Publications by authors named "Ramesh Kumar Mishra"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of pointing movements on visuospatial working memory in a joint-action condition: Evidence from eye movements.

Mem Cognit 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

University of Hyderabad, Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

Previous studies showed that (a) performing pointing movements towards to-be-remembered locations enhanced their later recognition, and (b) in a joint-action condition, experimenter-performed pointing movements benefited memory to the same extent as self-performed movements. The present study replicated these findings and additionally recorded participants' fixations towards studied arrays. Each trial involved the presentation of two consecutive spatial arrays, where each item occupied a different spatial location. The item locations of one array were encoded by mere visual observation (the no-move array), whereas the locations of the other array were encoded by observation plus pointing movements (the move array). Critically, in Experiment 1, participants took turns with the experimenter in pointing towards the move arrays (joint-action condition), while in Experiment 2 pointing was performed only by the experimenter (passive condition). The results showed that the locations of move arrays were recognized better than the locations of no-move arrays in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The pattern of eye-fixations was in line with behavioral findings, indicating that in Experiment 1, fixations to the locations of move arrays were higher in number and longer in duration than fixations to the locations of no-move arrays, irrespective of the agent who performed the movements. In contrast, no differences emerged in Experiment 2. We propose that, in the joint-action condition, self- and other-performed pointing movements are coded at the same representational level and their functional equivalency is reflected in a similar pattern of eye-fixations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-021-01230-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Re-examining attention capture at irrelevant (ignored?) locations.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University.

In 2018, Ruthruff and Gaspelin used a modified spatial cuing paradigm in which targets were presented at two locations while abrupt-onset cues could be presented at four locations. They found that performance following cues presented at irrelevant locations was no worse than following no cue or following a centrally presented cue. They concluded, as conveyed by the title of their article (Immunity to Attentional Capture at Ignored Locations) that a spatial attentional control setting had eliminated capture of attention. This conclusion was reached by comparing response time to targets on cue-absent versus irrelevant cues condition. We administered the exact same task in Experiment 1 and observed that responses on irrelevant trials were faster compared with cue absent trials providing support for the "immunity to attention capture claim" made by Ruthruff and Gaspelin (2018). However, cue absent trials may not be the most appropriate baseline condition as they lack the alerting benefit provided by cue-present trials. Thus, equivalent response times (RTs) on trials with absent cues and irrelevant cues observed in Ruthruff and Gaspelin (2018) could have been due to the lack of this alerting benefit. We tested this in Experiment 2 by additionally including a warning beep on every trial as an alerting signal. With this methodological change, we observed that responses were slower on irrelevant trials compared with the cue absent trials suggesting interference from cues at irrelevant locations. This study underscores the importance of using the appropriate baseline while testing attention capture. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0001061DOI Listing
April 2021

The effects of short-term L2 training on components of executive control in Indian bilinguals.

Cogn Process 2021 May 16;22(2):339-351. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Centre for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500046, India.

This study investigated whether a short training (8 weeks) in the second-language (English) has any facilitative effect on components of executive functions in young adults. A pre-post design was used with two groups of participants: one group (experimental group) of students received English language training for eight weeks, and another group (control group) matched on age and background did not. Executive function tasks (Flanker, Stroop, and color-shape switching task) along with the object naming and working memory tasks were administered before and after the training. We observed that the experimental group demonstrated significant improvement in task switching, working memory capacity, and language skills. Findings from the study provide evidence that short training in second-language can enhance some components of executive functions besides improving language skills in young adult students. This finding contributes to a better understanding of language training and executive function among young adult bilinguals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10339-021-01014-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Reward Influences Masked Free-Choice Priming.

Front Psychol 2020 30;11:576430. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India.

While it is known that reward induces attentional prioritization, it is not clear what effect reward-learning has when associated with stimuli that are not fully perceived. The masked priming paradigm has been extensively used to investigate the indirect impact of brief stimuli on response behavior. Interestingly, the effect of masked primes is observed even when participants choose their responses freely. While classical theories assume this process to be automatic, recent studies have provided evidence for attentional modulations of masked priming effects. Most such studies have manipulated bottom-up or top-down modes of attentional selection, but the role of "newer" forms of attentional control such as reward-learning and selection history remains unclear. In two experiments, with number and arrow primes, we examined whether reward-mediated attentional selection modulates masked priming when responses are chosen freely. In both experiments, we observed that primes associated with high-reward lead to enhanced free-choice priming compared to primes associated with no-reward. The effect was seen on both proportion of choices and response times, and was more evident in the faster responses. In the slower responses, the effect was diminished. Our study adds to the growing literature showing the susceptibility of masked priming to factors related to attention and executive control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.576430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733960PMC
November 2020

Sensory Perception in Blind Bilinguals and Monolinguals.

