Publications by authors named "Rajesh Kumar"

1,471 Publications

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Determination of efficacy of curcumin and Tulsi extracts as local drugs in periodontal pocket reduction: A clinical and microbiological study.

J Indian Soc Periodontol 2021 May-Jun;25(3):197-202. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Periodontics, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Background: The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of Curcumin and Tulsi in the control of periodontal parameters when delivered in the form of local drug delivery (LDD) agents.

Methods: Curenext gel and Tulsi gel were used as the two LDD agent. A split mouth randomized clinical trial was carried out in 15 patients. Three sites in different quadrants were assigned treatment modality of scaling and root planing (SRP) alone, SRP with LDD of curcumin and SRP with LDD of Tulsi extract, respectively. Clinical parameters Probing Pocket Depth, Clinical Attachment Level, Plaque Index, Gingival Index, and modified Sulcus Bleeding Index were recorded and subgingival plaque sample collected for N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) assay on baseline followed by LDD with extracts in the assigned group. The parameters were recorded at baseline and on 30 day postoperatively. Unpaired and Paired-'t' test were used for intergroup and intragroup comparison of recorded clinical and microbiological parameters.

Results: All the treatment modalities showed statistically significant reduction in clinical and microbiological parameters on intragroup comparison. Intergroup comparison showed statistically significant reduction in Plaque Index in curcumin group and BAPNA assay in Tulsi group when compared to SRP.

Conclusion: Both the herbs were effective in improving periodontal parameters and may develop as an alternative to currently used LDD agents in near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jisp.jisp_158_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177171PMC
May 2021

Predictors of critical illness and mortality based on symptoms and initial physical examination for patients with SARS-CoV-2: A retrospective cohort study.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jun 17;14(8):1028-1034. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Diabetic and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, 249203, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: An unidentified cluster of pneumonia was identified in Wuhan city of China in the last week of December 2019, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). The current study explored the predictors associated with critical illness and mortality based on symptoms at the time of admission and initial physical examination findings in patients with SARS-CoV-2.

Material And Methods: A total of 249 records of laboratory-confirmed SARS-COV-2 patients were analyzed. Demographic profile and findings of initial physical examination were collected and analyzed. Bivariate logistic and multivariable stepwise forward regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of critical illness and mortality.

Results: A total of 249 records of SARS-COV-2 patients were retrospectively studied, of whom 66 (26.5%) developed a critical illness, and 58 (23.29%) died. The mean age of patients was 45.15 (16.34) years; 171 (68.71%) were men. From 27 potential predictors for developing a critical illness, 15 were reported independent predictors for critical illness, and 13 were for increased risk of mortality. Stepwise forward regression reported dyspnea as a single strongest predictor (OR, 5.800, 95% CI-2.724-12.346; p = 0.001, R = 0.272) to develop critical illness. Likewise, the respiratory rate was alone reported as a strong predictor (OR, 1.381, 95% CI- 1.251-1.525; p = 0.000, R = 0.329) for mortality.

Conclusions: Coronavirus disease is a new challenge to the medical fraternity, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of potential risk factors could help clinicians assess patients' risk with unfavourable outcomes and improve hospitalization decisions in the early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213400PMC
June 2021

Designing of emerald terbium (III) ions with β-ketocarboxylic acid and heterocyclic ancillary ligands for biological and optoelectronic applications.

Luminescence 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India.

A green and highly efficient grinding method was adopted to synthesize emerald terbium complexes with 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluro-4-oxo-7-piperazin-1-ylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid as main organic ligand and 2,2'-bipyridyl, 1,10-phenanthroline, neocuproine, 5,6-dimethyl-1,10- phenanthroline and bathophenanthroline as ancillary ligands. Structural analysis of these complexes was executed via elemental, infrared and H-NMR analysis, which confirmed that the ligand coordinated to the metal ion through β-ketone and hydroxyl group of carboxylic acid respectively. Thermal stability of these complexes was investigated by study of thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG). Photoluminescence properties were investigated by observing emission spectra (400-700 nm), excitation spectra (250-500 nm) and decay time curves for display devices. The emission spectra reveal that an intense peak at 545 nm was observed due to D → F electronic transition, which is responsible for emerald color in synthesized complexes, under 353 nm UV-excitation. The energy band gap and refractive index were determined, which proclaimed the dormant applications of these complexes in semiconductors. CIE color coordinates confirmed that the emerald emission of these complexes lies in green region. Further, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antimalarial assays of these complexes were also investigated, which confirms that these complexes are potent for antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-malarial activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.4106DOI Listing
June 2021

Consensus for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: UK practical guidelines.

BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2021 Jun;8(1)

HPB Surgery, Royal Surrey Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, UK.

