Publications by authors named "Ramkumar Kuruba"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative profile of refractory status epilepticus models following exposure of cholinergic agents pilocarpine, DFP, and soman.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Apr 17:108571. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, TX 77807.

Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency with continuous seizure activity that causes profound neuronal damage, morbidity, or death. SE incidents can arise spontaneously, but mostly are elicited by seizurogenic triggers. Chemoconvulsants such as the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and organophosphates (OP), such as the pesticide diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and the nerve agent soman, can induce SE. Pilocarpine, DFP, and soman share a common feature of cholinergic crisis that transitions into a state of refractory SE, but their comparative profiles remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the comparative convulsant profile of pilocarpine, DFP, and soman to produce refractory SE and brain damage in rats. Behavioral and electrographic seizures were monitored for 24 h after exposure and the extent of brain injury was determined by histological markers of neuronal injury and degeneration. Seizures were elicited rather slowly after pilocarpine as compared to DFP or soman, which caused rapid onset of spiking that swiftly developed into persistent SE. Time-course of SE activity after DFP was comparable to that after soman, a potent nerve agent. Diazepam controlled pilocarpine-induced SE, but it was ineffective in reducing OP-induced SE. All three agents produced modestly different degrees of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration in the brain. These results reveal distinct convulsant and neuronal injury patterns following exposure to cholinergic agonists, OP pesticides, and nerve agents. A battery of SE models, especially SE induced by cholinergic agents and other etiologies including epilepsy and brain tumors, is essential to identify novel anticonvulsant therapies for the management of refractory SE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108571DOI Listing
April 2021

Hippocampal Neural Stem Cell Grafting after Status Epilepticus Alleviates Chronic Epilepsy and Abnormal Plasticity, and Maintains Better Memory and Mood Function.

Aging Dis 2020 Dec 1;11(6):1374-1394. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

1Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, College Station, TX, USA.

Hippocampal damage after status epilepticus (SE) leads to multiple epileptogenic changes, which lead to chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Morbidities such as spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and memory and mood impairments are seen in a significant fraction of SE survivors despite the administration of antiepileptic drugs after SE. We examined the efficacy of bilateral intra-hippocampal grafting of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) derived from the embryonic day 19 rat hippocampi, six days after SE for restraining SE-induced SRS, memory, and mood impairments in the chronic phase. Grafting of NSCs curtailed the progression of SRS at 3-5 months post-SE and reduced the frequency and severity of SRS activity when examined at eight months post-SE. Reduced SRS activity was also associated with improved memory function. Graft-derived cells migrated into different hippocampal cell layers, differentiated into GABA-ergic interneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Significant percentages of graft-derived cells also expressed beneficial neurotrophic factors such as the fibroblast growth factor-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. NSC grafting protected neuropeptide Y- and parvalbumin-positive host interneurons, diminished the abnormal migration of newly born neurons, and rescued the reelin+ interneurons in the dentate gyrus. Besides, grafting led to the maintenance of a higher level of normal neurogenesis in the chronic phase after SE and diminished aberrant mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus. Thus, intrahippocampal grafting of hippocampal NSCs shortly after SE considerably curbed the progression of epileptogenic processes and SRS, which eventually resulted in less severe chronic epilepsy devoid of significant cognitive and mood impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.1020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673840PMC
December 2020

Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of long-term neuropathology after exposure to the nerve agent soman: correlation with histopathology and neurological dysfunction.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 11 15;1480(1):116-135. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas.

