Publications by authors named "Rajendra Singh"

302 Publications

Review and comparison of layer transfer methods for two-dimensional materials for emerging applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA and Materials Research Institute, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer immense potential for scientific breakthroughs and technological innovations. While early demonstrations of 2D material-based electronics, optoelectronics, flextronics, straintronics, twistronics, and biomimetic devices exploited micromechanically-exfoliated single crystal flakes, recent years have witnessed steady progress in large-area growth techniques such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and metal-organic CVD (MOCVD). However, use of high growth temperatures, chemically-active growth precursors and promoters, and the need for epitaxy often limit direct growth of 2D materials on the substrates of interest for commercial applications. This has led to the development of a large number of methods for the layer transfer of 2D materials from the growth substrate to the target application substrate with varying degrees of cleanliness, uniformity, and transfer-related damage. This review aims to catalog and discuss these layer transfer methods. In particular, the processes, advantages, and drawbacks of various transfer methods are discussed, as is their applicability to different technological platforms of interest for 2D material implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00706hDOI Listing
August 2021

Cardiac Surgery in a Patient With Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2021.07.002DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison between physiologically based pharmacokinetic and population pharmacokinetic modelling to select paediatric doses of gepotidacin in plague.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, United States.

Aims: To develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models to predict effective doses of gepotidacin in paediatrics for the treatment of pneumonic plague (Yersinia pestis).

Methods: A gepotidacin PBPK model was constructed using a population-based absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion simulator, Simcyp®, with physicochemical and in vitro data, optimized with clinical data from a dose-escalation intravenous (IV) study and a human mass balance study. A PopPK model was developed with pooled PK data from phase 1 studies with IV gepotidacin in healthy adults.

Results: For both the PopPK and PBPK models, body weight was found to be a key covariate affecting gepotidacin clearance. With PBPK, ~90% of the predicted PK for paediatrics fell between the 5th and 95th percentiles of adult values except for subjects weighing ≤5 kg. PopPK-simulated paediatric means for C and AUC were similar to adult exposures across various weight brackets. The proposed dosing regimens were weight-based for subjects ≤40 kg and fixed-dose for subjects >40 kg. Comparison of observed and predicted exposures in adults indicated that both PBPK and PopPK models achieved similar AUC and C for a given dose, but the C predictions with PopPK were slightly higher than with PBPK. The two models differed on dose predictions in children <3 months old. The PopPK model may be suboptimal for low age groups due to the absence of maturation characterization of drug-metabolizing enzymes involved with clearance in adults.

Conclusions: Both PBPK and PopPK approaches can reasonably predict gepotidacin exposures in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14996DOI Listing
July 2021

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of a Single Oral Dose of Abacavir/Dolutegravir/Lamivudine Combination Tablets in Healthy Japanese Study Participants.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Sep 15;10(9):985-993. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Clinical Development, ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of abacavir 600 mg/dolutegravir 50 mg/lamivudine 300 mg were assessed in this phase 1, single-arm, open-label, single-dose study in fasted healthy male (n = 4) and female (n = 8) participants of Japanese heritage. Participants received a single dose of abacavir 600 mg/dolutegravir 50 mg/lamivudine 300 mg after an 8-hour fast, with safety assessments and blood samples for pharmacokinetic parameters collected through 72 hours after dosing. Geometric mean maximum plasma concentrations were 5.22 μg/mL (time to maximum concentration [t ], 1.01 hours) for abacavir, 4.13 μg/mL (t , 3.50 hours) for dolutegravir, and 3.35 μg/mL (t , 2.98 hours) for lamivudine. Geometric mean area under the concentration-time curve values were 18.20, 71.60, and 16.60 μg • h/mL for abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine, respectively. No adverse events were reported, and no clinically significant findings were observed in laboratory values, physical examinations, or 12-lead electrocardiographic parameters. Single-tablet administration of abacavir 600 mg/dolutegravir 50 mg/lamivudine 300 mg was well tolerated in Japanese participants. Exposure to abacavir and lamivudine was comparable with that seen in previous studies. A modest increase in exposure to dolutegravir vs previous clinical studies was observed but is not expected to impact the clinical management of HIV-1 or increase the risk for adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.996DOI Listing
September 2021