Introduction: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is a finding in many conditions, predominantly affecting those with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and acute necrotising pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency can experience gastrointestinal symptoms, maldigestion, malnutrition and adverse effects on quality of life and even survival.There is a need for readily accessible, pragmatic advice for healthcare professionals on the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

Methods And Analysis: A review of the literature was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of experts in pancreatology, and recommendations for clinical practice were produced and the strength of the evidence graded. Consensus voting by 48 pancreatic specialists from across the UK took place at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland annual scientific meeting.

Results: Recommendations for clinical practice in the diagnosis, initial management, patient education and long term follow up were developed. All recommendations achieved over 85% consensus and are included within these comprehensive guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000643DOI Listing
June 2021

NiCoO Nano-/Microstructures as High-Performance Biosensors: A Review.

Authors:
Rajesh Kumar

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Jun 8;12(1):122. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, Jagdish Chandra DAV College, Dasuya, Distt. Hoshiarpur, 144205, Punjab, India.

Non-enzymatic biosensors based on mixed transition metal oxides are deemed as the most promising devices due to their high sensitivity, selectivity, wide concentration range, low detection limits, and excellent recyclability. Spinel NiCoO mixed oxides have drawn considerable attention recently due to their outstanding advantages including large specific surface area, high permeability, short electron, and ion diffusion pathways. Because of the rapid development of non-enzyme biosensors, the current state of methods for synthesis of pure and composite/hybrid NiCoO materials and their subsequent electrochemical biosensing applications are systematically and comprehensively reviewed herein. Comparative analysis reveals better electrochemical sensing of bioanalytes by one-dimensional and two-dimensional NiCoO nano-/microstructures than other morphologies. Better biosensing efficiency of NiCoO as compared to corresponding individual metal oxides, viz. NiO and CoO, is attributed to the close intrinsic-state redox couples of Ni/Ni (0.58 V/0.49 V) and Co/Co (0.53 V/0.51 V). Biosensing performance of NiCoO is also significantly improved by making the composites of NiCoO with conducting carbonaceous materials like graphene, reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes (single and multi-walled), carbon nanofibers; conducting polymers like polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANI); metal oxides NiO, CoO, SnO, MnO; and metals like Au, Pd, etc. Various factors affecting the morphologies and biosensing parameters of the nano-/micro-structured NiCoO are also highlighted. Finally, some drawbacks and future perspectives related to this promising field are outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00462-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770908PMC
June 2020

Surface mass balance analysis at Naradu Glacier, Western Himalaya, India.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 16;11(1):12710. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Himachal Pradesh Council for Science, Technology and Environment (HIMCOSTE), Vigyan Bhawan, Bemloe, Shimla, H.P., 171 001, India.

In the present study, we analyze a field-based seven-year data series of surface mass-balance measurements collected during 2011/12 to 2017/18 on Naradu Glacier, western Himalaya, India. The average annual specific mass balance for the said period is  - 0.85 m w.e. with the maximum ablation of  - 1.15 m w.e. The analysis shows that the topographic features, south and southeast aspects and slopes between 7 to 24 degrees are the reasons behind the maximum ablation from a particular zone. The causes of surface mass balance variability have been analyzed through multiple linear regression analyses (MLRA) by taking temperature and precipitation as predictors. The MLRA demonstrates that 71% of the observed surface mass balance variance can be explained by temperature and precipitation. It clearly illustrates the importance of summer temperature, which alone explains 64% variance of surface mass balance. The seasonal analysis shows that most of the surface mass balance variability is described by summer temperature and winter precipitation as two predictor variables. Among monthly combinations, surface mass balance variance is best characterized by June temperature and September precipitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91348-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209027PMC
June 2021

Effect of Vitamin B6, B9, and B12 Supplementation on Homocysteine Level and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Stroke Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Cureus 2021 May 11;13(5):e14958. Epub 2021 May 11.

Nursing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Rishikesh, IND.

Globally, stroke is the fifth-most leading cause of mortality and also the third leading cause of disability. This study aimed to assess the effect of vitamin B, B, and B supplementation on homocysteine level, risk of stroke, cardiovascular disorders, and vascular death among stroke participants. An extensive literature search was done through PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Clinical key database from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2020. Effect of vitamin B (B, B, and B) supplementation on homocysteine was assessed with a mean difference in both vitamin and placebo groups. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for determining the risk of stroke, major cardiovascular disorder, and vascular death by using a fixed-effect model. A total of eight trials with 8513 participants were included for the final analysis. Vitamin B supplementation intervention was found to have a significant benefit in reducing homocysteine in stroke patients (mean difference -3.84; p<0.00001). The intervention of vitamin B supplementation showed a significant risk reduction of 11% for combined risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death among stroke patients, 13% for stroke and 17% for vascular death, whereas no beneficial effect was seen for cardiovascular disorders. This meta-analysis demonstrated up-to-date evidence on the beneficial effect of vitamin B supplementations in reducing homocysteine and preventing the combined risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death among stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191525PMC
May 2021

Clinico-microbiological description and evaluation of rapid lateral flow immunoassay and PCR for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei from patients hospitalized with sepsis and pneumonia: A twenty-one months study from Odisha, India.