Nerve agents (NAs) produce acute and long-term brain injury and dysfunction, as evident from the Japan and Syria incidents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a versatile technique to examine such chronic anatomical, functional, and neuronal damage in the brain. The objective of this study was to investigate long-term structural and neuronal lesion abnormalities in rats exposed to acute soman intoxication. T2-weighted MRI images of 10 control and 17 soman-exposed rats were acquired using a Siemens MRI system at 90 days after soman exposure. Quantification of brain tissue volumes and T2 signal intensity was conducted using the Inveon Research Workplace software and the extent of damage was correlated with histopathology and cognitive function. Soman-exposed rats showed drastic hippocampal atrophy with neuronal loss and reduced hippocampal volume (HV), indicating severe damage, but had similar T2 relaxation times to the control group, suggesting limited scarring and fluid density changes despite the volume decrease. Conversely, soman-exposed rats displayed significant increases in lateral ventricle volumes and T2 times, signifying strong cerebrospinal fluid expansion in compensation for tissue atrophy. The total brain volume, thalamic volume, and thalamic T2 time were similar in both groups, however, suggesting that some brain regions remained more intact long-term after soman intoxication. The MRI neuronal lesions were positively correlated with the histological markers of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation 90 days after soman exposure. The predominant MRI hippocampal atrophy (25%) was highly consistent with massive reduction (35%) of neuronal nuclear antigen-positive (NeuN ) principal neurons and parvalbumin-positive (PV ) inhibitory interneurons within this brain region. The HV was significantly correlated with both inflammatory markers of GFAP astrogliosis and IBA1 microgliosis. The reduced HV was also directly correlated with significant memory deficits in the soman-exposed cohort, confirming a possible neurobiological basis for neurological dysfunction. Together, these findings provide powerful insight on long-term region-specific neurodegenerative patterns after soman exposure and demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuroimaging to monitor neuropathology, predict the risk of neurological deficits, and evaluate response to medical countermeasures for NAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708405PMC
November 2020

Phenobarbital as alternate anticonvulsant for organophosphate-induced benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus and neuronal injury.

Epilepsia Open 2020 Jun 14;5(2):198-212. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics College of Medicine Texas A&M University Health Science Center Bryan TX USA.

Objective: Organophosphates (OPs) such as diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and soman are lethal chemical agents that can produce seizures, refractory status epilepticus (SE), and brain damage. There are few optimal treatments for late or refractory SE. Phenobarbital is a second-line drug for SE, usually after lorazepam, diazepam, or midazolam have failed to stop SE. Practically, 40 minutes or less is often necessary for first responders to arrive and assist in a chemical incident. However, it remains unclear whether administration of phenobarbital 40 minutes after OP intoxication is still effective. Here, we investigated the efficacy of phenobarbital treatment at 40 minutes postexposure to OP intoxication.

Methods: Acute refractory SE was induced in rats by DFP injection as per a standard paradigm. After 40 minutes, subjects were given phenobarbital intramuscularly (30-100 mg/kg) and progression of seizure activity was monitored by video-EEG recording. The extent of brain damage was assessed 3 days after DFP injections by neuropathology analysis of neurodegeneration and neuronal injury by unbiased stereology.

Results: Phenobarbital produced a dose-dependent seizure protection. A substantial decrease in SE was evident at 30 and 60 mg/kg, and a complete seizure termination was noted at 100 mg/kg within 40 minutes after treatment. Neuropathology findings showed significant neuroprotection in 100 mg/kg cohorts in brain regions associated with SE. Although higher doses resulted in greater protection against refractory SE and neuronal damage, they did not positively correlate with improved survival rate. Moreover, phenobarbital caused serious adverse effects including anesthetic or comatose state and even death.

Significance: Phenobarbital appears as an alternate anticonvulsant for OP-induced refractive SE in hospital settings. A careful risk-benefit analysis is required because of negative outcomes on survival and cardio-respiratory function. However, the need for sophisticated support and critical monitoring in hospital may preclude its use as medical countermeasure in mass casualty situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278559PMC
June 2020

Midazolam-Resistant Seizures and Brain Injury after Acute Intoxication of Diisopropylfluorophosphate, an Organophosphate Pesticide and Surrogate for Nerve Agents.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 11 16;367(2):302-321. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, Texas