Nitrogen absorption efficiency and mechanism in Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - Canna indica symbiosis.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 17;282:130708. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University (SEU), Nanjing, 210096, China; SEU-Monash University Joint Research Center for Future Cities, Nanjing, 210096, China. Electronic address:

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its symbiosis with Canna indica on nitrogen (N) absorption was investigated for the remediation of contaminated soil. Canna indica plants with rhizome and leaf integrity intact were collected in spring and autumn seasons. To maintain the ideal nutrient composition, Hoagland concentrated nutrient solution was diluted with deionized water and additional nutrient solution was added periodically. Treated root samples were observed with an optical microscope and the number of hyphae and intersections as well as inoculation status were examined. High-throughput sequencing experiment was conducted to quantify AMF inoculation. Alpha diversity study was used to characterize abundance and diversity of the symbiosis. Hydroponic experiments were conducted to explore the absorption effectiveness of AMF-Canna symbiosis under different NH-N and NO-N combinations. Hyphal colonization rate was only about 5.66 ± 1.08% in seedling stage in spring, but enhanced in the adult stage in autumn (53.89 ± 1.43%). Results revealed that AMF had no significant impact on NO-N absorption by Canna roots, however, absorption of NH-N was improved by 63% under low concentration. Results revealed that when NH-N and NO-N were applied combinedly in a 1:1 ratio, their respective absorption rates were enhanced to 99.63% and 99.50%. Compared with the case of NH-N as N source alone, synergistic effect of NH-N and NO-N significantly changed the absorption of NH-N by C. indica, but its correlation with AMF inoculation was still not significant. Current findings could enhance understanding for effective N uptake and resource recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130708DOI Listing
November 2021

Diverse Immunological Factors Influencing Pathogenesis in Patients with COVID-19: A Review on Viral Dissemination, Immunotherapeutic Options to Counter Cytokine Storm and Inflammatory Responses.

Pathogens 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India.

The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still not fully unraveled. Though preventive vaccines and treatment methods are out on the market, a specific cure for the disease has not been discovered. Recent investigations and research studies primarily focus on the immunopathology of the disease. A healthy immune system responds immediately after viral entry, causing immediate viral annihilation and recovery. However, an impaired immune system causes extensive systemic damage due to an unregulated immune response characterized by the hypersecretion of chemokines and cytokines. The elevated levels of cytokine or hypercytokinemia leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) along with multiple organ damage. Moreover, the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 has been linked with race, gender, and age; hence, this viral infection's outcome differs among the patients. Many therapeutic strategies focusing on immunomodulation have been tested out to assuage the cytokine storm in patients with severe COVID-19. A thorough understanding of the diverse signaling pathways triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is essential before contemplating relief measures. This present review explains the interrelationships of hyperinflammatory response or cytokine storm with organ damage and the disease severity. Furthermore, we have thrown light on the diverse mechanisms and risk factors that influence pathogenesis and the molecular pathways that lead to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and multiple organ damage. Recognition of altered pathways of a dysregulated immune system can be a loophole to identify potential target markers. Identifying biomarkers in the dysregulated pathway can aid in better clinical management for patients with severe COVID-19 disease. A special focus has also been given to potent inhibitors of proinflammatory cytokines, immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic options to ameliorate cytokine storm and inflammatory responses in patients affected with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150955PMC
May 2021

Therapeutic tissue regenerative nanohybrids self-assembled from bioactive inorganic core / chitosan shell nanounits.

Biomaterials 2021 07 30;274:120857. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, South Korea; Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, South Korea; Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, South Korea; Cell & Matter Institute, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea; UCL Eastman-Korea Dental Medicine Innovation Centre, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, South Korea. Electronic address:

Natural inorganic/organic nanohybrids are a fascinating model in biomaterials design due to their ultra-microstructure and extraordinary properties. Here, we report unique-structured nanohybrids through self-assembly of biomedical inorganic/organic nanounits, composed of bioactive inorganic nanoparticle core (hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass, or mesoporous silica) and chitosan shell - namely [email protected] The inorganic core thin-shelled with chitosan could constitute as high as 90%, strikingly contrasted with the conventional composites. The [email protected] nanohybrids were highly resilient under cyclic load and resisted external stress almost an order of magnitude effectively than the conventional composites. The nanohybrids, with the nano-roughened surface topography, could accelerate the cellular responses through stimulated integrin-mediated focal adhesions. The nanohybrids were also able to load multiple therapeutic molecules in the core and shell compartment and then release sequentially, demonstrating controlled delivery systems. The nanohybrids compartmentally-loaded with therapeutic molecules (dexamethasone, fibroblast growth factor 2, and phenamil) were shown to stimulate the anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and osteogenic events of relevant cells. When implanted in the in vivo calvarium defect model with 3D-printed scaffold forms, the therapeutic nanohybrids were proven to accelerate new bone formation. Overall, the nanohybrids self-assembled from [email protected] nanounits, with their unique properties (ultrahigh inorganic content, nano-topography, high resilience, multiple-therapeutics delivery, and cellular activation), can be considered as promising 3D tissue regenerative platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120857DOI Listing
July 2021

Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (AZD1222) is ideal for resource-constrained low- and middle-income countries.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 May 31;65:102264. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010342PMC
May 2021

In silico prediction of polyethylene-aqueous and air partition coefficients of organic contaminants using linear and nonlinear approaches.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 31;289:112437. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China.

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) passive sampling is very attractive for use in determining chemicals concentrations. Crucial to the measurement is the coefficient (K) describing partitioning between LDPE and environmental matrices. 255, 117 and 190 compounds were collected for the development of datasets in three different matrices, i.e., water, air and seawater, respectively. Further, 3 pp-LFER models and 9 QSPR models based on classical multiple linear regression (MLR) coupled with prevalent nonlinear algorithms (artificial neural network, ANN and support vector machine, SVM) were performed to predict LDPE-water (K), LDPE-air (K) and LDPE-seawater (K) partition coefficients. These developed models have satisfying predictability (R: 0.805-0.966, 0.963-0.991 and 0.817-0.941; RMSE: 0.233-0.565, 0.200-0.406 and 0.260-0.459) and robustness (Q: 0.840-0.943, 0.968-0.984 and 0.797-0.842; RMSE: 0.308-0.514, 0.299-0.426 and 0.407-0.462) in three datasets (water, air and seawater), respectively. In particular, the reasonable mechanism interpretations revealed that the molecular size, hydrophobicity, polarizability, ionization potential, and molecular stability were the most relevant properties, for governing chemicals partitioning between LDPE and environmental matrices. The application domains (ADs) assessed here exhibited the satisfactory applicability. As such, the derived models can act as intelligent tools to predict unknown K values and fill the experimental gaps, which was further beneficial for the construction of enormous and reliable database to facilitate a distinct understanding of the distribution for organic contaminants in total environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112437DOI Listing
July 2021

Advances in therapeutic and managemental approaches of bovine mastitis: a comprehensive review.

Vet Q 2021 Dec;41(1):107-136

Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Mastitis (intramammary inflammation) caused by infectious pathogens is still considered a devastating condition of dairy animals affecting animal welfare as well as economically incurring huge losses to the dairy industry by means of decreased production performance and increased culling rates. Bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary glands/udder of bovines, caused by bacterial pathogens, in most cases. Routine diagnosis is based on clinical and subclinical forms of the disease. This underlines the significance of early and rapid identification/detection of etiological agents at the farm level, for which several diagnostic techniques have been developed. Therapeutic regimens such as antibiotics, immunotherapy, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, probiotics, stem cell therapy, native secretory factors, nutritional, dry cow and lactation therapy, genetic selection, herbs, and nanoparticle technology-based therapy have been evaluated for their efficacy in the treatment of mastitis. Even though several strategies have been developed over the years for the purpose of managing both clinical and subclinical forms of mastitis, all of them lacked the efficacy to eliminate the associated etiological agent when used as a monotherapy. Further, research has to be directed towards the development of new therapeutic agents/techniques that can both replace conventional techniques and also solve the problem of emerging antibiotic resistance. The objective of the present review is to describe the etiological agents, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in brief along with an extensive discussion on the advances in the treatment and management of mastitis, which would help safeguard the health of dairy animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2021.1882713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906113PMC
December 2021

Assessment of runoff nutrients loss in Phyllostachys praecox cv. prevernalis forest land under simulated rainfall conditions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7;28(17):21874-21886. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China.