Acta Trop 2021 Jun 9;221:105994. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Community and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

Establishing a diagnosis of melioidosis based on clinical grounds is difficult in hospitalized patients with sepsis or community acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to ascertain the prevalence, clinico-epidemiological and laboratory profile of melioidosis in hospitalized patients with sepsis or CAP, and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of rapid lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) and PCR in comparison with culture. In all patients with sepsis or CAP, blood, sputum/throat swab, and urine sample were subjected to culture along with other samples based on clinical presentation. In addition, PCR assay targeting the type III secretion system 1 (TTS1) and LFI was performed. Thirty-three (33/196, 17%) out of the total 196 cases were diagnosed as melioidosis by culture. The prevalence of melioidosis in patients who had only sepsis without CAP, had both sepsis and CAP, had CAP without sepsis was 31% (26/84), 22 % (4/18) and 3%(3/94) respectively. All the LFI or PCR positive cases were culture positive from at least one or more samples (blood/sputum/urine/pus). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of TTS1 PCR was 78% (18/23 melioidosis patients), 100% (34/34 non-melioidosis patients), 100% (18/18 melioidosis patients) and 87% (34/39 non-melioidosis patients). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Rapid LFI was 91% (21/23 melioidosis patients), 100% (22/22 non-melioidosis patients), 100% (21/21 melioidosis patients) and 91% (22/24 non-melioidosis patients). On sample wise stratification of LFI and TTS1 with respect to culture, plasma/serum samples showed the highest discordance by PCR (9/55, 16.3%) and LFI (11/35, 31.4%). The lowest discordance was noted in respiratory tract samples (2/32, 6.2%) by PCR and pus/body fluids samples (2/14, 14.2%) by LFI and these findings are in line with previous published literature. The clinical utility of PCR and LFI needs to be further validated in a large scale study for early diagnosis of septicaemic melioidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105994DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Assessing the impacts of Amphan cyclone over West Bengal, India: a multi-sensor approach.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 5;193(7):384. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09124-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Corona health-care warriors in India: knowledge, attitude, and practices during COVID-19 outbreak.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 27;10:44. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Background: COVID-19 has become a global health emergency after its first case in Wuhan city, China. An increasing number of cases and deaths are challenging the health-care system globally. This study aims to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19 disease among health personnel in rapid outbreak in India.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using Google Forms through Google platform on-line. A total of 713 health personal allied health-care staff, working in different public and private health-care facilities, was conducted in the mid of April 2020. A structured knowledge, attitude, and practice questionnaire used to assess health personnel's knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19. All instruments were validated and pretested before use. Chi-square test, followed by binary logistic and multivariate regression, was applied to determine factors associated with knowledge scores.

Results: Seven hundred and thirteen health personnel participated, and 703 (98.6%) participants responded were analyzed for final results. 95.9% of the health personnel were aware about route of transmission and clinical symptoms (95.3%) of COVID-19. 63.7% believed that virus outbreak would be controlled globally and followed standard precautions (81.8%), including wearing the mask. Further, majority (98.3%) of the participants avoided social contact by not going to crowded places and not calling people to their homes (82.2%) during the advisory of the government. In binary logistic regression analyses, the adequate knowledge score found significantly associated with MBBS/bachelor's degree (odds ratio [OR]: 2.309, confidence interval [CI]: 1.232-4.324, < 0.009) and master's degree (OR: 2.944, CI: 1.485-5.835, < 0.002), working with government health-care facility (OR: 3.662, CI: 1.624-8.285, < 0.002), and holding a post of a physician (OR: 7.735, CI: 2.210-27.091, < 0.001) during outbreak.

Conclusions: The level of education is associated with adequate knowledge scores among the health personnel. Type of health-care facility and post held in a health-care facility are significant predictors of adequacy of knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_524_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057180PMC
February 2021

CdO-ZnO nanorices for enhanced and selective formaldehyde gas sensing applications.

Environ Res 2021 May 28;200:111377. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Industrial Sensors and Measurements (CISM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

This paper reports synthesis, properties and gas sensing applications of ZnO nanoflowers and CdO-ZnO nanorices prepared by hydrothermal process. The morphological characterizations confirmed the formation of well-defined nanoflowers and nanorices structures for ZnO and CdO-ZnO nanomaterials, respectively. The structural properties revealed the wurtzite hexagonal phase of the synthesized materials. The sensor devices based on ZnO nanoflowers and CdO-ZnO nanorices were fabricated and tested towards various gases including ethanol, methanol, ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane and formaldehyde. The fabricated gas sensor based on CdO-ZnO nanorices exhibited a high response (34.5) towards 300 ppm formaldehyde gas at 350 °C compared to ZnO nanoflowers (14.5) under the same experimental conditions. The response and recovery times for ZnO nanoflowers-based sensor were~9.8 s and ~6 s while for CdO-ZnO based sensor, these were ~10s and ~6s, respectively. A rapid response (34.5) for CdO-ZnO nanorices based formaldehyde gas sensor was observed as compared to other gases such as ammonia (12.3), methanol (16.5), ethanol (20), carbon monoxide (16.3) and methane (12.4), which confirm the high-selectivity towards formaldehyde gas. Finally, a plausible formaldehyde gas sensing mechanism is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111377DOI Listing
May 2021

Which patients benefit from preoperative biliary drainage in resectable pancreatic cancer?