J Psycholinguist Res 2020 Aug;49(4):631-639

Centre for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, 500046, India.

In blinds, the tactile sensations play a crucial role for various daily activities, in the all sense modalities tactile sensation is considered as major sense of perception. This study is conducted to investigate the tactile sensations in relation to Bilingual and Monolingual blinds using experimental comparative study design, divided into two groups. Self-paced reading task of a Braille scripted passage was used as a stimulus. Findings of this study reported that blind bilingual participants differ in the processing of language, the tactile sensations in the Bilinguals are better as compared to monolinguals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-020-09689-5DOI Listing
August 2020

The Nature of Unconscious Attention to Subliminal Cues.

Vision (Basel) 2019 Aug 1;3(3). Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, Science Complex, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500046, India.

Attentional selection in humans is mostly determined by what is important to them or by the saliency of the objects around them. How our visual and attentional system manage these various sources of attentional capture is one of the most intensely debated issues in cognitive psychology. Along with the traditional dichotomy of goal-driven and stimulus-driven theories, newer frameworks such as reward learning and selection history have been proposed as well to understand how a stimulus captures attention. However, surprisingly little is known about the different forms of attentional control by information that is not consciously accessible to us. In this article, we will review several studies that have examined attentional capture by subliminal cues. We will specifically focus on spatial cuing studies that have shown through response times and eye movements that subliminal cues can affect attentional selection. A majority of these studies have argued that attentional capture by subliminal cues is entirely automatic and stimulus-driven. We will evaluate their claims of automaticity and contrast them with a few other studies that have suggested that orienting to unconscious cues proceeds in a manner that is contingent with the top-down goals of the individual. Resolving this debate has consequences for understanding the depths and the limits of unconscious processing. It has implications for general theories of attentional selection as well. In this review, we aim to provide the current status of research in this domain and point out open questions and future directions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vision3030038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6802795PMC
August 2019

Pointing movements and visuo-spatial working memory in a joint setting: the role of motor inhibition.

Psychol Res 2020 Oct 10;84(7):2065-2077. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Previous studies have shown that, under specific conditions, arrays that have been pointed at encoding are recognized better than passively viewed ones. According to one interpretation, the superior recognition of pointed-to arrays can be explained by the motor inhibition of passively viewed arrays. The present study sought to determine whether a similar motor inhibition can be induced also when the participants observed a co-actor perform the pointing movements. Participants were presented with two spatial arrays, one of which was encoded via observation only (the no-move array), while the other was encoded with pointing movements (the move array); movements were performed either by the participant or by the experimenter. Experiment 1 replicated the advantage of self-pointed arrays over passively viewed arrays. Experiment 2 showed that, when participants passively observed the pointing movements performed by the experimenter, move arrays were recognized no better than no-move arrays. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that, in a joint-action condition in which participants alternated with the experimenter in making pointing movements, the advantage of experimenter-pointed arrays over passively viewed arrays was significant and similar in size to the advantage produced by self-performed movements. Importantly, a series of cross-experiment comparisons indicated that the higher recognition of both self- and experimenter-pointed arrays in Experiment 3 could be explained by the motor inhibition of no-move arrays. We propose that, in a joint condition, the pointing movements performed by the experimenter were represented in the same functional way as self-performed movements and that this produced the motor inhibition of passively viewed arrays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01209-yDOI Listing
October 2020

Language proficiency does not modulate executive control in older bilinguals.

Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 2019 11 30;26(6):920-951. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Centre for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad , Hyderabad , India.

We examined if language proficiency modulates performance in tasks that measure executive control in older Telugu-English bilinguals ( = 50, mean age = 57.15 years). We administered numerical Stroop task, Attention Network Task, Dimensional Change Card Sorting task, and stop-signal task that are known to tap into different aspects of executive functioning on healthy aging Telugu-English bilinguals. Second language (English) proficiency was calculated as a cumulative score that considered both subjective and objective measures of L2 fluency and use. Bilinguals were divided into two groups based on the cumulative score and compared on each task. We did not find any effect of language proficiency on any of the executive control measures. The additional Bayesian analysis also supported these findings. Therefore, the results do not support the claim that bilingual language proficiency modulates executive control, at least in the elderly population. We discuss the results with regard to the issue of bilingual advantage in executive control and the role of age and language use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2018.1562029DOI Listing
November 2019

Cross-modal plasticity in the deaf enhances processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality.

Sci Rep 2017 08 15;7(1):8158. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India.