Organophosphates (OP) such as the pesticide diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and the nerve agent sarin are lethal chemicals that induce seizures, status epilepticus (SE), and brain damage. Midazolam, a benzodiazepine modulator of synaptic GABA-A receptors, is currently considered as a new anticonvulsant for nerve agents. Here, we characterized the time course of protective efficacy of midazolam (0.2-5 mg/kg, i.m.) in rats exposed to DFP, a chemical threat agent and surrogate for nerve agents. Behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) seizures were monitored for 24 hours after DFP exposure. The extent of brain injury was determined 3 days after DFP exposure by unbiased stereologic analyses of valid markers of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Seizures were elicited within ∼8 minutes after DFP exposure that progressively developed into persistent SE lasting for hours. DFP exposure resulted in massive neuronal injury or necrosis, neurodegeneration of principal cells and interneurons, and neuroinflammation as evident by extensive activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus, amygdala, and other brain regions. Midazolam controlled seizures, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation when given early (10 minutes) after DFP exposure, but it was less effective when given at 40 minutes or later. Delayed therapy (≥40 minutes), a simulation of the practical therapeutic window for first responders or hospital admission, was associated with reduced seizure protection and neuroprotection. These results strongly reaffirm that the DFP-induced seizures and brain damage are progressively resistant to delayed treatment with midazolam, confirming the benzodiazepine refractory SE after OP intoxication. Thus, novel anticonvulsants superior to midazolam or adjunct therapies that enhance its efficacy are needed for effective treatment of refractory SE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.117.247106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193253PMC
November 2018

Benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus, neuroinflammation, and interneuron neurodegeneration after acute organophosphate intoxication.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 09 23;1864(9 Pt B):2845-2858. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Bryan, TX 77807, USA. Electronic address:

Nerve agents and some pesticides such as diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) cause neurotoxic manifestations that include seizures and status epilepticus (SE), which are potentially lethal and carry long-term neurological morbidity. Current antidotes for organophosphate (OP) intoxication include atropine, 2-PAM and diazepam (a benzodiazepine for treating seizures and SE). There is some evidence for partial or complete loss of diazepam anticonvulsant efficacy when given 30 min or later after exposure to an OP; this condition is known as refractory SE. Effective therapies for OP-induced SE are lacking and it is unclear why current therapies do not work. In this study, we investigated the time-dependent efficacy of diazepam in the nerve agent surrogate DFP model of OP intoxication on seizure suppression and neuroprotection in rats, following an early and late therapy. Diazepam (5 mg/kg, IM) controlled seizures when given 10 min after DFP exposure ("early"), but it was completely ineffective at 60 or 120 min ("late") after DFP. DFP-induced neuronal injury, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration of principal cells and GABAergic interneurons were significantly reduced by early but not late therapy. These findings demonstrate that diazepam failed to control seizures, SE and neuronal injury when given 60 min or later after DFP exposure, confirming the benzodiazepine-refractory SE and brain damage after OP intoxication. In addition, this study indicates that degeneration of inhibitory interneurons and inflammatory glial activation are potential mechanisms underlying these morbid outcomes of OP intoxication. Therefore, novel anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant antidotes, superior to benzodiazepines, are desperately needed for controlling nerve agent-induced SE and brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6066461PMC
September 2018

Prospects of modeling poststroke epileptogenesis.

J Neurosci Res 2017 04 25;95(4):1000-1016. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas.

This Review describes the current status of poststroke epilepsy (PSE) with an emphasis on poststroke epileptogenesis modeling for testing new therapeutic agents. Stroke is a leading cause of epilepsy in an aging population. Late-onset "epileptic" seizures have been reported in up to 30% cases after stroke. Nevertheless, the overall prevalence of PSE is 2-4%. Rodent models of stroke have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between seizures and the underlying ischemic damage to neurons. To understand whether acutely generated stroke events lead to a chronic phenotype more closely resembling PSE with recurrent seizures, a limited variety of approaches emerged in early 2000s. These limited methods of causing an occlusion in mice and rats show different infarct size and neurological deficits. The most often employed procedure for inducing focal ischemia is the middle cerebral artery occlusion. This mimics the pathophysiology seen in humans in terms of extent of damage to cortex and striatum. Photothrombosis and endothelin-1 models can similarly evoke episodes of ischemic stroke. These models are well suited to studying mechanisms and biomarkers of epileptogenesis or optimizing novel drug discoveries. However, modeling of PSE is tedious, is highly variable, and lacks validity; therefore, it is not widely implemented in epilepsy research. Moreover, the relevance of ischemic models to specific forms of human stroke remains unclear. Stroke modeling in young male rodents lacks clinical relevance to elderly populations and especially to women, likely as a result of sex differences. Nevertheless, because of the neuronal damage and epileptogenic insult that these models trigger, they are helpful tools in studying acquired epilepsy and prophylactic drug therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266751PMC
April 2017