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 26:1-9. Epub 2021 May 26.

HPB Surgical Unit, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Recent studies have indicated that preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) should not be routinely performed in all patients suffering from obstructive jaundice before pancreatic surgery. The severity of jaundice that mandates PBD has yet to be defined. The evaluated paper examines the impact of PBD on intra-operative, and post-operative outcomes in patients initially presenting with severe obstructive jaundice (bilirubin ≥250 μmol/L). In this key paper evaluation, the impact of PBD versus a direct surgery (DS) approach is discussed. The arguments for and against each approach are considered with regards to drainage associated morbidity and mortality, resection rates, survival and the impact of chemotherapy and malnutrition. Concentrating on resectable head of pancreas tumors, this mini-review aims to scrutinize the authors' recommendations, alongside those of prominent papers in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2021.1915127DOI Listing
May 2021

Digital health: A panacea in COVID-19 crisis.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jan 30;10(1):62-65. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Nursing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

The whole world is in the grip of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. This pandemic brought visible changes in the life of humans around the globe. Likewise, the medical health sector is forced to use digital technology to continue to provide medical health services by preventing themselves. COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the significance of digitalization in every sphere of life. By focusing on virtual care at a large scale, health care delivery becomes possible and convenient even for remote places. The use of artificial intelligence concepts in this pandemic, like robots replaced human movements and function automatically to guide the patients in the reception area and found helpful to prevent and manage the crowd in a few countries. Similarly, the use of e-earning platform has emerged as a digital solution to impart medical education to medical students in this corona outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1494_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132818PMC
January 2021

Accuracy of autorefraction in an adult Indian population.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(5):e0251583. Epub 2021 May 19.

Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Purpose: Autorefractors allow non-specialists to quickly assess refractive error, and thus could be a useful component of large-scale vision screening programs. In order to better characterize the role of autorefraction for public health outreach programs in resource-limited settings, the diagnostic accuracy of two autorefractors was assessed relative to subjective refraction in an adult Indian population.

Methods: An optometrist refracted a series of patients aged ≥50 years at an eye clinic in Bangalore, India using the Nidek ARK-900 autorefractor first, followed by the 3nethra Royal autorefractor, and then subjective refraction. The diagnostic accuracy of each autorefractor for myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was assessed using subjective refraction as the reference standard, and measures of agreement between refractions were calculated.

Results: A total of 197 eyes in 104 individuals (mean age 63 ± 8 years, 52% female) were evaluated. Both autorefractors produced spherical equivalent estimates that were on average more hyperopic than subjective refraction, with a measurement bias of +0.16 D (95%CI +0.09 to +0.23D) for Nidek and +0.42 D (95%CI +0.28 to +0.54D) for 3nethra. When comparing pairs of measurements from autorefraction and subjective refraction, the limits of agreement were approximately ±1D for the Nidek autorefractor and ±1.75D for the 3Nethra autorefractor. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting ≥1 diopter of myopia were 94.6% (95%CI 86.8-100%) and 92.5% (95%CI 88.9-97.5%) for the Nidek, and 89.2% (95%CI 66.7-97.4) and 77.5% (95%CI 71.2-99.4%) for the 3Nethra. The accuracy of each autorefractor increased at greater levels of refractive error.

Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the Nidek autorefractor for diagnosing refractive error among adults ≥50 years in an urban Indian clinic was sufficient for screening for visually significant refractive errors, although the relatively wide limits of agreement suggest that subjective refinement of the eyeglasses prescription would still be necessary.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251583PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133404PMC
May 2021

Ion acceleration at two collisionless shocks in a multicomponent plasma.

Phys Rev E 2021 Apr;103(4-1):043201

Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Intense laser-plasma interactions are an essential tool for the laboratory study of ion acceleration at a collisionless shock. With two-dimensional particle-in-cell calculations of a multicomponent plasma we observe two electrostatic collisionless shocks at two distinct longitudinal positions when driven with a linearly polarized laser at normalized laser vector potential a_{0} that exceeds 10. Moreover, these shocks, associated with protons and carbon ions, show a power-law dependence on a_{0} and accelerate ions to different velocities in an expanding upstream with higher flux than in a single-component hydrogen or carbon plasma. This results from an electrostatic ion two-stream instability caused by differences in the charge-to-mass ratio of different ions. Particle acceleration in collisionless shocks in multicomponent plasma are ubiquitous in space and astrophysics, and these calculations identify the possibility for studying these complex processes in the laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.103.043201DOI Listing
April 2021

Hematological profile and biochemical markers of COVID-19 non-survivors: A retrospective analysis.

