Publications by authors named "Rajeev Singh"

192 Publications

Lignocellulosic composition based thermal kinetic study of Mangiferaindica Lam, Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam and Syzygium Jambolana seeds.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 8;341:125891. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

In the present study, pyrolysis of mangifera indica L., Artocarpus heterophyllus L. and jambolana seeds have been performed using thermogravimetric analysis. These biomasses have enriched lignocellulosic composition of hemicellulose (5-10%) and lignin (1-3%) which are unexplored. The TGA analysis was performed at various heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C/min from 25 to 600 °C. Kinetic investigation of the pyrolysis method using TGA statistics has been done using iso-conversional models of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Vyazovkin and Vyazovkin AIC. The apparent activation energies value ranged from 179.86 to 226.31 kJ/mol in the fractional conversion range of 0.1 to 0.7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125891DOI Listing
September 2021

COVID-19 and waste management in Indian scenario: challenges and possible solutions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Energy Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Jammu, 182320, J&K, India.

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has created havoc all across the globe causing exponential casualties and tremendous health and economic loss. With increasing COVID-19 cases, the amount of biomedical waste has increased manifolds making more people vulnerable to the pandemic. The developing and underdeveloped countries are already facing the challenges of waste management, and the waste generated during the pandemic scenario has added to the already existing challenges. The improper waste management practices need to be corrected; otherwise, the world will be facing a new disaster that could be termed as 'waste disaster'. The increase in COVID-19-associated waste (CAW) quantity and their availability in the environment will result in their easy approach to other organisms, which will possibly increase the potential risk of food chain contamination. Some of the countries have already started to make backup plans and are struggling to overcome the 'waste disaster'. In light of the limited knowledge available on the mutational properties and possible hosts of this newly emerged COVID-19, there is a great demand to have an efficient strategy to prevent the environment from further contamination in India. The necessity of the prevailing time is to create a more efficient, automatic, mechanized, and well-modified waste management system for handling the present situation and delaying the projected waste disaster in the near future in the era of COVID-19. The article aims to address the issues that originated from waste discharges, their potential sources along with possible sustainable solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15028-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404760PMC
August 2021

Biological contaminants in the indoor air environment and their impacts on human health.

Air Qual Atmos Health 2021 Aug 7:1-14. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Environmental Studies, Satyawati College, University of Delhi, Ashok Vihar III, Delhi-52, India.

Indoor air environment contains a complex mixture of biological contaminants such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, insects, and their by-products such as endotoxins, mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds, etc. Biological contaminants have been categorized according to whether they are allergenic, infectious, capable of inducing toxic or inflammatory responses in human beings. At present, there is a lack of awareness about biological contamination in the indoor environment and their potential sources for the spreading of various infections. Therefore, this review article examines the association of biological contaminants with human health, and it will also provide in-depth knowledge of various biological contaminants present in different places such as residential areas, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. Moreover, qualitative and quantitative data of bio-contaminants in various indoor environments such as schools, hospitals, residential houses, etc. have also been derived from the recent literature survey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11869-021-00978-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346343PMC
August 2021

Effect of Three Different Cooling and Insulation Techniques on Pulp Chamber Temperature during Direct Temporization with Polymethyl methacrylate-based Resin.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Jun 1;22(6):644-649. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Prosthodontics, Davangere, Karnataka, Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Aim And Objective: This study evaluates and compares the changes in pulp chamber temperature during direct fabrication of provisional restorations in maxillary central incisors after using three different cooling techniques.

Materials And Methods: Total of 60 samples of maxillary central incisors along with their putty indices were divided into four groups (one control and three experimental) and were prepared using a surveyor cum milling machine. Teeth were sectioned 2 mm below cementoenamel junction and a K-type thermocouple wire was inserted in the tooth and secured at the pulpal roof using amalgam. Putty index filled with DPI tooth molding resin material [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] was placed on the tooth and temperature changes per 5 seconds were recorded by temperature indicating device for the control, on-off, precooled putty, and dentin bonding agent (DBA) group.

Results: The highest mean obtained was of the control (11.04°C), followed by DBA group (9.53°C), precooled putty group (6.67°C), and on-off group (1.94°C). Precooled putty index group took maximum time to reach the baseline temperature (847.5 seconds).