Compensatory changes as a result of auditory deprivation in the deaf lead to higher visual processing skills. In two experiments, we explored if such brain plasticity in the deaf modulates processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality. Deaf and normal-hearing participants responded to targets either voluntarily or by instruction. Masked primes related to the response were presented briefly before the targets at the center and the periphery. In Experiment 1, targets appeared only at the foveal region whereas, in Experiment 2, they appeared both at the fovea and the periphery. The deaf showed higher sensitivity to masked primes in both the experiments. They chose the primed response more often and also were faster during congruent responses compared to the normal hearing. These results suggest that neuroplasticity in the deaf modulates how they perceive and use information with reduced visibility for action selection and execution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08616-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558002PMC
August 2017

Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals.

PLoS One 2017 12;12(1):e0169284. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India.

We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169284PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5230772PMC
August 2017

Effect of Exogenous Cues on Covert Spatial Orienting in Deaf and Normal Hearing Individuals.

PLoS One 2015 30;10(10):e0141324. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India.

Deaf individuals have been known to process visual stimuli better at the periphery compared to the normal hearing population. However, very few studies have examined attention orienting in the oculomotor domain in the deaf, particularly when targets appear at variable eccentricity. In this study, we examined if the visual perceptual processing advantage reported in the deaf people also modulates spatial attentional orienting with eye movement responses. We used a spatial cueing task with cued and uncued targets that appeared at two different eccentricities and explored attentional facilitation and inhibition. We elicited both a saccadic and a manual response. The deaf showed a higher cueing effect for the ocular responses than the normal hearing participants. However, there was no group difference for the manual responses. There was also higher facilitation at the periphery for both saccadic and manual responses, irrespective of groups. These results suggest that, owing to their superior visual processing ability, the deaf may orient attention faster to targets. We discuss the results in terms of previous studies on cueing and attentional orienting in deaf.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141324PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627766PMC
June 2016

Spatial gradients of oculomotor inhibition of return in deaf and normal adults.

Exp Brain Res 2016 Jan 16;234(1):323-30. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Center for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, India.

We explored the effect of deafness on the spatial (gradient) and temporal (decay) properties of oculomotor inhibition of return (IOR) using a task developed by Vaughan (Theoretical and applied aspects of eye movement research. Elsevier, North Holland, pp 143-150, 1984) in which participants made a sequence of saccades to carefully placed targets . Unlike IOR tasks in which ignored cues are used to explore the aftereffects of covert orienting, this task better approximates real-world behavior in which participants are free to make eye movements to potentially relevant inputs. Because IOR is a bias against returning attention and gaze to a previously attended location, we expected to find, and we did find, slower saccades toward previously fixated locations. Replicating Vaughan, a gradient of inhibition around a previously fixated location was observed and this inhibition began to decay after 1200 ms. Importantly, there were no significant differences between the deaf and the normal hearing subjects, on neither the magnitude of oculomotor IOR, nor its decay over time, nor its gradient around the previously fixated location .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-015-4439-xDOI Listing
January 2016

Unintentional activation of translation equivalents in bilinguals leads to attention capture in a cross-modal visual task.

PLoS One 2015 16;10(3):e0120131. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India; Centre for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India.

Using a variant of the visual world eye tracking paradigm, we examined if language non-selective activation of translation equivalents leads to attention capture and distraction in a visual task in bilinguals. High and low proficient Hindi-English speaking bilinguals were instructed to programme a saccade towards a line drawing which changed colour among other distractor objects. A spoken word, irrelevant to the main task, was presented before the colour change. On critical trials, one of the line drawings was a phonologically related word of the translation equivalent of the spoken word. Results showed that saccade latency was significantly higher towards the target in the presence of this cross-linguistic translation competitor compared to when the display contained completely unrelated objects. Participants were also slower when the display contained the referent of the spoken word among the distractors. However, the bilingual groups did not differ with regard to the interference effect observed. These findings suggest that spoken words activates translation equivalent which bias attention leading to interference in goal directed action in the visual domain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120131PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361716PMC
October 2015

Activation of shape and semantic information during ambiguous homophone processing: eye tracking evidence from Hindi.

Cogn Process 2014 Nov 12;15(4):451-65. Epub 2014 Jul 12.

Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences (CBCS), University of Allahabad, Allahabad, 211002, UP, India,

In two visual world eye tracking studies, we examined the activation of subordinate meanings of ambiguous homophones in Hindi and particularly when the sentence context is biased towards the dominant meaning. Participants listened to sentences that were either neutral or biased towards the dominant meaning of the homophone and saw a display containing four pictures. In experiment 1, the display had a shape competitor of the subordinate meaning of the homophone in both neutral and biased conditions along with three unrelated distractors. Experiment 2 had semantic competitors of the subordinate meaning of the homophones along with three distractors. Proportion of fixations to different objects overtime suggested that participants activated the subordinate meanings and oriented their attention to the shape and semantic competitors even when the prior context was biased towards the dominant meaning. Overall, these data from Hindi provide further support to those models of lexical access that assume exhaustive access of both the meanings of an ambiguous homophone. These data suggest even a dominant bias does not eliminate the activation of perceptual and conceptual features of the subordinate meaning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10339-014-0622-4DOI Listing
November 2014

Mechanisms and representations of language-mediated visual attention.