Neurostereology protocol for unbiased quantification of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration.

Front Aging Neurosci 2015 31;7:196. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College of Medicine Bryan, TX, USA.

Neuronal injury and neurodegeneration are the hallmark pathologies in a variety of neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Quantification of absolute neuron and interneuron counts in various brain regions is essential to understand the impact of neurological insults or neurodegenerative disease progression in animal models. However, conventional qualitative scoring-based protocols are superficial and less reliable for use in studies of neuroprotection evaluations. Here, we describe an optimized stereology protocol for quantification of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration by unbiased counting of neurons and interneurons. Every 20th section in each series of 20 sections was processed for NeuN(+) total neuron and parvalbumin(+) interneuron immunostaining. The sections that contain the hippocampus were then delineated into five reliably predefined subregions. Each region was separately analyzed with a microscope driven by the stereology software. Regional tissue volume was determined by using the Cavalieri estimator, as well as cell density and cell number were determined by using the optical disector and optical fractionator. This protocol yielded an estimate of 1.5 million total neurons and 0.05 million PV(+) interneurons within the rat hippocampus. The protocol has greater predictive power for absolute counts as it is based on 3D features rather than 2D images. The total neuron counts were consistent with literature values from sophisticated systems, which are more expensive than our stereology system. This unbiased stereology protocol allows for sensitive, medium-throughput counting of total neurons in any brain region, and thus provides a quantitative tool for studies of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration in a variety of acute brain injury and chronic neurological models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4628120PMC
November 2015

Experimental models of status epilepticus and neuronal injury for evaluation of therapeutic interventions.

Int J Mol Sci 2013 Sep 5;14(9):18284-318. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, 8447 State Highway 47, MREB Building, Bryan, TX 77807, USA.

This article describes current experimental models of status epilepticus (SE) and neuronal injury for use in the screening of new therapeutic agents. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. SE is an emergency condition associated with continuous seizures lasting more than 30 min. It causes significant mortality and morbidity. SE can cause devastating damage to the brain leading to cognitive impairment and increased risk of epilepsy. Benzodiazepines are the first-line drugs for the treatment of SE, however, many people exhibit partial or complete resistance due to a breakdown of GABA inhibition. Therefore, new drugs with neuroprotective effects against the SE-induced neuronal injury and degeneration are desirable. Animal models are used to study the pathophysiology of SE and for the discovery of newer anticonvulsants. In SE paradigms, seizures are induced in rodents by chemical agents or by electrical stimulation of brain structures. Electrical stimulation includes perforant path and self-sustaining stimulation models. Pharmacological models include kainic acid, pilocarpine, flurothyl, organophosphates and other convulsants that induce SE in rodents. Neuronal injury occurs within the initial SE episode, and animals exhibit cognitive dysfunction and spontaneous seizures several weeks after this precipitating event. Current SE models have potential applications but have some limitations. In general, the experimental SE model should be analogous to the human seizure state and it should share very similar neuropathological mechanisms. The pilocarpine and diisopropylfluorophosphate models are associated with prolonged, diazepam-insensitive seizures and neurodegeneration and therefore represent paradigms of refractory SE. Novel mechanism-based or clinically relevant models are essential to identify new therapies for SE and neuroprotective interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms140918284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3794781PMC
September 2013

Differential susceptibility of interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y or parvalbumin in the aged hippocampus to acute seizure activity.