Clin Epidemiol Glob Health 2021 Jul-Sep;11:100770. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Community & Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Background: Coronavirus disease is primarily transmitted through the respiratory route and bodily contact. The fatality in COVID-19 cases was alarming in the initial days. This study analyzes hematological and biochemical markers of COVID-19 non-survivors

Material And Methods: In this single-center study, records of 249 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were studied for hematological profile and biochemical markers. Records of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease hospitalized between April 14, 2020, to August 15, 2020, were included in the analysis.

Results: Significantly, the disease mortality was associated with increased procalcitonin ( < 0.05), C-reactive protein ( < 0.05), aspartate transaminase ( < 0.05), serum potassium ( < 0.05), neutrophils count ( < 0.05), white blood cell count ( < 0.05), prothrombin time ( < 0.05) and activated prothrombin time ( < 0.05) in patients reported abnormal x-ray findings. Further, patients with abnormal radiological findings significantly showed a reduced level of lymphocyte counts ( < 0.05), oxygen saturation ( < 0.05), and partial oxygen pressure ( < 0.05). Reduced level of aspartate aminotransferase ( < 0.05), alanine aminotransferase ( < 0.05) and lactate dehydrogenase ( < 0.05) reported significant association with mortality among patients with COVID-19.

Conclusions: The clinicians may consider the hematological and biochemical parameters in the patients with COVID-19 in future decision-making. These indicators might support clinical decisions to identify high fatality cases and poor diagnosis in the initial admission phase. In COVID-19 patients, we recommend close monitoring on procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, neutrophils count, and white blood cell count as a clinical indicator for potential progression to critical illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2021.100770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106521PMC
May 2021

Electrically controlled 1  ×  2 tunable switch using a phase change material embedded silicon microring.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3559-3568

Phase change material (GST) has recently emerged as a highly promising candidate for photonic device applications owing to its high optical contrast, self-holding bi-stability, and fast material response. Here, we propose and analyze a 1×2 tunable switch using a GST embedded silicon microring resonator exploiting high optical contrast during GST phase change and a high thermo-optic coefficient of amorphous phase GST. Our device exhibits high extinction ratios of 25.57 dB and 18.75 dB at through and drop ports, respectively, with just a 1 µm long GST layer. The two states of the switch are realizable by electrically inducing phase change in GST. For post phase change from amorphous to crystalline and vice versa, the fall time down the 80% of phase transition temperature is ∼66 and ∼45, respectively. The resonance wavelength shift per unit active length is 0.661 nm/µm, and the tuning efficiency is 1.16 nm/mW. The large wavelength tunability (4.63 nm) of the proposed switch makes it an attractive option for reconfigurable photonic integrated circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.418358DOI Listing
May 2021

INI1/SMARCB1 Rpt1 domain mimics TAR RNA in binding to integrase to facilitate HIV-1 replication.

Nat Commun 2021 05 12;12(1):2743. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.

INI1/SMARCB1 binds to HIV-1 integrase (IN) through its Rpt1 domain and exhibits multifaceted role in HIV-1 replication. Determining the NMR structure of INI1-Rpt1 and modeling its interaction with the IN-C-terminal domain (IN-CTD) reveal that INI1-Rpt1/IN-CTD interface residues overlap with those required for IN/RNA interaction. Mutational analyses validate our model and indicate that the same IN residues are involved in both INI1 and RNA binding. INI1-Rpt1 and TAR RNA compete with each other for IN binding with similar IC values. INI1-interaction-defective IN mutant viruses are impaired for incorporation of INI1 into virions and for particle morphogenesis. Computational modeling of IN-CTD/TAR complex indicates that the TAR interface phosphates overlap with negatively charged surface residues of INI1-Rpt1 in three-dimensional space, suggesting that INI1-Rpt1 domain structurally mimics TAR. This possible mimicry between INI1-Rpt1 and TAR explains the mechanism by which INI1/SMARCB1 influences HIV-1 late events and suggests additional strategies to inhibit HIV-1 replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22733-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115288PMC
May 2021

Community Foodborne of Outbreak at Northern Governorate, Sultanate of Oman.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Ministry of Health, Central Public Health Laboratory, Muscat, Oman.

Objectives: To investigate the course of a community gastroenteritis outbreak by and implement interventional activities and roles to prevent occurring such an outbreak in the future.

Methods: From August 27 to 2 September 2015, 101 individuals were reported among a local community. All affected individuals had a history of food consumption at a local restaurant. A rapid response team conducted active surveillance and interview with the affected individuals and workers of the restaurant. Food items and stools from food handlers and affected individuals were cultured and sent for genotyping. An environmental audit of the restaurant had been conducted.