The loss regularity of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of runoff under different rainfall intensity and different management practices in Phyllostachys praecox cv. prevernalis forest land was studied. The total nitrogen (TN) and COD concentration in runoff were significantly correlated with the rainfall intensity under the three management modes named as control, fertilization, and cover. Moreover, N mainly lost in the form of nitrate (NO-N). Generally, the relationship between total and dissolved phosphorus (TP and DP) loss in the three management modes was estimated in following orders: coverage > fertilization > control. The loss of P was mainly in the granular state, and the loss of DP only accounted negligible amount of the TP loss. The loss of COD was closely related to the magnitude of rainfall intensity. Results revealed that COD concentration in runoff under fertilization and cover management was significantly correlated with the rain fall intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11871-0DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19 in the elderly people and advances in vaccination approaches.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 12 3;16(12):2938-2943. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Division of Biological Standardization, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute , Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

The rapid worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in tens of millions of infections and over one million deaths. SARS-CoV-2 infection affects all age groups; however, those over 60 years old are affected more severely. Moreover, pre-existing co-morbidities result in higher COVID-19-associated mortality in the geriatric population. This article highlights the associated risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in older people and progress in developing COVID-19 vaccines, especially for efficient vaccination of the older population. There is also a summary of immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic approaches to ameliorate the outcome of COVID-19 in older individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1842683DOI Listing
December 2020

Simultaneous reduction of antibiotics leakage and methane emission from constructed wetland by integrating microbial fuel cell.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jan 20;320(Pt A):124285. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a microbial fuel cell coupled with constructed wetland (CW-MFC) was built to demonstrate that integration of MFC can enhance antibiotics (sulfadiazine (SDZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) removal in CWs and control CH emissions. Better COD and antibiotics removal performance was obtained in CW-MFC. Notably, both reactors can remove more than 90.00% of CIP. A decline in methane fluxes (by 15.29%) was also observed in CW-MFC compared with CW. The presence of Acorus tatarinowii had no obvious effect on antibiotics removal but the application of manganese ore substrate reduced methane emissions. Further study showed that Proteobacteria was enriched on the Mn substrate anode and the relative abundance of Methanothrix was declined. The results suggested that suppression of methanogenesis may be contributed to a low methane flux in CW-MFC. This study will facilitate the application of CW-MFC to treat antibiotics wastewater and control the ecological risks of greenhouse gas emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124285DOI Listing
January 2021

A Comparative Study of Pathology and Host Immune Response Induced by Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Experimentally Infected Chickens of Aseel and White Leghorn Breeds.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Oct 26;8(4). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly UP 243 122, India.

Indigenous breeds of young chickens in India are believed to be resistant to the classical strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). However, the mechanism underlying this resistance is obscure. Innate immunity is a key factor in defining the clinical course and pathology of microbial infections. The present study is aimed to compare the pathology of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) and immunological host response in experimentally infected - vaccinated and unvaccinated indigenous Aseel and commercial White Leghorn chickens. The viral loads and innate immune gene expression profiles of MDA-5, Mx, IFN-α, and IFN-β in different lymphoid organs were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The histopathological scores in Aseel birds were lower than in White Leghorns despite comparable viral loads. The degrees of histopathological lesions were fewer in vaccinated birds than in unvaccinated birds of both breeds. Analysis of innate immune response genes revealed that the cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor MDA-5 gene was overexpressed mainly in the cecal tonsils of both vaccinated and nonvaccinated White Leghorn chickens. An increase in the expression of the IFN-α gene was seen in the cecal tonsils of Aseels, and an increase in IFN-β gene expression was seen in the thymuses of White Leghorns following vvIBDV challenge both in vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. In addition, we observed that the Mx gene plays a minimal role, if any, in vvIBDV infection of the breeds under study. It remains interesting and important that although vvIBDV causes disease in indigenous Aseel birds, the faster clearance and reduced pathology of the virus in Aseel birds compared to White Leghorn chicken indicate some unidentified innate immune factors that are limiting IBDV in this breed. Further studies will be required to correlate kinetics of humoral and cellular immune response in relation to the virus load in different organs to illuminate the mechanism of genetic resistance in native breeds of chicken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711558PMC
October 2020

Patho-morphological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of fibrous tissue pulmonary hamartoma in young buffaloes.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Jan 23;42(1):62-68. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, India.

