume. All patients achieved CMR after 2 cycles of AVD and maintained their responses at the end of treatment. With a median follow-up of 22.5 months (range, 14.2-30.6) there were no changes in therapy, progressions, or deaths. No patients received consolidation radiotherapy, including those with bulky disease. Therapy was well tolerated. The most common immune-related adverse events were grade 1 rash (n = 6) and grade 2 infusion reactions (n = 4). One patient had reversible grade 4 transaminitis and a second had reversible Bell's palsy. Brief pembrolizumab monotherapy followed by AVD was both highly effective and safe in patients with newly diagnosed cHL, including those with bulky disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03226249.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955404PMC
March 2021

CD20-Negative Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 20-Year Consecutive Case Series From a Tertiary Cancer Center.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 06;145(6):753-758

From the Department of Pathology (Menke, Natkunam, Warnke, Gratzinger), at Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California.

Context.—: Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare, indolent Hodgkin lymphoma subtype with distinct clinicopathologic features and treatment paradigms. The neoplastic lymphocyte-predominant cells typically express bright CD20 and other B-cell antigens, which distinguishes them from Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells of lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

Objective.—: To characterize the clinicopathologic features of CD20-negative NLPHL at a single institution.

Design.—: A retrospective search for CD20-negative NLPHL in our pathology archives and medical records was conducted.

Results.—: Of 486 NLPHL patients identified with CD20 available for review, 14 (2.8%) had LP cells with absent CD20 expression. Patients with prior rituximab administration (n = 7) and insufficient clinical history (n = 1) were excluded, leaving 6 patients with rituximab-naïve, CD20-negative NLPHL. A broad immunohistochemical panel showed the LP cells in all cases expressed B-cell antigens, particularly Oct-2, although PAX5 and CD79a were frequently also dim. CD30, CD15, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs were negative in all evaluated cases. Two patients had high-risk variant immunoarchitectural pattern D. One patient had extranodal disease, involving the spleen and bone, and was suspected to have large cell transformation. Standard NLPHL therapy was given, including local radiation and/or chemotherapy. Of 5 patients with available follow-up, 4 are alive in complete remission after therapy, and 1 is alive with relapsed disease.

Conclusions.—: NLPHL can lack CD20 de novo without prior rituximab therapy. In such cases, extensive immunophenotyping helps distinguish NLPHL from lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma, which differ in clinical behavior and therapy. In our series, CD20-negative NLPHL showed both classic and variant histologic patterns and the expected range of clinical behavior seen in NLPHL, including 1 case with suspected large cell transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0135-OADOI Listing
June 2021

Ipilimumab, nivolumab, and brentuximab vedotin combination therapies in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: phase 1 results of an open-label, multicentre, phase 1/2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Sep;7(9):e660-e670

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USA.

Background: Recognising that the immune suppressive microenvironment promotes tumour growth in Hodgkin lymphoma, we hypothesised that activating immunity might augment the activity of targeted chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of combinations of brentuximab vedotin with nivolumab or ipilimumab, or both in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 trial, patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma aged 18 years or older who had relapsed after at least one line of therapy, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower, and adequate organ and marrow function, with no pulmonary dysfunction were eligible for inclusion. Phase 1 primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicities of brentuximab vedotin combined with ipilimumab (ipilimumab group), nivolumab (nivolumab group), or both (triplet therapy group) using a 3 + 3 dose escalation design with expansion cohorts. During the dose escalation phase, patients were enrolled sequentially into one of six cohorts: in the ipilimumab group fixed brentuximab vedotin 1·8 mg/kg with ipilimumab 1 mg/kg (cohort A) or 3 mg/kg (cohort B); in the nivolumab group fixed nivolumab 3 mg/kg with brentuximab vedotin 1·2 mg/kg (cohort D) or 1·8 mg/kg (cohort E); and in the triplet therapy group fixed nivolumab 3 mg/kg and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg with brentuximab vedotin 1·2 mg/kg (cohort G) or 1·8 mg/kg (cohort H). Additional patients were enrolled in the expansion phase at the same doses of cohorts B, E, and H. All drugs were given intravenously; brentuximab vedotin and nivolumab were given every 3 weeks, ipilimumab was given every 6 weeks in the ipilimumab group and every 12 weeks in the triplet therapy group. All eligible and treated patients were included in the analysis. This phase 1/2 study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01896999. The phase 2, randomised portion of the trial is still enrolling.

