Publications by authors named "Ramona Miske"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Autoantibodies Against the Purkinje Cell Protein RGS8 in Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Syndrome.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 05 29;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

From the Institute for Experimental Immunology (R.M., M.S., A.O., Y.D., N.R., C.P., L.K.), Affiliated to EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Luebeck; Department of Neurology (P.S., H.D.), Krankenhaus St. Elisabeth, Damme; Laboratory Krone (C.I.B.), Bad Salzuflen; Department of Neurology (C.B., P.K.), Nordwest-Krankenhaus Sanderbusch, Sande; Clinical Immunological Laboratory Prof. Dr. Med. Winfried Stöcker (K.B., B.T.), Luebeck; and Department of Neurology (C.F.), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: To describe the identification of regulator of G-protein signaling 8 (RGS8) as an autoantibody target in patients with cerebellar syndrome associated with lymphoma.

Methods: Sera of 4 patients with a very similar unclassified reactivity against cerebellar Purkinje cells were used in antigen identification experiments. Immunoprecipitations with cerebellar lysates followed by mass spectrometry identified the autoantigen, which was verified by recombinant immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and ELISA with the recombinant protein.

Results: The sera and CSF of 4 patients stained the Purkinje cells and molecular layer of the cerebellum. RGS8 was identified as the target antigen in all 4 sera. In a neutralization experiment, recombinant human RGS8 was able to neutralize the autoantibodies' tissue reaction. Patient sera and CSF showed a specific reactivity against recombinant RGS8 in ELISA and immunoblot, whereas no such reactivity was detectable in the controls. Clinical data were available for 2 of the 4 patients, remarkably both presented with cerebellar syndrome accompanied by B-cell lymphoma of the stomach (patient 1, 53 years) or Hodgkin lymphoma (patient 2, 74 years).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that autoantibodies against the intracellular Purkinje cell protein RGS8 represent new markers for paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome associated with lymphoma.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provided Class IV evidence that autoantibodies against the intracellular Purkinje cell protein RGS8 are associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome in lymphoma.
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May 2021

Neurochondrin neurological autoimmunity.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2019 11 11;6(6). Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (S.S., T.J.K., E.P.F., S.R.H., V.A.L., S.J.P., A.M.), Department of Neurology (E.P.F., V.A.L., S.J.P., A.M.), and Department of Immunology (V.A.L.), College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic; Euroimmun AG (L.K., R.M.), Lubeck, Germany; and Department of Neurology (M.D.A.), University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS.

Objectives: To describe the neurologic spectrum and treatment outcomes for neurochondrin-IgG positive cases identified serologically in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory.

Methods: Archived serum and CSF specimens previously scored positive for IgGs that stained mouse hippocampal tissue in a nonuniform synaptic pattern by immunofluorescence assay (89 among 616,025 screened, 1993-2019) were reevaluated. Antibody characterization experiments revealed specificity for neurochondrin, confirmed by recombinant protein assays.

Results: IgG in serum (9) or CSF (4) from 8 patients yielded identical neuron-restricted CNS patterns, most pronounced in hippocampus (stratum lucidum in particular), cerebellum (Purkinje cells and molecular layer), and amygdala. All were neurochondrin-IgG positive. Five were women; median symptom onset age was 43 years (range, 30-69). Of 7 with clinical data, 6 presented with rapidly progressive cerebellar ataxia, brainstem signs, or both; 1 had isolated unexplained psychosis 1 year prior. Five of 6 had cerebellar signs, 4 with additional brainstem symptoms or signs (eye movement abnormalities, 3; dysphagia, 2; nausea and vomiting, 1). One patient with brainstem signs (vocal cord paralysis and VII nerve palsy) had accompanying myelopathy (longitudinally extensive abnormality on MRI; aquaporin-4-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG negative). The 7th patient had small fiber neuropathy only. Just 1 of 7 had contemporaneous cancer (uterine). Six patients with ataxia or brainstem signs received immunotherapy, but just 1 remained ambulatory. At last follow-up, 5 had MRI evidence of severe cerebellar atrophy.

Conclusion: In our series, neurochondrin autoimmunity was usually accompanied by a nonparaneoplastic rapidly progressive rhombencephalitis with poor neurologic outcomes. Other phenotypes and occasional paraneoplastic causes may occur.
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November 2019

A Spectrum of Neural Autoantigens, Newly Identified by Histo-Immunoprecipitation, Mass Spectrometry, and Recombinant Cell-Based Indirect Immunofluorescence.

Front Immunol 2018 9;9:1447. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Institute of Experimental Immunology, EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany.

Background: A plurality of neurological syndromes is associated with autoantibodies against neural antigens relevant for diagnosis and therapy. Identification of these antigens is crucial to understand the pathogenesis and to develop specific immunoassays. Using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA)-based approach and applying different immunoprecipitation (IP), chromatographic and mass spectrometric protocols was possible to isolate and identify a spectrum of autoantigens from brain tissue.