Hamartoma is a developmental disorder characterized by the presence of well-differentiated tissue, of multiple types, in excess at its normal location. The present study describes a fibrous tissue pulmonary hamartoma in two buffaloes. Grossly, there were large pale white masses present on the left diaphragmatic lobe in both cases. Microscopic examination of the lungs revealed that the bronchioles were dilated and showed many terminal respiratory bronchioles lined by a single layer of cuboidal epithelium supported by thick bands of collagenous tissue. Alveoli were distorted and separated by wide bands of connective tissues. Interalveolar septa were greatly expanded by collagen fiber proliferation and subsequent fibrosis. Fibrous connective tissues were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Masson's Trichrome staining (MTS). Based on gross and histological examination, coupled with IHC and MTS, it was possible to confirm a case of hamartoma, which is rarely reported worldwide and is the first reported case from India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2020.1821213DOI Listing
January 2021

Geriatric Population During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Problems, Considerations, Exigencies, and Beyond.

Front Public Health 2020 22;8:574198. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wreaked havoc worldwide, with more than 20 million confirmed cases and nearly 0. 75 million deaths as of 10th August 2020. Various factors determine the severity and symptoms of this infection. Older age and underlying diseases are the challenges being faced in controlling and treating COVID-19. In 2019, 703 million of the global population was older than 65 years of age. The estimated mortality due to COVID-19 in people older than 76 years of age is reportedly 18%. Frequent infections in older people, higher disease severity, and increased mortality are major challenges in the implementation of appropriate preventive measures and future strategies to protect against this disease in geriatric population. Poor health status, weak immune function, lowered organ function, increased probability of multiple underlying diseases, and poor attention to personal health can increase the susceptibility to various diseases in the geriatric population. Concerning inadequate immunity, the decrease expression of receptors and exaggerated pathophysiologic responses can be debilitating. However, future studies will reveal the hidden facets in these aspects in this COVID-19 catastrophe. In this article, we reviewed the main concerns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the geriatric population, including the risk of acquiring severe COVID-19 resulting in mortality, variation in clinical manifestations, and other pandemic-related concerns. We also discussed the need for increasing attention toward the elderly, taking appropriate prevention and control measures, and considering geriatric-related adjustments in vaccine design and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.574198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536316PMC
May 2021

Dynamics of Ionic Liquids in Confinement by Means of NMR Relaxometry-EMIM-FSI in a Silica Matrix as an Example.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Sep 30;13(19). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Ionic Liquid and Solid State Ionics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

H and F spin-lattice relaxation studies for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in bulk and mesoporous MCM-41 silica matrix confinement were performed under varying temperatures in a broad range of magnetic fields, corresponding to H resonance frequency from 5Hz to 30MHz.A thorough analysis of the relaxation data revealed a three-dimensional translation diffusion of the ions in the bulk liquid and two-dimensional diffusion in the vicinity of the confining walls in the confinement. Parameters describing the translation dynamics were determined and compared. The rotational motion of both kinds of ions in the confinement was described by two correlation times that might be attributed to anisotropic reorientation of these species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13194351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579494PMC
September 2020

Photovoltaic and flexible deep ultraviolet wavelength detector based on novel β-GaO/muscovite heteroepitaxy.

Sci Rep 2020 Sep 30;10(1):16098. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi, 110016, India.

Flexible and self-powered deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are pivotal for next-generation electronic skins to enrich human life quality. The fabrication of epitaxial β-GaO thin films is challenging on flexible substrates due to high-temperature growth requirements. Herein, β-GaO ([Formula: see text] 0 1) films are hetero-epitaxially grown on ultra-thin and environment-friendly muscovite mica which is the first time β-GaO epitaxy growth on any flexible substrate. Integration of Gallium oxide with muscovite enables high-temperature processing as well as excellent flexibility compared to polymer substrates. Additionally, the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector on β-GaO layer shows an ultra-low dark current of 800 fA at zero bias. The photovoltaic peak responsivity of 11.6 µA/W is obtained corresponding to very weak illumination of 75 μW/cm of 265 nm wavelength. Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements are employed to investigate the optically active trap states. Among these traps, trap with an activation energy of 166 meV dominates the persistence photocurrent in the devices. Finally, photovoltaic detectors have shown excellent photocurrent stability under bending induced stress up to 0.32%. Hence, this novel heteroepitaxy opens the new way for flexible deep UV photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73112-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528161PMC
September 2020

Genotoxic Potential Assessment of the Herbicide Bispyribac-Sodium in a Fresh Water Fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2020 Nov 24;105(5):715-720. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Zoology, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (Central University), Bilaspur, Chattisgarh, India.

