Publications by authors named "Ramakant S Nayak"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Idiopathic first bite syndrome - A rare case report with review of literature.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 May-Aug;24(2):403. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

First bite syndrome (FBS) is a condition that classically presents as severe pain in the preauricular region, initiated on the first bite of a meal. In most of the cases reported, it is associated with a history of upper neck surgery or tumor of the parotid salivary gland or parapharyngeal space (PPS). Some propose that FBS arises due to damage to the cervical sympathetic trunk leading to the loss of sympathetic innervations to the parotid salivary gland. Literature also showed occurrence of this syndrome in individuals who had no history of parotid tumor, PPS tumor or surgery of the upper neck, and such cases are referred to as idiopathic FBS (IFBS). There are very few case reports reported on IFBS. We report the one such rare case of IFBS in a 35-year-old male, referred to the outpatient department, with a 5-month history of severe, sharp pain and bilateral swelling in the parotid region occurring only on the first bite of eating and would diminish over few minutes.
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September 2020

Comparison of the Efficacy of Sediment Cytology over Oral Brush Cytology in Oral Leukoplakia.

Acta Cytol 2020 8;64(4):368-374. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Oral Pathology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Center, Belgaum, India.

Introduction: A method called sediment cytology includes the investigation of smears arranged from the sediment of the biopsy specimen fixatives. The sediment from this fixative is used to prepare smears and provides a potentially rich source for cytological material. Investigation of the fixative sediment and understanding of the cytological picture with pertinent clinical and radiological information permits diagnosis in a few hours.

Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of sediment cytology and oral brush cytology compared with histopathological findings in oral leukoplakia (OL) cases.

Methods: Cytological smears were obtained from 30 clinically diagnosed OL lesions using 2 techniques: oral cytobrush and 10% formalin fixative sedimentation. Both smears were stained with Papanicolaou. Cytological smear evaluation was conducted with respect to cellularity, cell distribution, cellular clumping, and the presence of blood, debris, inflammatory cells, and microbial colonies. The cytopathological scores for all cases were compared between sediment and brush cytology and correlated with the histopathological diagnosis. For statistical analysis, the κ test and the Wilcoxon matched-pair test were used.

Results: The cytobrush technique had a sensitivity of 83.3% for OL cases histopathologically diagnosed as severe dysplasia, while the sediment cytology technique had a sensitivity of 16.6%. For moderate/mild dysplasia cases, the cytobrush technique had a sensitivity of 7.7%, whereas the sediment technique showed no diagnostic sensitivity.

Conclusion: Based on the results from the present study, sediment cytology, unlike oral brush cytology, is not a useful screening tool for the preliminary diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions.
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July 2020

Detection of antibodies against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in serum and saliva through ELISA in periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 9;125:438-442. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Molecular Biology & Immunology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, 590010, Karnataka, India.

Background: Periodontitis is a persistent polymicrobial infection, which leads to chronic inflammation in the tooth supporting tissues. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are normal commensals of oral cavity but are low in number in periodontally healthy subjects. They are one of the major pathogens aetiologically linked to periodontal disease. Plasma and salivary antibody measurement may be useful to support diagnosis, disease activity, classification and prognosis of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the serum and salivary antibody levels to A. actinomycetemcomitans and therefore, to find whether this association was varying in different grades of periodontitis.

Method: Total of 50 periodontally healthy and 50 chronic periodontitis subjects (35-65 years) of both sexes were included for the study. 2 ml of un-stimulated saliva and 5 ml of venous blood was collected under sterile conditions. The detection of antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis was performed using indirect ELISA.

Results: Results showed serum IgG, IgA mean levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans were higher in chronic periodontitis subjects compared to mean levels in periodontally healthy subjects. Similarly, salivary IgG, IgA levels were also raised in chronic periodontitis patients as compared in healthy subjects. Also the mean levels of serum IgG and salivary IgA were increased as the severity of disease increased.

Conclusion: Antibody titer using saliva and serum could be useful tool for screening of patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, monitoring the various phases of treatment outcome using saliva could be a useful, non-invasive, prognostic indicator.
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December 2018

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction detection of selected bacterial species from symptomatic and asymptomatic non-vital teeth with primary endodontic infections.

J Investig Clin Dent 2018 May 11;9(2):e12312. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G Halgekar's Institute of Dental Sciences, Karnataka, India.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of selective anaerobic microorganisms in primary root canal infections of symptomatic and asymptomatic non-vital teeth with periapical pathosis using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

Methods: A total of 100 root canal samples (50 from symptomatic and 50 from asymptomatic teeth) were obtained from patients with primary endodontic infections. DNA extracted from the samples was amplified by using specific primers for the 16S rRNA gene of each bacterium, and semiquantification was done to analyze the prevalence of microorganisms and their correlation to clinical features.

Results: Treponema denticola (T. denticola) was present in 21 (42%) and 29 (58%) samples in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups, respectively. Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) were significantly high (P < .05) in the symptomatic group, whereas Prevotella intermedia was significantly high (P < .05) in the asymptomatic group. The mean counts of T. denticola and F. nucleatum were significantly high (P < .05) in the symptomatic group. For symptoms, P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and F. nucleatum were significantly associated with clinical features.

Conclusion: Significant differences exist in the bacterial composition between asymptomatic and symptomatic primary endodontic infections. As well as presence of pathogens, other factors, such as the phenotypic trait of bacteria and interactions among bacterial members, might play a determining role in the pathogenicity of primary endodontic infections.
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May 2018

Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.

J Int Oral Health 2013 Feb 26;5(1):1-7. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Oral Pathology, Maratha Mandal's N.G.H.I.D.S & R.C. Belgaum, India.

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex.

Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated.

Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant.

Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.
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February 2013

Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012 May;16(2):245-50

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NG Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare acquired disorder characterized by diffuse hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia in adults. They appear as macular lesions less than 5 mm in diameter. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is considered to be a benign disease with no systemic manifestation or malignant potential. Therefore, it is important to rule out other mucocutaneous pigmentary disorders that do require medical management. Prompt clinical recognition also averts the need for excessive and invasive procedures and treatments. In India, the reported cases of this syndrome are very few. We provide a review of literature on Laugier-Hunziker syndrome with its differential diagnosis.
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May 2012

Activation of latent TGF-beta1 by low-power laser in vitro correlates with increased TGF-beta1 levels in laser-enhanced oral wound healing.

Wound Repair Regen 2007 Nov-Dec;15(6):866-74

Molecular Reproduction Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

The term Laser "Photobiomodulation" was coined to encompass the pleiotropic effects of low-power lasers on biological processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta had a role in mediating the biological effects of low-power far-infrared laser irradiation. We assayed for in vitro activation using various biological forms of cell-secreted, recombinant, and serum latent TGF-beta using the p3TP reporter and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We demonstrate here that low-power lasers are capable of activating latent TGF-beta1 and -beta3 in vitro and, further, that it is capable of "priming" these complexes, making them more amenable to physiological activation present in the healing milieu. Using an in vivo oral tooth extraction-healing model, we observed an increased TGF-beta1, but not beta3, expression by immunohistochemistry immediately following laser irradiation while TGF-beta3 expression was increased after 14 days, concomitant with an increased inflammatory infiltrate. All comparisons were performed between laser-irradiated wounds and nonirradiated wounds in each subject essentially using them as their own control (paired T-test p<0.05). Low-power laser irradiation is capable of activating the latent TGF-beta1 complex in vitro and its expression pattern in vivo suggests that TGF-beta play a central role in mediating the accelerated healing response.
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March 2008