Results: The total majority of the affected individuals were male and more than 70% belonged to the young age group from 15 to 45 years. Out of the total, 97% had diarrhea, 70% fever, 56% abdominal cramps and 49% vomiting. All those affected were managed symptomatically except for 14 cases admitted for intravenous rehydration. Breakdown of food safety and basic personal hygiene were detected in the environment of the restaurant and among the workers. There are 39 out of 49 stool cultures of cases, six out of 18 food handlers, and five food samples were positive for spp. The identical DNA fingerprinting pattern among S. Weltevreden strains originating from human cases and food was detected.

Conclusion: This is the first reported community foodborne of S. Weltevreden outbreak in Oman. The importance of food safety and rigors environmental safety is emphasized. Basic personal hygiene and training of food handlers in restaurants are recommended with public health measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210404.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Neutralizing antibody response against subcutaneously injected bacteriophages in rabbit model.

Virusdisease 2021 Mar 10;32(1):38-45. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 India.

Bacteriophage therapy is currently experiencing a renaissance. Therapeutic efficacy of bacteriophages depends on phage-bacterial and phage-host interactions. The appearance of neutralizing anti-phage antibody has been speculated to be one of the few reasons for bacteriophage therapy's failure. This study aimed to know whether there is a rise in the neutralizing antibody on the parenteral injection of bacteriophages in an animal model. This study included bacteriophages against five different bacteria, namely , , , and These bacteriophages were isolated, propagated and purified. Bacteriophage specificity was confirmed by spot testing on the respective bacterial lawn. Weekly subcutaneous injection of purified bacteriophages (10PFU) was given to five rabbits for six weeks. Blood samples were collected before administering the next dose every week. The antibody response was tested by phage neutralization followed by plaque assay by using double agar overlay method. The rise in anti-phage neutralizing antibodies was observed usually after the 3 week after immunization. Complete neutralization of bacteriophages could be seen between 3 and 5 weeks after immunization. A further rise in bacteriophage counts (PFU), especially on 1:1000 and 1:2000 serum dilutions, could be noticed by the end of 6th week against most bacteriophages injected. Background anti-phage neutralizing antibodies were observed against bacteriophage specific to However, it was absent against bacteriophages specific to other four bacteria. Bacteriophage interacts with mammalian host and induces anti-phages neutralizing antibody production. However, neutralization of phage depends on repeated administration and duration of therapy. The significant rise in neutralizing antibody could be seen at the end of 3rd week. Therefore, bacteriophage can be effectively used in acute cases where therapy duration is less than 2 weeks. However, for prolonged therapy, bacteriophage cocktail of different antigenicity may be suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-021-00673-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093364PMC
March 2021

Discovery of Potent and Brain-Penetrant Tau Tubulin Kinase 1 (TTBK1) Inhibitors that Lower Tau Phosphorylation In Vivo.

J Med Chem 2021 05 4;64(9):6358-6380. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biogen, 225 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States.

Structural analysis of the known NIK inhibitor bound to the kinase domain of TTBK1 led to the design and synthesis of a novel class of azaindazole TTBK1 inhibitors exemplified by (cell IC: 571 nM). Systematic optimization of this series of analogs led to the discovery of , a potent (cell IC: 315 nM) and selective TTBK inhibitor with suitable CNS penetration (rat K: 0.32) for in vivo proof of pharmacology studies. The ability of to inhibit tau phosphorylation at the disease-relevant Ser 422 epitope was demonstrated in both a mouse hypothermia and a rat developmental model and provided evidence that modulation of this target may be relevant in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00382DOI Listing
May 2021

Common Principles and Specific Mechanisms of Mitophagy from Yeast to Humans.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 22;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Mitochondria are double membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells essential to a variety of cellular functions including energy conversion and ATP production, iron-sulfur biogenesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism, and regulating apoptosis and stress responses. Mitochondrial dysfunction is mechanistically linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ageing. Excessive and dysfunctional/damaged mitochondria are degraded by selective autophagic pathways known as mitophagy. Both budding yeast and mammals use the well-conserved machinery of core autophagy-related genes () to execute and regulate mitophagy. In mammalian cells, the PINK1-PARKIN mitophagy pathway is a well-studied pathway that senses dysfunctional mitochondria and marks them for degradation in the lysosome. PINK1-PARKIN mediated mitophagy relies on ubiquitin-binding mitophagy adaptors that are non-ATG proteins. Loss-of-function mutations in and are linked to Parkinson´s disease (PD) in humans, and defective mitophagy is proposed to be a main pathomechanism. Despite the common view that yeast cells lack PINK1- and PARKIN-homologs and that mitophagy in yeast is solely regulated by receptor-mediated mitophagy, some studies suggest that a ubiquitination-dependent mitophagy pathway also exists. Here, we will discuss shared mechanisms between mammals and yeast, how mitophagy in the latter is regulated in a ubiquitin-dependent and -independent manner, and why these pathways are essential for yeast cell survival and fitness under various physiological stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122514PMC
April 2021