Genotoxic potential of herbicide bispyribac-sodium was evaluated in fish Clarias batrachus using micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay. Fish were exposed to three environmentally relevant test concentrations of the herbicide for 20, 25 and 30 days. Significant effects (p < 0.05) for both concentration and duration of exposure were observed in herbicide exposed fish. Similar trend of DNA damage was observed through MN test and comet assay. Maximum DNA damage was observed in fish exposed to highest concentration of herbicide at all duration. Maximum damage was observed on day 25 at all concentrations followed by a decline. This study established C. batrachus as an ecotoxicological model for bispyribac-sodium induced genotoxicity testing. It further confirmed that both MN test and comet assay are useful tool for assessment of genotoxicity induced by water pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-03003-8DOI Listing
November 2020

Achieving enhanced biological nitrogen removal via 2450 MHz electromagnetic wave loading on returned sludge in anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Jul;82(2):373-385

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.

To evaluate the enhancing of the biological nitrogen removal effectiveness by electromagnetic wave loading on returned sludge in the A/A/O reactor, some experiments were completed with the returned sludge loaded by 2,450 MHz electromagnetic wave. The excess sludge yield and pollutant removal effect of the system were evaluated. Results showed that stronger denitrification effect and less sludge yield were achieved. When 30% of the returned sludge was loaded by electromagnetic wave, the actual denitrification efficiency increased by 7% without dosage. The dissolution of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from loaded returned sludge was detected, thus providing the system with a supplemental carbon source of 4.6 g/d SCOD. The specific oxygen uptake rate of the oxic activated sludge increased by 14%, and the denitrification rate of the anoxic activated sludge increased by 29%. Illumina MiSeq analysis showed that the microbial richness increased obviously, and denitrifying bacteria (i.e. Dechloromonas, Zoogloea and Azospira, etc.) were accumulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.328DOI Listing
July 2020

Cluster Superlattice Membranes.

ACS Nano 2020 Oct 16;14(10):13629-13637. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Cologne, D-50937, Germany.

Cluster superlattice membranes consist of a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of similar-sized nanoclusters sandwiched between single-crystal graphene and an amorphous carbon matrix. The fabrication process involves three main steps, the templated self-organization of a metal cluster superlattice on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111), conformal embedding in an amorphous carbon matrix, and subsequent lift-off from the Ir(111) substrate. The mechanical stability provided by the carbon-graphene matrix makes the membrane stable as a free-standing material and enables transfer to other substrates. The fabrication procedure can be applied to a wide variety of cluster materials and cluster sizes from the single-atom limit to clusters of a few hundred atoms, as well as other two-dimensional layer/host matrix combinations. The versatility of the membrane composition, its mechanical stability, and the simplicity of the transfer procedure make cluster superlattice membranes a promising material in catalysis, magnetism, energy conversion, and optoelectronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c05740DOI Listing
October 2020

"Hard" ceramics for "Soft" tissue engineering: Paradox or opportunity?

Acta Biomater 2020 10 17;115:1-28. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129, Italy. Electronic address:

Tissue engineering provides great possibilities to manage tissue damages and injuries in modern medicine. The involvement of hard biocompatible materials in tissue engineering-based therapies for the healing of soft tissue defects has impressively increased over the last few years: in this regard, different types of bioceramics were developed, examined and applied either alone or in combination with polymers to produce composites. Bioactive glasses, carbon nanostructures, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are among the most widely-proposed hard materials for treating a broad range of soft tissue damages, from acute and chronic skin wounds to complex injuries of nervous and cardiopulmonary systems. Although being originally developed for use in contact with bone, these substances were also shown to offer excellent key features for repair and regeneration of wounds and "delicate" structures of the body, including improved cell proliferation and differentiation, enhanced angiogenesis, and antibacterial/anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, when embedded in a soft matrix, these hard materials can improve the mechanical properties of the implant. They could be applied in various forms and formulations such as fine powders, granules, and micro- or nanofibers. There are some pre-clinical trials in which bioceramics are being utilized for skin wounds; however, some crucial questions should still be addressed before the extensive and safe use of bioceramics in soft tissue healing. For example, defining optimal formulations, dosages, and administration routes remain to be fixed and summarized as standard guidelines in the clinic. This review paper aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the use and potential of bioceramics in treatment, reconstruction, and preservation of soft tissues (skin, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscles, and ophthalmic tissues) and critically discusses their pros and cons (e.g., the risk of calcification and ectopic bone formation as well as the local and systemic toxicity) in this regard. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Soft tissues form a big part of the human body and play vital roles in maintaining both structure and function of various organs; however, optimal repair and regeneration of injured soft tissues (e.g., skin, peripheral nerve) still remain a grand challenge in biomedicine. Although polymers were extensively applied to restore the lost or injured soft tissues, the use of bioceramics has the potential to provides new opportunities which are still partially unexplored or at the very beginning. This reviews summarizes the state of the art of bioceramics in this field, highlighting the latest evolutions and the new horizons that can be opened by their use in the context of soft tissue engineering. Existing results and future challenges are discussed in order to provide an up-to-date contribution that is useful to both experienced scientists and early-stage researchers of the biomaterials community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.08.014DOI Listing
October 2020

Structural basis of CD4 downregulation by HIV-1 Nef.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2020 09 27;27(9):822-828. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Dartmouth, MA, USA.

The HIV-1 Nef protein suppresses multiple immune surveillance mechanisms to promote viral pathogenesis and is an attractive target for the development of novel therapeutics. A key function of Nef is to remove the CD4 receptor from the cell surface by hijacking clathrin- and adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2)-dependent endocytosis. However, exactly how Nef does this has been elusive. Here, we describe the underlying mechanism as revealed by a 3.0-Å crystal structure of a fusion protein comprising Nef and the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 bound to the tetrameric AP2 complex. An intricate combination of conformational changes occurs in both Nef and AP2 to enable CD4 binding and downregulation. A pocket on Nef previously identified as crucial for recruiting class I MHC is also responsible for recruiting CD4, revealing a potential approach to inhibit two of Nef's activities and sensitize the virus to immune clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41594-020-0463-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483821PMC
September 2020

Reusability of brilliant green dye contaminated wastewater using corncob biochar and : hybrid treatment and kinetic studies.

Bioengineered 2020 12;11(1):743-758

Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, IIT(BHU) , Varanasi, India.

This work highlights the potential of corncob biochar (CCBC) and for the decolorization of brilliant green (BG) dye from synthetically prepared contaminated wastewater. The CCBC was characterized by proximate, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, respectively. Different parameters affecting the adsorption process were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetic results were examined by different models; pseudo-second-order model has shown the best fit to the experimental data. Anew positive values of (172.58 kJ/mol) and (569.97 J/K/mol) in the temperature range of 303-318  revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The present investigation showed that the bacteria immobilized with CCBC showed better BG dye degradation. The kinetic parameters, , and μ were found to be 0.5 per day, 39.4 mg/day, and 0.012 L/mg/day using Monod model, respectively. The adsorbent with bacteria showed good potential for the removal of cationic BG dye and can be considered for the remediation of industrial effluent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2020.1788353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291847PMC
December 2020

Versatile in silico modeling of partition coefficients of organic compounds in polydimethylsiloxane using linear and nonlinear methods.

J Hazard Mater 2020 11 28;399:123012. Epub 2020 May 28.

Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99354, United States.

Environmental fate, behavior and effects of hazardous organic compounds have recently received great attention in diverse environmental phases, including water, atmosphere, soil and sediment. Considering polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibers were validated for the wide application in the determination of partition behavior in passive sampling, in this work, several in silico models were established to predict PDMS-water (K), PDMS-air (K) and PDMS-seawater partition coefficients (K) of diverse chemicals. This is an attempt to combine conventional linear method and popular nonlinear algorithm for the estimation of partition coefficients between PDMS and different environmental media. All of the developed models showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit with high adjusted correlation coefficient (R) and were validated to be robust, stable and predictable by various internal and external validation techniques, deriving a wide series of statistical checks. Moreover, it was found that hydrophobicity, polarizability, charge distribution and molecular size of compounds contributed significantly to the model development by interpreting the selected descriptors. Based on the broad applicability domains (ADs), the current study provides suitable tools to fill the experimental data gap for other compounds and to help researchers better understand the mechanistic basis of adsorption behavior of PDMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123012DOI Listing
November 2020

Use of etanercept in management of tyrosine kinase-inhibitor-induced erythema nodosum.