Findings: Between March 7, 2014, and Dec 28, 2017, 64 patients were enrolled; two patients in the ipilimumab group and one patient in the nivolumab group were excluded due to ineligibility after enrolment and 61 were evaluable. A total of six dose limiting toxicities were reported in four patients, and the doses used in cohorts B, E, and H were established as maximum tolerated doses and patients were subsequently enrolled onto expansion cohorts (C, F, and I) with these schedules. There were ten (43%) grade 3-4 treatment related adverse events in the ipilimumab group, three (16%) in the nivolumab group, and 11 (50%) in the triplet therapy group including: eight (13%) of 64 patients reporting rash, and colitis, gastritis, pancreatitis and arthritis, and diabetic ketoacidosis each occurring in one (2%) patient. There were two (3%) treatment related deaths, one in the nivolumab group and one in the triplet therapy group. The overall response rate was 76% (95% CI 53-92) in the ipilimumab group, 89% (65-99) in the nivolumab group, and 82% (60-95) in the triplet therapy group, and the complete response rate was 57% (95% CI 34-78%) in the ipilimumab group, 61% (36-83%) in the nivolumab group, and 73% (50-89%) in the triplet therapy group. With a median follow-up of 2·6 years (IQR 1·8-2·9) in the ipilimumab group, 2·4 years (2·2-2·6) in the nivolumab group, and 1·7 years (1·6-1·9) in the triplet therapy group, median progression-free survival is 1·2 years (95% CI 1·7-not reached) in the ipilimumab group, but was not reached in the other two treatment groups. Median overall survival has not been reached in any of the groups.

Interpretation: There are clear differences in activity and toxicity of the three combination regimens. The tolerability and preliminary activity for the two most active regimens, brentuximab vedotin with nivolumab and the triplet therapy, are being compared in a randomised phase 2 trial (NCT01896999).

Funding: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network and the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30221-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737486PMC
September 2020

Consensus Statement on the Management of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Hemasphere 2020 Aug 30;4(4):e433. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Bing Center for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the International Workshop on Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (IWWM) Treatment Recommendations Panel felt the need to provide a consensus statement for the management of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM) patients during this challenging time. We followed the current recommendations by the American Society of Hematology, which have been modified accordingly to fit the specific realities associated with the management of WM. In this Consensus Statement, the Panel addresses questions related to treatment initiation, preferred therapies, minimizing visit to clinics and infusions centers, supportive care and guidance for WM patients in clinical trials. Finally, we also provide information on timing and appropriateness of testing and management of COVID-19 infected patients, as well as ways to get physicians and patients involved in registry studies that could help others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410025PMC
August 2020

Checkpoint Blockade Treatment May Sensitize Hodgkin Lymphoma to Subsequent Therapy.

Oncologist 2020 10 28;25(10):878-885. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Targeted therapies and checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) have shown efficacy for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in the relapsed and refractory (R/R) setting, but once discontinued owing to progression or side effects, it is unclear how successful further therapies will be. Moreover, there are no data on optimal sequencing of these treatments with standard therapies and other novel agents. In a multicenter, retrospective analysis, we investigated whether exposure to CBT could sensitize HL to subsequent therapy.

Materials And Methods: Seventeen centers across the U.S. and Canada retrospectively queried medical records for eligible patients. The primary aim was to evaluate the overall response rate (ORR) to post-CBT treatment using the Lugano criteria. Secondary aims included progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response, and overall survival (OS).

Results: Eighty-one patients were included. Seventy-two percent had stage III-IV disease, and the population was heavily pretreated with a median of four therapies before CBT. Most patients (65%) discontinued CBT owing to progression. The ORR to post-CBT therapy was 62%, with a median PFS of 6.3 months and median OS of 21 months. Post-CBT treatment regimens consisted of chemotherapy (44%), targeted agents (19%), immunotherapy (15%), transplant conditioning (14%), chemotherapy/targeted combination (7%), and clinical trials (1%). No significant difference in OS was found when stratified by post-CBT regimen.

Conclusion: In a heavily pretreated R/R HL population, CBT may sensitize patients to subsequent treatment, even after progression on CBT. Post-CBT regimen category did not impact OS. This may be a novel treatment strategy, which warrants further investigation in prospective clinical trials.

Implications For Practice: Novel, life-prolonging treatment strategies in relapsed and refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are greatly desired. The results of this multicenter analysis concur with a smaller, earlier report that checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) use in R/R HL may sensitize patients to their subsequent treatment. This approach may potentially enhance therapeutic options or to bridge patients to transplant. Prospective data are warranted prior to practice implementation. As more work is done in this area, we may also be able to optimize sequencing of CBT and novel agents in the treatment paradigm to minimize treatment-related toxicity and thus improve patient quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543382PMC
October 2020

Autologous tumor cell vaccine induces antitumor T cell immune responses in patients with mantle cell lymphoma: A phase I/II trial.