PLoS One 2011 6;6(9):e24493. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

Medical Research and Surgery Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Acute seizure (AS) activity in old age has an increased predisposition for evolving into temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, spontaneous seizures and cognitive dysfunction after AS activity are often intense in the aged population than in young adults. This could be due to an increased vulnerability of inhibitory interneurons in the aged hippocampus to AS activity. We investigated this issue by comparing the survival of hippocampal GABA-ergic interneurons that contain the neuropeptide Y (NPY) or the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV) between young adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats at 12 days after three-hours of AS activity. Graded intraperitoneal injections of the kainic acid (KA) induced AS activity and a diazepam injection at 3 hours after the onset terminated AS-activity. Measurement of interneuron numbers in different hippocampal subfields revealed that NPY+ interneurons were relatively resistant to AS activity in the aged hippocampus in comparison to the young adult hippocampus. Whereas, PV+ interneurons were highly susceptible to AS activity in both age groups. However, as aging alone substantially depleted these populations, the aged hippocampus after three-hours of AS activity exhibited 48% reductions in NPY+ interneurons and 70% reductions in PV+ interneurons, in comparison to the young hippocampus after similar AS activity. Thus, AS activity-induced TLE in old age is associated with far fewer hippocampal NPY+ and PV+ interneuron numbers than AS-induced TLE in the young adult age. This discrepancy likely underlies the severe spontaneous seizures and cognitive dysfunction observed in the aged people after AS activity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024493PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3167860PMC
February 2012

Acute Seizures in Old Age Leads to a Greater Loss of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons, an Increased Propensity for Developing Chronic TLE and a Severe Cognitive Dysfunction.

Aging Dis 2011 Feb;2(1):1-17

Medical Research and Surgery Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705. Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

The aged population displays an enhanced risk for developing acute seizure (AS) activity. However, it is unclear whether AS activity in old age would result in a greater magnitude of hippocampal neurodegeneration and inflammation, and an increased predilection for developing chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we addressed these issues in young-adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats after three-hours of AS activity, induced through graded intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid (KA), and terminated through a diazepam injection. During the three-hours of AS activity, both young adult and aged groups exhibited similar numbers of stage-V motor seizures but the numbers of stage-IV motor seizures were greater in the aged group. In both age groups, three-hour AS activity induced degeneration of 50-55% of neurons in the dentate hilus, 22-32% of neurons in the granule cell layer and 49-52% neurons in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer without showing any interaction between the age and AS activity. However, degeneration of neurons in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer showed a clear interaction between the age and AS activity (12% in the young adult group and 56% in the aged group), suggesting that an advanced age makes the CA1 pyramidal neurons more susceptible to die with AS activity. The extent of inflammation measured through the numbers of activated microglial cells was similar between the two age groups. Interestingly, the predisposition for developing chronic TLE at 2-3 months after AS activity was 60% for young adult rats but 100% for aged rats. Moreover, both frequency & intensity of spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronic phase after AS activity were 6-12 folds greater in aged rats than in young adult rats. Furthermore, aged rats lost their ability for spatial learning even in a scrupulous eleven-session water maze learning paradigm after AS activity, in divergence from young adult rats which retained the ability for spatial learning but had memory retrieval dysfunction after AS activity. Thus, AS activity in old age results in a greater loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, an increased propensity for developing robust chronic TLE, and a severe cognitive dysfunction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3041587PMC
February 2011

Medial ganglionic eminence-derived neural stem cell grafts ease spontaneous seizures and restore GDNF expression in a rat model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