Conclusion: On-off technique is the most effective method to reduce the intrapulpal temperature during polymerization, as compared to the other techniques used in the study. Retardation in the polymerization process was seen in precooled putty group, which may make this technique clinically inadvisable.

Clinical Significance: Thermal protection of pulp must always be considered during direct fabrication of provisional restoration when a PMMA-based resin is used. By using on-off technique, not only the thermal insult to the pulp can be effectively minimized but also the harmful effects of residual monomer (poor marginal fit and pulpal irritation) can be eliminated.
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June 2021

Interim three-dimensional printed overlay prosthesis for an adolescent patient with oligodontia.

J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2021 Jul-Sep;21(3):304-307

Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, DY Patil University, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Oligodontia is a developmental anomaly which represents the congenital absence of more than six teeth in primary, permanent, or both dentitions and may or may not be associated with a syndrome. These patients suffer from occlusal disharmony, problems in speech and esthetic appearance. A multidisciplinary approach becomes mandatory to manage such patients to rehabilitate their oral function. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment become important. This is a case report of a 15-year-old female patient with oligodontia, who was rehabilitated with removable overlay prostheses fabricated digitally, without modifying her existing dentition, to restore mastication, phonetics, and esthetics. Such an approach is essential for children who have not completed their growth. The monolithic three-dimensional (3D) printed denture has increased fracture resistance and higher wear resistance compared to conventional denture. It can also be easily adjusted, repaired and if required, reproduced. This article highlights the methodology, pros and cons of fabricating 3D printed dentures for such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jips.jips_43_21DOI Listing
August 2021

Japanese B Encephalitis.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 May;25(Suppl 2):S171-S174

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

RNA viruses are not only reported for viral pandemics but also as important agents for emerging/re-emerging diseases. (JEV) is reported to cause epidemics of encephalitis in Southeast Asia, India, Korea, China, and Indonesia. In addition, several reports show that JEV has spread to new populations beyond these geographical regions. The disease mostly affects children with a mortality rate up to 30%. In peridomestic settings, pigs are reported as amplifiers of JEV transmission and aquatic birds as maintenance hosts of the virus. The Culex mosquito is the vector for transmission of JEV. This virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae and has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Five different genotypes (G-I to G-V) of JEV have been reported. Four different kinds of vaccines have been produced to prevent JEV infection. However, there is no FDA-approved antiviral drug available for JEV. Mehta A, Singh R, Mani VE, Poddar B. Japanese B Encephalitis. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(Suppl 2):S171-S174.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327796PMC
May 2021

Trajectory of leptin and leptin receptor in vertebrates: Structure, function and their regulation.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jul 31;257:110652. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:

The present review provides a comparative insight into structure, function and control of leptin system in fishes, herptiles, birds and mammals. In general, leptin acts as an anorexigenic hormone since its administration results in decrease of food intake in vertebrates. Nonetheless, functional paradox arises in fishes from contradictory observations on level of leptin during fasting and re-feeding. In addition, leptin is shown to modulate metabolic functions in fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals. Leptin also regulates reproductive and immune functions though more studies are warranted in non-mammalian vertebrates. The expression of leptin and its receptor is influenced by numerous factors including sex steroids, stress and stress-induced catecholamines and glucocorticoids though their effect in non-mammalian vertebrates is hard to be generalized due to limited studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2021.110652DOI Listing
July 2021

Left Bundle Branch Block-Induced Cardiomyopathy in a Transplanted Heart Treated With His Bundle Pacing.

JACC Case Rep 2020 Oct 12;2(12):1932-1936. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Division of Cardiology, CHI Franciscan, Tacoma, Washington.