JAAD Case Rep 2020 Jun 24;6(6):567-568. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Dermatology, The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdcr.2020.04.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265067PMC
June 2020

An update on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 with particular reference to its clinical pathology, pathogenesis, immunopathology and mitigation strategies.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Sep - Oct;37:101755. Epub 2020 May 30.

Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Pereira, Colombia; Grupo de Investigacion Biomedicina, Faculty of Medicine, Fundacion Universitaria Autonoma de las Americas, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Electronic address:

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in early December 2019 in China and became a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to more than 200 countries or territories. Bats are considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. The severe form of the infection is associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients have thus higher levels of many proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The blood laboratory profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and RNAaemia, along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortality, unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and there is, to date, no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid diagnostics have been developed, and significant efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapy, internationally, health care authorities are recommending the adoption of effective community mitigation measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis, and immunopathology, along with recent research developments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260597PMC
October 2020

Pitfalls in assessing stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) in breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 12;6:17. Epub 2020 May 12.

32Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH USA.

Stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) are important prognostic and predictive biomarkers in triple-negative (TNBC) and HER2-positive breast cancer. Incorporating sTILs into clinical practice necessitates reproducible assessment. Previously developed standardized scoring guidelines have been widely embraced by the clinical and research communities. We evaluated sources of variability in sTIL assessment by pathologists in three previous sTIL ring studies. We identify common challenges and evaluate impact of discrepancies on outcome estimates in early TNBC using a newly-developed prognostic tool. Discordant sTIL assessment is driven by heterogeneity in lymphocyte distribution. Additional factors include: technical slide-related issues; scoring outside the tumor boundary; tumors with minimal assessable stroma; including lymphocytes associated with other structures; and including other inflammatory cells. Small variations in sTIL assessment modestly alter risk estimation in early TNBC but have the potential to affect treatment selection if cutpoints are employed. Scoring and averaging multiple areas, as well as use of reference images, improve consistency of sTIL evaluation. Moreover, to assist in avoiding the pitfalls identified in this analysis, we developed an educational resource available at www.tilsinbreastcancer.org/pitfalls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-0156-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217863PMC
May 2020

Report on computational assessment of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 12;6:16. Epub 2020 May 12.

30Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is increasingly recognized as an integral part of the prognostic workflow in triple-negative (TNBC) and HER2-positive breast cancer, as well as many other solid tumors. This recognition has come about thanks to standardized visual reporting guidelines, which helped to reduce inter-reader variability. Now, there are ripe opportunities to employ computational methods that extract spatio-morphologic predictive features, enabling computer-aided diagnostics. We detail the benefits of computational TILs assessment, the readiness of TILs scoring for computational assessment, and outline considerations for overcoming key barriers to clinical translation in this arena. Specifically, we discuss: 1. ensuring computational workflows closely capture visual guidelines and standards; 2. challenges and thoughts standards for assessment of algorithms including training, preanalytical, analytical, and clinical validation; 3. perspectives on how to realize the potential of machine learning models and to overcome the perceptual and practical limits of visual scoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-0154-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217824PMC
May 2020

Emerging Approaches for Fluorescence-Based Newborn Screening of Mucopolysaccharidoses.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 May 11;10(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Baebies, Inc., P.O. Box 14403, Durham, NC 27709, USA.

Interest in newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) is growing, due in part to ongoing efforts to develop new therapies for these disorders and new screening assays to identify increased risk for the individual MPSs on the basis of deficiency in the cognate enzyme. Existing tests for MPSs utilize either fluorescence or mass spectrometry detection methods to measure biomarkers of disease (e.g., enzyme function or glycosaminoglycans) using either urine or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. There are currently two approaches to fluorescence-based enzyme function assays from DBS: (1) manual reaction mixing, incubation, and termination followed by detection on a microtiter plate reader; and (2) miniaturized automation of these same assay steps using digital microfluidics technology. This article describes the origins of laboratory assays for enzyme activity measurement, the maturation and clinical application of fluorescent enzyme assays for MPS newborn screening, and considerations for future expansion of the technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10050294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277946PMC
May 2020
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