Publications by authors named "Raneem Hammouz"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MicroRNAs: Their Role in Metastasis, Angiogenesis, and the Potential for Biomarker Utility in Bladder Carcinomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Medical University of Lodz, Zeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752 Lodz, Poland.

Angiogenesis is the process of generating new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels with a vital role in tumor growth and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that exert post-transcriptional control of protein regulation. They participate in the development and progression of several cancers including bladder cancer (BLCA). In cancer tissue, changes in microRNA expression exhibit tissue specificity with high levels of stability and detectability. miRNAs are less vulnerable to degradation, making them novel targets for therapeutic approaches. A suitable means of targeting aberrant activated signal transduction pathways in carcinogenesis of BLCA is possibly through altering the expression of key miRNAs that regulate them, exerting a strong effect on signal transduction. Precaution must be taken, as the complexity of miRNA regulation might result in targeting several downstream tumor suppressors or oncogenes, enhancing the effect further. Since exosomes contain both mRNA and miRNA, they could therefore possibly be more effective in targeting a recipient cell if they deliver a specific miRNA to modify the recipient cell protein production and gene expression. In this review, we discuss the molecules that have been shown to play a significant role in BLCA tumor development. We also discuss the roles of various miRNAs in BLCA angiogenesis and metastasis. Advances in the management of metastatic BLCA have been limited; miRNA mimics and molecules targeted at miRNAs (anti-miRs) as well as exosomes could serve as therapeutic modalities or as diagnostic biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040891DOI Listing
February 2021

Differential expression of lung adenocarcinoma transcriptome with signature of tobacco exposure.

J Appl Genet 2020 Sep 20;61(3):421-437. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Medical University of Lodz, Zeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752, Lodz, Poland.

Smoking accounts for almost 80-90% of lung cancer cases, which is also the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths in humans. With over 60 carcinogens in tobacco smoke, cells dividing at the time of carcinogen exposure are at particular risk of neoplasia. The present study aimed to investigate global gene expression differences in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tumour samples of current smokers and non-smokers, in an attempt to elucidate biological mechanisms underlying divergent smoking effects. Current and non-smoker tumour samples were analysed using bioinformatics tools, examining differences in molecular drivers of cancer initiation and progression, as well as evaluating the effect of smoking and sex on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). As a result, we identified 1150 differentially expressed genes showing visible differences in the expression profiles between the smoking subgroups. The genes were primarily involved in cell cycle, DNA replication, DNA repair, VEGF, GnRH, ErbB and T cell receptor signalling pathways. Our results show that smoking clearly affected E2F transcriptional activity and DNA repair pathways including mismatch repair, base excision repair and homologous recombination. We observed that sex could modify the effects of PLA2G2A and PRG4 in LUAD tumour samples, whereas sex and smoking status might possibly have a biological effect on the EMT-related genes: HEY2, OLFM1, SFRP1 and STRAP. We also identified potential epigenetic changes smoking solely might have on EMT-related genes, which may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for LUAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13353-020-00569-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413900PMC
September 2020

Exosomes as carriers transporting long non‑coding RNAs: Molecular characteristics and their function in cancer (Review).

Mol Med Rep 2019 Aug 5;20(2):851-862. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Medical University of Łódź, 90‑752 Łódź, Poland.

Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise a sizeable class of non‑coding RNAs with a length of over 200 base pairs. Little is known about their biological function, although over 20,000 lncRNAs have been annotated in the human genome. Through a diverse range of mechanisms, their primary function is in the regulation of the transcription of protein‑coding genes. lncRNA transcriptional activation can result from a group of nucleus‑retained and chromatin‑associated lncRNAs, which function as scaffolds in the cis/trans recruitment of transcription factors, co‑activators or chromatin remodelers, and/or promoter enhancers. Exosomes are released as extracellular vesicles and they are produced by endocytic pathways. Their synthesis is initiated by various processes including ceramide synthesis, release of intracellular Ca2+ or acid‑base balance disorders. Prior to vesicle creation, selective cargo loading occurs in the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport. Participation of endosomal sorting proteins such as tetraspanins or specific sumoylated proteins required for transport has been indicated in research. The endosomal‑sorting complex consists of four components, these induce the formation of multivesicular bodies and the induction of membrane deformation to form exosomes. Nanovesicles could be formed inside multivesicular bodies to allow transport outside the cell or digestion in lysosomes. The molecular content of exosomes is more heterogenic than its synthesis process, with different cargoes being examined inside vesicles with regard to the type or stage of cancers. This paper will review the importance of lncRNAs as crucial molecular content of exosomes, indicating its involvement in tumour suppression, pro‑tumorigenic events and the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the near future. Further studies of their mechanisms of function are essential, as well as overcoming several challenges to gain a clearer insight to the approaches for the best clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625196PMC
August 2019

Development of 'Redox Arrays' for identifying novel glutathionylated proteins in the secretome.

Sci Rep 2015 Sep 29;5:14630. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Trafford Centre for Medical Research, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RY UK.

Proteomics techniques for analysing the redox status of individual proteins in complex mixtures tend to identify the same proteins due to their high abundance. We describe here an array-based technique to identify proteins undergoing glutathionylation and apply it to the secretome and the proteome of human monocytic cells. The method is based on incorporation of biotinylated glutathione (GSH) into proteins, which can then be identified following binding to a 1000-protein antibody array. We thus identify 38 secreted and 55 intracellular glutathionylated proteins, most of which are novel candidates for glutathionylation. Two of the proteins identified in these experiments, IL-1 sRII and Lyn, were then confirmed to be susceptible to glutathionylation. Comparison of the redox array with conventional proteomic methods confirmed that the redox array is much more sensitive, and can be performed using more than 100-fold less protein than is required for methods based on mass spectrometry. The identification of novel targets of glutathionylation, particularly in the secretome where the protein concentration is much lower, shows that redox arrays can overcome some of the limitations of established redox proteomics techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4586893PMC
September 2015