Stem Cells 2010 Jul;28(7):1153-64

Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

Nearly 30% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are resistant to treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Neural stem cell (NSC) grafting into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in these patients. As TLE is associated with reduced numbers of inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and astrocytes expressing the anticonvulsant glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the hippocampus, we tested the hypothesis that grafting of NSCs that are capable of adding new GABA-ergic interneurons and GDNF-expressing astrocytes into the epileptic hippocampus restrains spontaneous recurrent motor seizures (SRMS) in chronic TLE. We grafted NSCs expanded in vitro from embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into hippocampi of adult rats exhibiting chronic TLE with cognitive impairments. NSC grafting reduced frequencies of SRMS by 43% and stage V seizures by 90%. The duration of individual SRMS and the total time spent in seizures were reduced by 51 and 74%, respectively. Grafting did not improve the cognitive function however. Graft-derived cells (equivalent to approximately 28% of injected cells) were observed in various layers of the epileptic hippocampus where they differentiated into NeuN+ neurons (13%), S-100beta+ astrocytes (57%), and NG2+ oligodendrocyte-progenitors (3%). Furthermore, among graft-derived cells, 10% expressed GABA and 50% expressed GDNF. Additionally, NSC grafting restored GDNF in a vast majority of the hippocampal astrocytes but had no effect on neurogenesis. Thus, MGE-NSC therapy is efficacious for diminishing SRMS in chronic TLE. Addition of new GABA-ergic neurons and GDNF+ cells, and restoration of GDNF in the hippocampal astrocytes may underlie the therapeutic effect of MGE-NSC grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2933789PMC
July 2010

Hippocampal neurogenesis and neural stem cells in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2009 Jan 1;14 Suppl 1:65-73. Epub 2008 Oct 1.

Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Virtually all mammals, including humans, exhibit neurogenesis throughout life in the hippocampus, a learning and memory center in the brain. Numerous studies in animal models imply that hippocampal neurogenesis is important for functions such as learning, memory, and mood. Interestingly, hippocampal neurogenesis is very sensitive to physiological and pathological stimuli. Certain pathological stimuli such as seizures alter both the amount and the pattern of neurogenesis, though the overall effect depends on the type of seizures. Acute seizures are classically associated with augmentation of neurogenesis and migration of newly born neurons into ectopic regions such as the hilus and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Additional studies suggest that abnormally migrated newly born neurons play a role in the occurrence of epileptogenic hippocampal circuitry characteristically seen after acute seizures, status epilepticus, or head injury. Recurrent spontaneous seizures such as those typically observed in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy are associated with substantially reduced neurogenesis, which, interestingly, coexists with learning and memory impairments and depression. In this review, we discuss both the extent and the potential implications of abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis induced by acute seizures as well as recurrent spontaneous seizures. We also discuss the consequences of chronic spontaneous seizures on differentiation of neural stem cell progeny in the hippocampus and strategies that are potentially useful for normalizing neurogenesis in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654382PMC
January 2009

Could hippocampal neurogenesis be a future drug target for treating temporal lobe epilepsy?

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2007 Oct;6(5):342-57

Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery) Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

The dentate gyrus, a region of the hippocampal formation, displays the highest level of plasticity in the brain and exhibits neurogenesis all through life. Dentate neurogenesis, believed to be essential for learning and memory function, responds to physiological stimuli as well as pathological situations. The role of dentate neurogenesis in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has received increased attention lately because of its disparate response in the early and chronic stages of the disease. Acute seizures or status epilepticus immensely enhance dentate neurogenesis and lead to an aberrant migration of newly born neurons into the dentate hilus and the formation of epileptogenic circuitry in the injured hippocampus. Conversely, spontaneous recurrent seizures that arise during chronic TLE are associated with dramatically reduced dentate neurogenesis. In this review, we discuss the potential significance of enhanced but abnormal neurogenesis taking place shortly after brain injury or the status epilepticus towards the development of chronic epilepsy, and prospective implications of dramatically waned dentate neurogenesis occurring during chronic epilepsy for learning and memory function and depression in TLE. Furthermore, we confer whether hippocampal neurogenesis is a possible drug target for preventing TLE after brain injury or the status epilepticus, and for easing learning and memory impairments during chronic epileptic conditions. Additionally, we discuss some possible drugs and approaches that need to be evaluated in future in animal models of TLE to further understand the role of neurogenesis in the pathogenesis of TLE and whether modulation of neurogenesis is useful for treating TLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152707783220884DOI Listing
October 2007