A 70-year-old male with prior orthotopic heart transplant developed left bundle branch block followed by new-onset left ventricular systolic dysfunction. He underwent His bundle pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy with complete normalization of his ejection fraction. This is the first reported case of left bundle branch block-induced cardiomyopathy in a transplanted heart. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.05.093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299132PMC
October 2020

Integrated biohydrogen production via lignocellulosic waste: Opportunity, challenges & future prospects.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 6;338:125511. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Hydrogen production through biological route is the cleanest, renewable and potential way to sustainable energy generation. Productions of hydrogen via dark and photo fermentations are considered to be more sustainable and economical approach over numerous existing biological modes. Nevertheless, both the biological modes suffer from certain limitations like low yield and production rate, and because of these practical implementations are still far away. Therefore, the present review provides an assessment and feasibility of integrated biohydrogen production strategy by combining dark and photo-fermentation as an advanced biochemical processing while using lignocellulosics biomass to improve and accelerate the biohydrogen production technology in a sustainable manner. This review also evaluates practical viability of the integrated approach for biohydrogen production along with the analysis of the key factors which significantly influence to elevate this technology on commercial ground with the implementation of various environment friendly and innovative approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125511DOI Listing
October 2021

Gut microbiota-derived metabolites in CRC progression and causation.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Gene Regulation Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Background: Based on recent research reports, dysbiosis and improper concentrations of microbial metabolites in the gut may result into the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Recent advancement also highlights the involvement of bacteria and their secreted metabolites in the cancer causation. Gut microbial metabolites are functional output of the host-microbiota interactions and produced by anaerobic fermentation of food components in the diet. They contribute to influence variety of biological mechanisms including inflammation, cell signaling, cell-cycle disruption which are majorly disrupted in carcinogenic activities.

Purpose: In this review, we intend to discuss recent updates and possible molecular mechanisms to provide the role of bacterial metabolites, gut bacteria and diet in the colorectal carcinogenesis. Recent evidences have proposed the role of bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleaturm, Streptococcus bovis, Helicobacter pylori, Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium septicum, in the carcinogenesis of CRC. Metagenomic study confirmed that these bacteria are in increased abundance in CRC patient as compared to healthy individuals and can cause inflammation and DNA damage which can lead to development of cancer. These bacteria produce metabolites, such as secondary bile salts from primary bile salts, hydrogen sulfide, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which are likely to promote inflammation and subsequently cancer development.

Conclusion: Recent studies suggest that gut microbiota-derived metabolites have a role in CRC progression and causation and hence, could be implicated in CRC diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03729-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Seasonal variation and size distribution in the airborne indoor microbial concentration of residential houses in Delhi and its impact on health.

Aerobiologia (Bologna) 2021 Jul 3:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Environmental Studies, Satyawati College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Exposure of microbial agents in the air of indoor dwellings is associated with effects on respiratory and general health. The current study was conducted in the urban area of Delhi Metropolis for the seasonal quantitative assessment of viable microbial indoor air quality. Bioaerosol measurement was conducted by using Anderson six stage impactor with cut-off diameters of 7.0, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1, and 0.65 µm) throughout the all the seasons (April 2019 to March 2020). Meteorological parameters such as temperature and relative humidity were measured to check their effect on microbial survival. Air quality index data of the sampling area were recorded by DPCC air quality monitoring system, Ashok Vihar, Delhi. The highest (1654 ± 876.87 CFU/m) and lowest (738 ± 443.59 CFU/m) mean bacterial concentration in houses was recorded in August and December, respectively. Similarly, the highest fungal concentration (1275 ± 645.22 CFU/m) was found in August and the lowest in (776 ± 462.46 CFU/m) in January. Bacterial respirable fraction shows an irregular pattern in different seasons. In the case of fungi, the respirable fraction of 2.1 and 1.1 contributes more than 60% of total culturable bioaerosols in all seasons. Bacterial genera including and were most dominant, and , , , and were the most dominant fungal genera observed indoors. The results of this study suggest that higher respirable fungal fraction might penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause various health effects. A higher concentration of bioaerosols in outdoor areas than indoor shows that the source of indoor bioaerosols is outdoor air.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10453-021-09718-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10453-021-09718-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254435PMC
July 2021

Ovarian endosalpingiosis mimicking hydrosalpinges. Unexpected intraoperative findings and a diagnostic rollercoaster.