Study on the Effect of Oral Administration of Bacteriophages in Charles Foster Rats With Special Reference to Immunological and Adverse Effects.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:615445. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have recently demonstrated the significant role of phage therapy in treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. However, only a few researchers have focused on monitoring the phage-mediated adverse reactions during phage therapy. Besides adverse reactions, immunological response after short- and long-term oral administration of bacteriophages is also lacking. In this study, we administered the bacteriophages orally against XDR strain in dosages of 10 PFU/ml and a 10 PFU/ml (still higher) to Charles Foster rats as a single dose (in acute toxicity study) and daily dosage for 28 days (in sub-acute toxicity study). One milliliter suspension of bacteriophages was administered through the oral gavage feeding tube. No adverse effect was observed in any of the experimental as well as in the control animals.Further, an insignificant change in food and water intake and body weight was observed throughout the study period compared with the control group rats. On the 28th day of phage administration, blood was collected to estimate hematological, biochemical, and cytokines parameters. The data suggested no difference in the hematological, biochemical, and cytokine profile compared to the control group. No significant change in any of the treatment groups could be observed on the gross and histopathological examinations. The cytokines estimated, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-6, and INF-gamma, were found within the normal range during the experiment. The results suggested no adverse effect, including the severe detrimental impact on oral administration of high (10 PFU/ml) and very high dose (10 PFU/ml) of the bacteriophages cocktail. The high and long-term oral administration of bacteriophages did not induce noticeable immunological response as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.615445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072658PMC
April 2021

Solid state fermentation of fenugreek (-): implications on bioactive compounds, mineral content and in vitro bioavailability.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 May 17;58(5):1927-1936. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana India.

In the present study, solid-state fermentation (SSF) of four fenugreek cultivars viz. HM-57, AFG-2, RMT-1 and RMT-303 were carried out using and its effect on antioxidant properties, phenolic content and bioactive compounds were studied. Macro (Ca, K, and Na) as well as micro (Fe, Zn, and Cu) elements in vitro bioavailability of the unfermented fenugreek (UFF) and -fermented fenugreek (AFF) samples were assessed with standard methods. On 5th day, total phenolic and condensed tannin contents showed significant ( ≤ 0.05) increase for all cultivars. Further, HPLC analysis confirmed formation of some new bioactive (vanillin, benzoic acid and catechin) compounds. Similarly, extracts from all AFF also showed an increase in the antioxidant potential such as inhibition of DPPH, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity up to 5th day of SSF. Mineral in AFF were found with enhanced values when compared with respective UFF. In vitro bioavailability of Fe, Zn and Ca was also improved during SSF. Results from the present study may be helpful to food industry in developing new health foods and may provide a rational for development of functional ingredient in preparation of novel nutraceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04704-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021647PMC
May 2021

Asthma Medication Regimens in Pregnancy: Longitudinal Changes in Asthma Status.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Objective:  This study aimed to assess the impact of common asthma medication regimens on asthma symptoms, exacerbations, lung function, and inflammation during pregnancy.

Study Design:  A total of 311 women with asthma were enrolled in a prospective pregnancy cohort. Asthma medication regimen was categorized into short-acting β agonist (SABA) alone, SABA + inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), SABA + ICS + long-acting β agonist (LABA), and no asthma medications (reference). We evaluated asthma control at enrollment (< 15 weeks' gestation) and its change into trimesters 2 and 3, including per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (%PEF), pulse oximetry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), asthma symptoms (asthma attacks/month, night symptoms/week), and severe exacerbations. Linear mixed models adjusted for site, age, race, annual income, gestational age, body mass index, and smoking, and propensity scores accounted for asthma control status at baseline.

Results:  Women taking SABA + ICS and SABA + ICS + LABA had better first trimester %PEF (83.5% [75.7-91.3] and 84.6% [76.9-92.3], respectively) compared with women taking no asthma medications (72.7% [66.0-79.3]). Women taking SABA + ICS + LABA also experienced improvements in %FEV1 (+11.1%,  < 0.01) in the third trimester and FeNO in the second (-12.3 parts per billion [ppb],  < 0.01) and third (-11.0 ppb,  < 0.01) trimesters as compared with the trajectory of women taking no medications. SABA + ICS use was associated with increased odds of severe exacerbations in the first (odds ratio [OR]: 2.22 [1.10-4.46]) and second (OR: 3.15 [1.11-8.96]) trimesters, and SABA + ICS + LABA use in the second trimester (OR: 7.89 [2.75-21.47]). Women taking SABA alone were similar to those taking no medication.

Conclusion:  Pregnant women taking SABA + ICS and SABA + ICS + LABA had better lung function in the first trimester. SABA + ICS + LABA was associated with improvements in lung function and inflammation across gestation. However, both the SABA + ICS and SABA + ICS + LABA groups had a higher risk of severe exacerbation during early to mid-pregnancy.