Methods: Sera and CSF of 320 patients suspected of suffering from an autoimmune neurological syndrome were comprehensively investigated for the presence of anti-neural IgG autoantibodies by IFA using mosaics of biochips with brain tissue cryosections and established cell-based recombinant antigen substrates as well as immunoblots. Samples containing unknown brain tissue-specific autoantibodies were subjected to IP with cryosections of cerebellum and hippocampus (rat, pig, and monkey) immobilized to glass slides or with lysates produced from homogenized tissue, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tryptic digestion, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis. Identifications were confirmed by IFA with recombinant HEK293 cells and by neutralizing the patients' autoantibodies with the respective recombinantly expressed antigens in the tissue-based immunofluorescence test.

Results: Most samples used in this study produced speckled, granular, or homogenous stainings of the hippocampal and cerebellar molecular and/or granular layers. Others exclusively stained the Purkinje cells. Up to now, more than 20 different autoantigens could be identified by this approach, among them ATP1A3, CPT1C, Flotillin1/2, ITPR1, NBCe1, NCDN, RGS8, ROCK2, and Syntaxin-1B as novel autoantigens.

Discussion: The presented antigen identification strategy offers an opportunity for identifying up to now unknown neural autoantigens. Recombinant cell substrates containing the newly identified antigens can be used in serology and the clinical relevance of the autoantibodies can be rapidly evaluated in cohort studies.
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July 2018

Chorea Minor Associated with Anti-Neurochondrin Autoantibodies.

Neuropediatrics 2017 12 29;48(6):482-483. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Department of Child Neurology, Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Gießen, Germany.

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December 2017

Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2): a new target of autoimmunity in paraneoplastic encephalitis.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2017 05 29;5(1):40. Epub 2017 May 29.

Department of Neurology, St. Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Onconeural antibodies are associated with cancer and paraneoplastic encephalitis. While their pathogenic role is still largely unknown, their high diagnostic value is undisputed. In this study we describe the discovery of a novel target of autoimmunity in an index case of paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with urogenital cancer.A 75-year-old man with a history of invasive bladder carcinoma 6 years ago with multiple recurrences and a newly discovered renal cell carcinoma presented with seizures and progressive cognitive decline followed by super-refractory status epilepticus. Clinical and ancillary findings including brain biopsy suggested paraneoplastic encephalitis. Immunohistochemistry of the brain biopsy was used to characterize the inflammatory response. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used for autoantibody screening. The autoantigen was identified by histo-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry and was validated by expressing the recombinant antigen in HEK293 cells and neutralization tests. Sera from 125 control patients were screened using IFA to test for the novel autoantibodies.IFA analysis of serum revealed a novel autoantibody against brain tissue. An intracellular enzyme, Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), was identified as target-antigen. ROCK2 was expressed in affected brain tissue and archival bladder tumor samples of this patient. Brain histopathology revealed appositions of cytotoxic CD8 T cells on ROCK2-positive neurons. ROCK2 antibodies were not found in the sera of 20 patients with bladder cancer and 17 with renal cancer, both without neurological symptoms, 49 healthy controls, and 39 patients with other antineuronal autoantibodies. In conclusion, novel onconeural antibodies targeting ROCK2 are associated with paraneoplastic encephalitis and should be screened for when paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, especially in patients with urogenital cancers, occur.
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May 2017

Neurochondrin is a neuronal target antigen in autoimmune cerebellar degeneration.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2017 Jan 5;4(1):e307. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Institute of Experimental Immunology (R.M., M. Scharf, I.M.D., S.M., Y.D., B.T., C.P., S.B., W.S., L.K.), Euroimmun AG, Lübeck; Department of Neurology (C.C.G., K.S.G., M.H., U.B., A.S.-M., K.B., C.S., H.L., M.D., T.W., H.W., S.G.M., N.M.), University of Münster; Centre for Neurology and Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research (L.S., M. Synofzik), Tübingen; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) (L.S., M. Synofzik), Tübingen; and Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Department of Neurology (K.-P.W.), University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.

Objective: To report on a novel neuronal target antigen in 3 patients with autoimmune cerebellar degeneration.

Methods: Three patients with subacute to chronic cerebellar ataxia and controls underwent detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessment together with quantitative high-resolution structural MRI. Sera and CSF were subjected to comprehensive autoantibody screening by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunoblot. Immunoprecipitation with lysates of hippocampus and cerebellum combined with mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the autoantigen, which was verified by recombinant expression in HEK293 cells and use in several immunoassays. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed on peripheral blood and CSF, and peripheral blood was subjected to T-cell receptor spectratyping.