J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jun 29;2021(6):rjab264. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

Over 80 % of ovarian cancer diagnoses are in women aged over 50 years. Post-menopausal women are at significantly increased risk compared with other age groups. Tumour biomarkers and ultrasound assist with diagnostics. A post-menopausal woman was referred with a possible left adnexal cyst on ultrasound. A tertiary gynaecological ultrasound suggested bilateral hydrosalpinges without cysts. Tumour markers were negative. Unexpectedly, while undergoing a laparoscopy, the tubes were normal in appearance; however, multiple cystic deposits suspicious for malignancy were noted on the ovaries. A laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed without spillage and pelvic washings obtained. On histopathology, the ovaries contained multiple, benign epithelial cysts and pelvic washings were negative. This case demonstrates an unanticipated peri-operative diagnostic dilemma. It highlights the surgical management decisions required to balance duty of care and consent compliance within the scope of general gynaecology. It emphasizes the importance of histopathological examination to confirm diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjab264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241478PMC
June 2021

Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of from Hospitalized Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases During Two Consecutive Outbreaks in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

ICMR-RMRC, Gorakhpur, India.

Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) have been reported especially in the pediatric population with a high case fatality rate in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. (OT) is a causative agent of scrub typhus that has been recently identified as a major cause of AES. However, the specific genotypes of OT responsible for AES cases of this region are not known. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to understand the molecular epidemiology of OT prevailing in the AES endemic Eastern Uttar Pradesh region of India. The study was conducted on 2529 hospitalized AES cases from August 2016 to December 2017. The presence of antibodies against OT from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were tested using OT IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas OT DNA was tested from whole blood and CSF specimens targeting the partial gene of 56 kDa using nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with sequences ( = 241) generated in this study. Among the studied AES cases, 50% were found positive for antibodies against OT, whereas 37% of cases were positive for OT DNA. The genetic analysis study revealed that Gilliam (93.8%) is the prevailing genotype of OT followed by Karp (6.16%) genotype in AES cases. Furthermore, the Gilliam strains of this study showed they were >99% identical to earlier reported Gilliam strains from AES cases. We observed the presence of two main OT genotypes in AES cases, among which the majority of OT genotypes fall under the Gilliam clade. The understanding of predominant genotype will be beneficial for its future implications in vaccine development strategies and the development of rapid diagnostic tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2021.0003DOI Listing
June 2021

Reactive arthritis and undifferentiated peripheral spondyloarthritis share human leucocyte antigen B27 subtypes and serum and synovial fluid cytokine profiles.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 06;60(6):3004-3011

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Objectives: Peripheral SpA (pSpA) is comprised of ReA, PsA, enteritis-associated arthritis and undifferentiated pSpA (upSpA). ReA and upSpA share T cell oligotypes and metabolomics in serum and SF. We investigated HLA-B27 subtypes and cytokines in serum and SF that were compared between ReA and upSpA.

Methods: ReA and upSpA were compared in two cohorts. In cohort I (44 ReA and 56 upSpA), HLA-B27 subtyping was carried out. In cohort II (17 ReA and 21 upSpA), serum and SF cytokines were compared using a multiplex cytokine bead assay (27 cytokines). A total of 28 healthy controls with similar age and sex to cohort II were included for comparison of serum cytokine levels.

Results: In cohort I, HLA-B27 was positive in 81.8% (36/44) of ReA and 85.71% (48/56) of upSpA patients. HLA-B27 typing was successful in 70 patients (30 ReA and 40 uSpA). HLA-B*2705 was the most common, followed by HLA-B*2704 and HLA-B*2707. Frequencies were the same between ReA and upSpA. In cohort II, 14 cytokines were detectable in the serum of patients. The levels of eight cytokines were higher than in the controls. The cytokine levels of ReA and upSpA were similar. Sixteen cytokines were detectable in the SF of patients. There was no statistical difference in the levels between ReA and upSpA. The cytokine profiles in sera and SF were also similar among HLA-B27-positive and negative patients.

Conclusion: ReA and upSpA have similar HLA-B27 subtype associations and similar cytokine profiles. They should be considered as a single entity during studies as well as clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa746DOI Listing
June 2021

Innocent until proven guilty: acute on chronic tubal torsion mimicking pelvic inflammatory disease.

