Publications by authors named "Ramgopal Dhakar"

2 Publications

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Arecanut-induced fibrosis display dual phases of reorganising glycans and amides in skin extracellular matrix.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 20;185:251-263. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India.

The habit of chewing arecanut leads to fibrosis in the oral tissues, which can lead to cancer. Despite high mortality, fibrosis has limited clinical success owing to organ-specific variations, genetic predispositions, and slow progression. Fibrosis is a progressive condition that is unresponsive to medications in the severe phase. To understand underlying macromolecular changes we studied the extracellular matrix's (ECM) key molecular modifications in the early and late phase of arecanut-induced fibrosis in skin. To study the fibrosis, we topically applied arecanut extract on the mice skin. We observed that the matrix changes observe early and late phases based on ECM characteristics including the matrix proteins and the glycans. A spike in the levels of proteoglycans and β-sheet structures are noted in the early phase. A significant drop in the proteoglycans and strengthening of amide covalent interactions is observed in the late phase. Although, almost no physical changes are noticeable only in the early phase; the late phase observes thick collagen bundling and a 4-fold stiffening of the skin tissue. The study indicates that the temporal interplay of proteins and glycans determine the matrix's severity state while opening avenues to research directed towards the phase-specific clinical discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.093DOI Listing
June 2021

Mechanistic basis of co-stimulatory CD40-CD40L ligation mediated regulation of immune responses in cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Immunobiology 2020 03 17;225(2):151899. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Generation of an accurate humoral and a cell mediated adaptive immune responsesare dictated by binding of an antigen to a T- and a B-cell receptor, respectively (first signal) followed by ligation of costimulatory molecules (second signal). CD40, a costimulatory receptor molecule, expressed mainly on antigen presenting cells, some non-immune cells and tumors, binds to CD40 ligand molecule expressed transiently on T-cells and non-immune cells under inflammatory conditions. In the past decade, the CD40-CD40L interaction has emerged as an immune-potentiating system that governs and regulates host immune response against various diseases and pathogens, failing of which results in detrimental patho-physiologies including cancer and autoimmune disorders. CD40-CD40L transduces immune signals intracellularly via TRAF-dependent and independent mechanisms and further downstream by different MAPK pathways and transcription factors such as NF-κB, p38 etc. While CD40 signaling pathway through its cognate interaction between B and T cells promotes activation and proliferation of B-cells, Ig class switching, and generation of B cell memory; however, CD40-CD40L interaction involving other APCs and non-immune cells relay distinct cell signaling resulting in production of a variety of cytokines/chemokines and cell adhesion molecules ultimately conferring host defense against pathogen. In cancer and autoimmune disorders, CD40-CD40L interaction is also responsible for aberrant expression of many disease specific markers, class I/II MHC molecules and other co-stimulatory molecules such as B7 and CD28 in cell- and disease-specific manner. In the present review, the current state of understanding about the CD40-CD40L mediated regulation of immune and non-immune cells is presented. The current paradigm is to target CD40 using agonist anti-CD40 mAbs alone or in synergistic combination with chemotherapy in order to harness or confer anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2019.151899DOI Listing
March 2020