Front Psychol 2011 9;2:394. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics Nijmegen, Netherlands.

The experimental investigation of language-mediated visual attention is a promising way to study the interaction of the cognitive systems involved in language, vision, attention, and memory. Here we highlight four challenges for a mechanistic account of this oculomotor behavior: the levels of representation at which language-derived and vision-derived representations are integrated; attentional mechanisms; types of memory; and the degree of individual and group differences. Central points in our discussion are (a) the possibility that local microcircuitries involving feedforward and feedback loops instantiate a common representational substrate of linguistic and non-linguistic information and attention; and (b) that an explicit working memory may be central to explaining interactions between language and visual attention. We conclude that a synthesis of further experimental evidence from a variety of fields of inquiry and the testing of distinct, non-student, participant populations will prove to be critical.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3253411PMC
October 2012

Language-mediated visual orienting behavior in low and high literates.

Front Psychol 2011 28;2:285. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics Nijmegen, Netherlands.

The influence of formal literacy on spoken language-mediated visual orienting was investigated by using a simple look and listen task which resembles every day behavior. In Experiment 1, high and low literates listened to spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., "magar," crocodile) while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a phonological competitor of the target word, e.g., "matar," peas; a semantic competitor, e.g., "kachuwa," turtle, and two unrelated distractors). In Experiment 2 the semantic competitor was replaced with another unrelated distractor. Both groups of participants shifted their eye gaze to the semantic competitors (Experiment 1). In both experiments high literates shifted their eye gaze toward phonological competitors as soon as phonological information became available and moved their eyes away as soon as the acoustic information mismatched. Low literates in contrast only used phonological information when semantic matches between spoken word and visual referent were not present (Experiment 2) but in contrast to high literates these phonologically mediated shifts in eye gaze were not closely time-locked to the speech input. These data provide further evidence that in high literates language-mediated shifts in overt attention are co-determined by the type of information in the visual environment, the timing of cascaded processing in the word- and object-recognition systems, and the temporal unfolding of the spoken language. Our findings indicate that low literates exhibit a similar cognitive behavior but instead of participating in a tug-of-war among multiple types of cognitive representations, word-object mapping is achieved primarily at the semantic level. If forced, for instance by a situation in which semantic matches are not present (Experiment 2), low literates may on occasion have to rely on phonological information but do so in a much less proficient manner than their highly literate counterparts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203553PMC
November 2011

On the mental representations originating during the interaction between language and vision.

Cogn Process 2010 Nov 6;11(4):295-305. Epub 2010 May 6.

Centre for Behavioural and Cognitive Science, The University of Allahabad, Psychology building, Allahabad 211002, India.

The interaction between vision and language processing is clearly of interest to both cognitive psychologists and psycholinguists. Recent research has begun to create understanding of the interaction between vision and language in terms of the representational issues involved. In this paper, we first review some of the theoretical and methodological issues in the current vision-language interaction debate. Later, we develop a model that attempts to account for effects of affordances and visual context on language-scene interaction as well as the role of sensorimotor simulation. The paper addresses theoretical issues related to the mental representations that arise when visual and linguistic systems interact.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10339-010-0363-yDOI Listing
November 2010

Simulating motion in figurative language comprehension.

Open Neuroimag J 2010 Jul 8;4:46-52. Epub 2010 Jul 8.

Centre for Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, Allahabad University, India.

In this visual world eye tracking study we explored simulation of fictive motion during language comprehension in figurative sentences in Hindi. Eye movement measures suggest that language comprehenders gaze longer at visual scenes on hearing fictive motion sentences compared to their literal counterparts. The results support previous findings in English and provide cross linguistic evidence for the simulation and embodied views of language processing. We discuss the findings in the light of neuroimaging models and language vision interaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874440001004010046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048349PMC
July 2010

Interaction of language and visual attention: evidence from production and comprehension.

Prog Brain Res 2009 ;176:277-92

Centre for Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, Allahabad University, Allahabad, UP, India.

Recent developments in multimodal interactions in language processing have revealed important facts about the important controlling influence of the attentional system on language behavior. In this chapter, we cover the attentional system that is important for language processing and its interaction with the microstructure of the linguistic system. We argue that to understand the origin of language-mediated eye movements; we must integrate neuronal mechanisms of saccade generation with language processing. We discuss the various facets of interaction of language processing with visual attentional mechanism using eye-tracking data from Hindi in the production and comprehension of language.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(09)17616-1DOI Listing
December 2009
-->