Results: Patients presented with a subacute to chronic cerebellar and brainstem syndrome. MRI was consistent with cortical and cerebellar gray matter atrophy associated with subsequent neuroaxonal degeneration. IFA screening revealed strong immunoglobulin G1 reactivity in sera and CSF with hippocampal and cerebellar molecular and granular layers, but not with a panel of 30 recombinantly expressed established neural autoantigens. Neurochondrin was subsequently identified as the target antigen, verified by IFA and immunoblot with HEK293 cells expressing human neurochondrin as well as the ability of recombinant neurochondrin to neutralize the autoantibodies' tissue reaction. Immune phenotyping revealed intrathecal accumulation and activation of B and T cells during the acute but not chronic phase of the disease. T-cell receptor spectratyping suggested an antigen-specific T-cell response accompanying the formation of antineurochondrin autoantibodies. No such neurochondrin reactivity was found in control cohorts of various neural autoantibody-associated neurologic syndromes, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, cerebellar type of multiple system atrophy, hereditary cerebellar ataxias, other neurologic disorders, or healthy donors.

Conclusion: Neurochondrin is a neuronal target antigen in autoimmune cerebellar degeneration.
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January 2017

Autoantibodies against glutamate receptor δ2 after allogenic stem cell transplantation.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2016 Aug 14;3(4):e255. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Institute of Experimental Immunology (R.M., S.H., I.M.D., S.M., Y.D., S.B., B.T., C.P., W.S., L.K.), Euroimmun AG, Lübeck; Department of Neurology (T.R., M.M., C.T.), Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (N.M.), University of Münster; and Department of Neurology (H.-M.M.), University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Objective: To report on a Caucasian patient who developed steroid-responsive transverse myelitis, graft vs host disease of the gut, and anti-GluRδ2 after allogenic stem cell transplantation.

Methods: Histoimmunoprecipitation (HIP) with the patient's serum and cryosections of rat and porcine cerebellum followed by mass spectrometry was used to identify the autoantigen. Correct identification was verified by indirect immunofluorescence using recombinant GluRδ2 expressed in HEK293 cells.

Results: The patient's serum produced a granular staining of the cerebellar molecular layer (immunoglobulin G1 and immunoglobulin G3; endpoint titer: 1:1,000) but did not react with other CNS tissues or 28 established recombinant neural autoantigens. HIP revealed a unique protein band at ∼110 kDa that was identified as GluRδ2. The patient's serum also stained GluRδ2 transfected but not mock-transfected HEK293 cells. Control sera from 38 patients with multiple sclerosis, 85 patients with other neural autoantibodies, and 205 healthy blood donors were negative for anti-GluRδ2. Preadsorption with lysate from HEK293-GluRδ2 neutralized the patient's tissue reaction whereas control lysate had no effect. In addition to anti-GluRδ2, the patient's serum contained immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against the pancreatic glycoprotein CUZD1, which are known to be markers of Crohn disease.

Conclusions: In the present case, the development of anti-GluRδ2 was associated with transverse myelitis, which was supposedly triggered by the stem cell transplantation. Similar to encephalitis in conjunction with anti-GluRδ2 reported in a few Japanese patients, the patient's neurologic symptoms ameliorated after steroid therapy.
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August 2016

Neuronal Na+/K+ ATPase is an autoantibody target in paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome.

Neurology 2015 Apr 25;84(16):1673-9. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

From the Institute of Experimental Immunology (M.S., R.M., I.-M.B., N.B., Y.D., S.T., C.D., W. Schlumberger, M.U., B.T., W. Stöcker, C.P., L.K.), EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck; and Departments of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology (F.H., R.G.) and Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (P.L.), Hospital of the Henriettenstiftung, Hannover, Germany.

Objectives: To identify an autoreactivity in a 66-year-old woman who presented with combined brainstem and cerebellar syndrome including vertical gaze palsy, severe progressive ataxia, and spastic tetraparesis, an acute deterioration of vision, dysarthria, and dysphagia with concurrent diagnosis of a colon adenocarcinoma.

Methods: Patient's serum and CSF underwent comprehensive autoantibody screening by indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot. For autoantigen purification, a histo-immunoprecipitation technique was developed followed by mass spectrometrical analysis. Recombinant candidate antigens were expressed in HEK293 and used to verify the identification.

Results: Indirect immunofluorescence assay screening revealed strong immunoglobulin G reactivity with neural tissues in serum and CSF, but not with a panel of 28 recombinantly expressed established neural autoantigens. The hitherto unknown target antigen was identified as the neuronal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Epitope mapping and competitive inhibition experiments showed that the autoantibodies were directed against the membrane-spanning alpha 3 subunit (ATP1A3) of the enzyme but did not bind to extracellular epitopes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed overexpression of this subunit in the patient's tumor.

Conclusions: We describe a case of an anti-ATP1A3-associated neurologic disorder. Mutations in the gene encoding this neuronal surface protein have already been recognized as the cause of infantile alternating hemiplegia, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, and CAPOS syndrome. Although the autoantibodies are unlikely to be pathogenic, they are likely to be rare biomarkers for the apparently paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome or for the tumor itself.
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April 2015