Key Points: · Medication regimens may affect perinatal asthma control.. · Intensive regimens improved lung function/inflammation.. · Women on intensive regimens had more acute asthma events..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1727233DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessing the impacts of Amphan cyclone over West Bengal, India: a multi-sensor approach.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 19;193(5):283. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Landfall of the Amphan (very severe cyclonic storm) occurred at 1730 hrs Indian Standard Time (IST) on May 20, 2020, near the West Bengal (W.B.) coast of India. High wind speed, storm surge, and torrential rainfall-induced flooding caused devastation in W.B. The present study aims to analyse the impacts of Amphan cyclone on land use/land cover (LULC) such as built-up area, cropland, brick-kiln industries and vegetation cover of nine districts of W.B. namely, Barddhaman, Nadia, North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Purba Medinipur, Paschim Medinipur, Haora, and Kolkata. Flood extent has been mapped using Sentinel-1A and B interferometric wide swath (IW) ground range detected (GRD) VV polarisation images dated May 22, 2020. The total actual flooded area covers 488 km of the study area. For the pre-cyclone period, LULC classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been done using Sentinel-2B multispectral instrument (MSI) images dated May 14, 2020. Post-cyclone NDVI has been computed using Sentinel-2B MSI images dated June 3, 2020. Flood-affected cropland covers a large chunk (88.2%) of the total actual flooded area. Mean NDVI values of non-flooded and flooded cropland and vegetation cover have been reduced between May 14, 2020, and June 3, 2020. District, block and pixel-wise changes in pre- and post-cyclone NDVI values have also been analysed. This study helps planners and policy makers to understand the district-wise flooding behavior, severity of damage to cropland and vegetation cover and to plan restriction on high-value land use in flooded low-lying areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09071-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Autophagy promotes mitochondrial respiration by providing serine for one-carbon-metabolism.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 18:1-4. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Whether macroautophagy/autophagy is physiologically relevant to regulate mitochondrial function for a rapid and dynamic adaptation of yeast cells to respiratory growth was not fully understood until recently. May . (2020. ) report that bulk autophagy provides serine as a one-carbon (1C) metabolite that controls respiratory growth onset by initiating mitochondrial initiator tRNA modification and mitochondrial translation linking autophagy mechanistically to mitochondrial function. We discuss the mechanistic interplay between autophagy, one-carbon-metabolism, and mitochondrial function and the possible implications in neurodegeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1909408DOI Listing
April 2021

Current trends for distillery wastewater management and its emerging applications for sustainable environment.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 13;290:112544. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Rhizosphere Biology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, (A Central University), Vidya Vihar, Raibareli Road, Lucknow, 226025, India.

Ethanol distillation generates a huge volume of unwanted chemical liquid known as distillery wastewater. Distillery wastewater is acidic, dark brown having high biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, contains various salt contents, and heavy metals. Inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of distillery wastewater deteriorates the quality of the soil, water, and ultimately groundwater. Its direct exposure via food web shows toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic effects on aquatic-terrestrial organisms including humans. So, there is an urgent need for its proper management. For this purpose, a group of researchers applied distillery wastewater for fertigation while others focused on its physico-chemical, biological treatment approaches. But until now no cutting-edge technology has been proposed for its effective management. So, it becomes imperative to comprehend its toxicity, treatment methods, and implication for environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the last decade's research data on advanced physico-chemical, biological, and combined (physico-chemical and biological) methods to treat distillery wastewater and its reuse aspects. Finally, it revealed that the combined methods along with the production of value-added products are one of the best options for distillery wastewater management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112544DOI Listing
July 2021

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Spike Protein Based Novel Epitopes Induce Potent Immune Responses and Inhibit Viral Replication .

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:613045. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, National Capital Region (NCR) Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) initiates infection by attachment of the surface-exposed spike glycoprotein to the host cell receptors. The spike glycoprotein (S) is a promising target for inducing immune responses and providing protection; thus the ongoing efforts for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and therapeutic developments are mostly spiraling around S glycoprotein. The matured functional spike glycoprotein is presented on the virion surface as trimers, which contain two subunits, such as S1 (virus attachment) and S2 (virus fusion). The S1 subunit harbors the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD is responsible for binding to host-cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The NTD and RBD of S1, and the S2 of S glycoprotein are the major structural moieties to design and develop spike-based vaccine candidates and therapeutics. Here, we have identified three novel epitopes (20-amino acid peptides) in the regions NTD, RBD, and S2 domains, respectively, by structural and immunoinformatic analysis. We have shown as a proof of principle in the murine model, the potential role of these novel epitopes in-inducing humoral and cellular immune responses. Further analysis has shown that RBD and S2 directed epitopes were able to efficiently inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 wild-type virus suggesting their role as virus entry inhibitors. Structural analysis revealed that S2-epitope is a part of the heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domain which might have plausible inhibitory effects on virus fusion. Taken together, this study discovered novel epitopes that might have important implications in the development of potential SARS-CoV-2 spike-based vaccine and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.613045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032902PMC
April 2021