Publications by authors named "Ramon Casha"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The first wave of COVID-19 in Malta; a national cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(10):e0239389. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed major challenges to all aspects of healthcare. Malta's population density, large proportion of elderly and high prevalence of diabetes and obesity put the country at risk of uncontrolled viral transmission and high mortality. Despite this, Malta achieved low mortality rates compared to figures overseas. The aim of this paper is to identify key factors that contributed to these favorable outcomes.

Methods: This is a retrospective, observational, nationwide study which evaluates outcomes of patients during the first wave of the pandemic in Malta, from the 7th of March to the 24th of April 2020. Data was collected on demographics and mode of transmission. Hospitalization rates to Malta's main general hospital, Mater Dei Hospital, length of in-hospital stay, intensive care unit admissions and 30-day mortality were also analyzed.

Results: There were 447 confirmed cases in total; 19.5% imported, 74.2% related to community transmission and 6.3% nosocomially transmitted. Ninety-three patients (20.8%) were hospitalized, of which 4 were children. Patients with moderate-severe disease received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, in line with evidence available at the time. A total of 4 deaths were recorded, resulting in an all-cause mortality of 0.89%. Importantly, all admitted patients with moderate-severe disease survived to 30-day follow up.

Conclusion: Effective public health interventions, widespread testing, remote surveillance of patients in the community and a low threshold for admission are likely to have contributed to these favorable outcomes. Hospital infection control measures were key in preventing significant nosocomial spread. These concepts can potentially be applied to stem future outbreaks of viral diseases. Patients with moderate-severe disease had excellent outcomes with no deaths reported at 30-day follow up.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239389PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561161PMC
October 2020

Moving health professionals as an alternative to moving patients: The contribution of overseas visiting medical specialists to the health system in Malta.

Health Policy 2020 05 17;124(5):519-524. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Health Services Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta c/o MSD 2090, Msida Malta; Islands and Small States Institute, University of Malta, Malta.

Cross-border healthcare has become a major policy issue in the past years across the European Union. Professional mobility, as a means of providing specialised health services has not been given sufficient attention in both the research and policy agendas. This paper presents a case study of the contribution made by visiting overseas medical specialists to the health system in Malta. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted. A grounded theory approach was utilised in view of the limited amount of literature available on the subject. Qualitative content analysis revealed one superordinate theme, being the value of the service, and three further subthemes, which include the quality of the service provided, its longevity and durability, as well as the critical contributions of expatriates. The service is an integral component of the local health service. This study makes an important contribution to the literature on cross-border healthcare. Lessons learnt may be transferable to other small island states and territories. The European Reference Networks being developed at EU level may need to focus more on the benefits that can accrue through short term professional mobility than has been the case to date. The findings also serve to propose several important features that need to be in place to increase the chances of longevity, sustainability, quality and cost effectiveness in cross border health care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2020.03.002DOI Listing
May 2020

Influenza A: another cause of SIADH?

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Oct 17;2018. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta.

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion is a frequent cause of hyponatraemia. It is a dilutional hyponatraemia secondary to impaired urinary dilution in the absence of renal disease or any identifiable non-osmotic stimulus known to induce antidiuretic hormone secretion. SIADH can arise secondary to various respiratory tract infections; however, the association between SIADH and influenza A infection is described in only a few cases in the literature. The authors present a case report of influenza A that may have caused a profound SIADH-related hyponatraemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6254460PMC
October 2018