J Exp Med 2020 09;217(9)

Division of Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Here, we report on the results of a phase I/II trial (NCT00490529) for patients with mantle cell lymphoma who, having achieved remission after immunochemotherapy, were vaccinated with irradiated, CpG-activated tumor cells. Subsequently, vaccine-primed lymphocytes were collected and reinfused after a standard autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The primary endpoint was detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) within 1 yr after ASCT at the previously validated threshold of ≥1 malignant cell per 10,000 leukocyte equivalents. Of 45 evaluable patients, 40 (89%) were found to be MRD negative, and the MRD-positive patients experienced early subsequent relapse. The vaccination induced antitumor CD8 T cell immune responses in 40% of patients, and these were associated with favorable clinical outcomes. Patients with high tumor PD-L1 expression after in vitro exposure to CpG had inferior outcomes. Vaccination with CpG-stimulated autologous tumor cells followed by the adoptive transfer of vaccine-primed lymphocytes after ASCT is feasible and safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478738PMC
September 2020

A Three-Arm Randomized Phase II Study of Bendamustine/Rituximab with Bortezomib Induction or Lenalidomide Continuation in Untreated Follicular Lymphoma: ECOG-ACRIN E2408.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 09 12;26(17):4468-4477. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Purpose: We sought to improve upon frontline bendamustine/rituximab (BR) induction therapy followed by rituximab maintenance in untreated high-risk follicular lymphoma (FL).

Patients And Methods: Patients were randomized to BR induction followed by 2-year rituximab maintenance (BR-R), BR with bortezomib and rituximab maintenance (BVR-R), or BR followed by lenalidomide (1 year) with rituximab maintenance (BR-LR). Dual primary objectives were complete remission (CR) rate and 1-year disease-free survival (DFS); 289 patients enrolled (NCT01216683).

Results: For induction, 92%, 87%, and 86% of patients randomized to BR-R, BVR-R, or BR-LR received six cycles, respectively. CR rate with BR versus BVR induction was 62% versus 75%, respectively ( = 0.04). One-year DFS rates with BR-R versus BR-LR were 85% versus 67%, respectively ( = 0.0009). This was due to an imbalance in CR rates post-BR induction and discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs). The most common grade 3-4 AEs for BVR versus BR were neutropenia and sensory neuropathy (12% vs <1%); 83% of the latter occurred with intravenous bortezomib. The most common grade 3-4 AEs related to LR versus rituximab maintenance were neutropenia 66% versus 21%, respectively ( < 0.0001), and febrile neutropenia 10% versus 2%, respectively ( = 0.05). The overall treatment-related mortality was 1.4%. With 5-year median follow-up, 3-year PFS rates for BR-R, BVR-R, and BR-LR were 77%, 82%, and 76%, respectively ( = 0.36) with OS rates of 87%, 90%, and 84%, respectively ( = 0.79). For prognostication, CR rate and POD-24 were associated with survival.

Conclusions: Altogether, neither bortezomib added to BR induction nor lenalidomide added to rituximab maintenance immediately post-BR induction is recommended in untreated FL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722783PMC
September 2020

Hodgkin Lymphoma, Version 2.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 06;18(6):755-781

28Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah.

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) provide recommendations for the management of adult patients with HL. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant data, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. Current management of classic HL involves initial treatment with chemotherapy alone or combined modality therapy followed by restaging with PET/CT to assess treatment response. Overall, the introduction of less toxic and more effective regimens has significantly advanced HL cure rates. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on the management of classic HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.0026DOI Listing
June 2020

Long-term outcomes of patients with unfavorable stage I-II classic Hodgkin lymphoma treated with Stanford V chemotherapy and limited field irradiation.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 10 30;61(10):2428-2434. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Management of stage I-II unfavorable risk Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) strives to reduce toxicity while maintaining tumor control. Compared to ABVD or BEACOPP, Stanford V chemotherapy contains less doxorubicin and bleomycin. We report long-term outcomes of patients with stage I-II classic HL with European risk factors treated with Stanford V combined modality therapy (CMT). From our institutional cancer registry, we identified 168 patients with ≥1 European risk factor treated with 8-12 weeks of Stanford V CMT and consolidative radiotherapy between 1990 and 2016. Outcomes were analyzed after classification by EORTC and GHSG unfavorable criteria. With median follow-up of 8.4 years, 10-year overall survival and progression-free survival for the entire cohort were 95% and 88%, respectively. Thirteen of 18 relapses were salvaged successfully. There were no cases of MDS or AML after primary therapy. Long-term outcomes of stage I-II unfavorable risk HL treated with Stanford V CMT are comparable to ABVD or BEACOPP regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1768385DOI Listing
October 2020

Checkpoint blockade treatment sensitises relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma to subsequent therapy.

Br J Haematol 2020 10 19;191(1):44-51. Epub 2020 May 19.

Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have limited options for salvage, and checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) has little efficacy. Usage in solid malignancies suggests that CBT sensitises tumours to subsequent chemotherapy. We performed the first analysis of CBT on subsequent NHL treatment. Seventeen North American centres retrospectively queried records. The primary aim was to evaluate the overall response rate (ORR) to post-CBT treatment. Secondary aims included progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DOR) and overall survival (OS). Fifty-nine patients (68% aggressive NHL, 69% advanced disease) were included. Patients received a median of three therapies before CBT. Fifty-three (90%) discontinued CBT due to progression. Post-CBT regimens included chemotherapy (49%), targeted therapy (30%), clinical trial (17%), transplant conditioning (2%) and chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy (2%). The ORR to post-CBT treatment was 51%, with median PFS of 6·1 months. In patients with at least stable disease (SD) to post-CBT, the median DOR was significantly longer than to pre-CBT (310 vs. 79 days, P = 0·005) suggesting sensitisation. Nineteen patients were transplanted after post-CBT therapy. Median overall survival was not reached, nor affected by regimen. Prospective trials are warranted, as this may offer R/R NHL patients a novel therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16756DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of Treatment Beyond Progression with Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Oncologist 2020 06 28;25(6):e993-e997. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Atypical response patterns following immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) led to the concept of continuation of treatment beyond progression (TBP); however, the longitudinal benefit of this approach is unclear. We therefore performed a retrospective analysis of 64 patients treated with ICB; 20 who received TBP (TBP cohort) and 44 who stopped ICB at initial progression (non-TBP cohort). The TBP cohort received ICB for a median of 4.7 months after initial progression and delayed subsequent treatment by a median of 6.6 months. Despite receiving more prior lines of therapy, the TBP cohort achieved longer progression-free survival with post-ICB treatment (median, 17.5 months vs. 6.1 months, p = .035) and longer time-to-subsequent treatment failure, defined as time from initial ICB progression to failure of subsequent treatment (median, 34.6 months vs. 9.9 months, p = .003). With the limitations of a retrospective study, these results support the clinical benefit of TBP with ICB for selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288660PMC
June 2020

Stage I-II nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a multi-institutional study of adult patients by ILROG.

Blood 2020 06;135(26):2365-2374

Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon histologic variant, and the optimal treatment of stage I-II NLPHL is undefined. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study including patients ≥16 years of age with stage I-II NLPHL diagnosed from 1995 through 2018 who underwent all forms of management, including radiotherapy (RT), combined modality therapy (CMT; RT+chemotherapy [CT]), CT, observation after excision, rituximab and RT, and single-agent rituximab. End points were progression-free survival (PFS), freedom from transformation, and overall survival (OS) without statistical comparison between management groups. We identified 559 patients with median age of 39 years: 72.3% were men, and 54.9% had stage I disease. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range, 3.1-10.1). Five-year PFS and OS in the entire cohort were 87.1% and 98.3%, respectively. Primary management was RT alone (n = 257; 46.0%), CMT (n = 184; 32.9%), CT alone (n = 47; 8.4%), observation (n = 37; 6.6%), rituximab and RT (n = 19; 3.4%), and rituximab alone (n = 15; 2.7%). The 5-year PFS rates were 91.1% after RT, 90.5% after CMT, 77.8% after CT, 73.5% after observation, 80.8% after rituximab and RT, and 38.5% after rituximab alone. In the RT cohort, but not the CMT cohort, variant immunoarchitectural pattern and number of sites >2 were associated with worse PFS (P < .05). Overall, 21 patients (3.8%) developed large-cell transformation, with a significantly higher transformation rate in those with variant immunoarchitectural pattern (P = .049) and number of involved sites >2 (P = .0006). OS for patients with stage I-II NLPHL was excellent after all treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003877DOI Listing
June 2020

The combination of ibrutinib and rituximab demonstrates activity in first-line follicular lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2020 05 16;189(4):650-660. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

This phase 2 study evaluated the activity and safety of ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus rituximab in adults with previously untreated follicular lymphoma. Patients received once-daily ibrutinib 560 mg continuously plus once-weekly rituximab 375 mg/m for 4 weeks beginning Week 1 (Arm 1, n = 60) or Week 9 (following an 8-week ibrutinib lead-in) to explore biomarkers (Arm 2, n = 20). The primary endpoint was the best overall response rate (ORR). The median age was 58 years; most had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status of 0 (74%) and Stage III/IV disease (84%). At a median study follow-up of 34 months in Arm 1 and 29 months in Arm 2, ORRs were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-93] and 75% (95% CI 51-91), respectively, with complete responses in 40% and 50%. The median duration of response was not reached in either arm; 30-month progression-free and overall survival rates were 67% and 97% (Arm 1) and 65% and 100% (Arm 2). The most common adverse events were fatigue, diarrhoea and nausea. Higher grade (Grade 3/4) haematological, haemorrhagic and cardiac events occurred infrequently. Ibrutinib plus rituximab was active and tolerable in first-line follicular lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317728PMC
May 2020
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