J Surg Case Rep 2021 May 17;2021(5):rjab187. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Joondalup Health Campus, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

Acute pelvic pain is a common complaint in reproductive age women and has a large differential diagnosis. Decision for conservative vs. surgical management is often dependent on clinical, biochemical and imaging findings. Isolated tubal torsion is a rare cause of pelvic pain that requires prompt diagnosis and surgical management to avoid morbidity. Here, we report non-pregnant women of reproductive age presenting with acute lower abdominal pain. Raised inflammatory markers and ultrasound findings prompted management for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Despite some improvement with antibiotics, the patient had ongoing symptoms. At surgery, bilateral para-tubal cysts and a left sided hydrosalpinx were found, along with an isolated left tubal torsion. Isolated tubal torsion most commonly occurs in reproductive aged women, and risk factors include intrinsic tubal pathology and extrinsic lesions. Clinically, biochemically and radiographically, it is often indistinguishable from other pelvic pathology, potentially leading to diagnostic delay, and necrosis of the tube.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjab187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128385PMC
May 2021

SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among the general population and healthcare workers in India, December 2020-January 2021.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 19;108:145-155. Epub 2021 May 19.

ICMR National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Earlier serosurveys in India revealed seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) of 0.73% in May-June 2020 and 7.1% in August-September 2020. A third serosurvey was conducted between December 2020 and January 2021 to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the general population and healthcare workers (HCWs) in India.

Methods: The third serosurvey was conducted in the same 70 districts as the first and second serosurveys. For each district, at least 400 individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population and 100 HCWs from subdistrict-level health facilities were enrolled. Serum samples from the general population were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S1-RBD) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, whereas serum samples from HCWs were tested for anti-S1-RBD. Weighted seroprevalence adjusted for assay characteristics was estimated.

Results: Of the 28,598 serum samples from the general population, 4585 (16%) had IgG antibodies against the N protein, 6647 (23.2%) had IgG antibodies against the S1-RBD protein, and 7436 (26%) had IgG antibodies against either the N protein or the S1-RBD protein. Weighted and assay-characteristic-adjusted seroprevalence against either of the antibodies was 24.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.0-25.3%]. Among 7385 HCWs, the seroprevalence of anti-S1-RBD IgG antibodies was 25.6% (95% CI 23.5-27.8%).

Conclusions: Nearly one in four individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population as well as HCWs in India had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by December 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.05.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132496PMC
July 2021

Technological advances for improving fungal cellulase production from fruit wastes for bioenergy application: A review.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 15;287:117370. Epub 2021 May 15.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Fruit wastes can be imperative to elevate economical biomass to biofuels production process at pilot scale. Because of the renewable features, huge availability, having low lignin content organic nature and low cost; these wastes can be of much interest for cellulase enzyme production. This review provides recent advances on the fungal cellulase production using fruit wastes as a potential substrate. Also, the availability of fruit wastes, generation and processing data and their potential applications for cellulase enzyme production have been discussed. Several aspects, including cellulase and its function, solid-state fermentation, process parameters, microbial source, and the application of enzyme in biofuels industries have also been discussed. Further, emphasis has been made on various bottlenecks and feasible approaches such as use of nanomaterials, co-culture, molecular techniques, genetic engineering, and cost economy analysis to develop a low-cost based comprehensive technology for viable production of cellulase and its application in biofuels production technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117370DOI Listing
October 2021

Prospects of microbial-engineering for the production of graphene and its derivatives: Application to design nanosystms for cancer theranostics.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology, IIT (BHU), Varanasi, 221005, India. Electronic address:

Cancer is known as one of the leading causes of morbidity and fatality, currently faced by our society. The prevalence of cancer related dieses is rapidly increasing around the world. To reduce the mortality rates, early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of cancer in timely manner is quite essential. Advancements have been made to achieve effective theranostics strategies to tackle cancerous dieses, yet very challenging to overcome this issue. Recently, advances made in the field of nanotechnology have shown tremendous potential for cancer theranostics. Different types of nanomaterials have been successfully employed to develop sophisticated diagnosis and therapy techniques. In this context, graphene and its derivatives e.g. graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been investigated as promising candidates to design graphene-based nanosystems for the diagnosis and therapeutic purpose. Further, to synthesize graphene and its derivatives different types of physicochemical methods are being adopted. However, each method has its own advantage and disadvantages. In this reference, among diverse biological methods, microbial technique can be one of the most promising and eco-friendly approach for the preparation of graphene and its derivatives, particularly GO and RGO. In this review, we summarize studies performed on the preparation of graphene and its derivatives following microbial routes meanwhile focus has been made on the preparation method and the possible mechanism involved therein. Thereafter, we have discussed applications of graphene and its derivatives to developed advanced nanosystem that can be imperative for the cancer theranostics. Results of recent studies exploring applications graphene based nanosystem for the preparation of different types of biosensors for early diagnosis; advanced therapeutic approaches by designing drug delivery nanosystems along with multifunctionality (e.g cancer imaging, drug delivery, photodynamic and photo thermal therapy) in cancer theranostics have been discussed. Particularly, emphasis has been given on the preparation techniques of graphene based nanosystems, being employed in designing of biosensing platforms, drug delivery and multifunctional nanosystems. Moreover, issues have been discussed on the preparation of graphene and its derivatives following microbial technique and the implementation of graphene based nanosystems in cancer theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.05.017DOI Listing
May 2021

Economic gradient of onset of disability in India.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 21;21(1):769. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Harvard Centre for Population and Development Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Disability in India is associated with increasing non-communicable diseases, rising longevity, and increasing accidents and injuries. Though studies have examined prevalence, patterns, and socioeconomic correlates of disability, no attempt has been made in estimating age of onset of disability in India.

Objective: This paper investigates the economic gradient of age of onset of locomotor, visual, hearing, speech, mental retardation, mental illness, and other disabilities in India.

Method: We use nationally representative data of 106,894 disabled individuals from the 76th round of National Sample Survey (NSS), 2018. Descriptive statistics, kernel density, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and linear regression models are used in the analysis.

Result: The disability rate in India was 2184 per 100,000 persons. The disability rate was highest for locomotor (1353) followed by hearing (296), visual (234), speech (228), mental retardation (158), and mental illness (131). Over 85% of mental retardation and 80% of speech disabilities occur at birth, while 82% of locomotor and 81% of visual disabilities occur after birth. Among those who had disability after birth, the median age for mental retardation was 2 years followed by mental illness (28 years), speech (29 years), locomotor (42 years), visual (55 years), and 56 years for hearing disability. Adjusting for socioeconomic covariates, the age of onset of locomotor and speech disabilities among the poorest individuals were 7 and 11 years earlier than the richest, respectively.

Conclusion: The economic gradient of onset of locomotive and speech disabilities are strong. The age of onset of disability was earliest for mental retardation followed by mental illness and speech disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10826-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061006PMC
April 2021

Effect of Surface Roughness on Hydrodynamic Characteristics of an Impinging Droplet.

Langmuir 2021 Mar 2;37(10):3038-3048. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering, and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong Campus Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Victoria 3216, Australia.

The influence of surface roughness and impact energy on the hydrodynamic behavior of water droplets impinging upon dry and rigid surfaces of known roughness has been investigated experimentally. The influence of these two parameters on the droplet maximum spreading diameter, slip length during droplet recoil, dynamic contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and apparent contact angle of droplets at rest has been determined. Based on the quantitative assessment, a correlation for the maximum spreading diameter in terms of the nondimensional parameter (/) and surface roughness ratio (/) was derived. We propose to use surface roughness "" rather than using the contact angle for correlation as contact angles cannot be known a priori, whereas surface roughness can be determined beforehand. The wetting state of a droplet depends on the combined influence of droplet impact energy and surface roughness. While increasing impact energy increases the spreading, higher surface roughness resists the droplet from spreading. Low impact energy and a smoother surface tend toward the Cassie-Baxter wetting state, whereas high impact energy and rough surfaces propel the droplet toward the Wenzel state of wetting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c03193DOI Listing
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in India, August-September, 2020: findings from the second nationwide household serosurvey.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 03 27;9(3):e257-e266. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Tuberculosis Training, Demonstration Centre (STDC), Punjab, India.

Background: The first national severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurvey in India, done in May-June, 2020, among adults aged 18 years or older from 21 states, found a SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody seroprevalence of 0·73% (95% CI 0·34-1·13). We aimed to assess the more recent nationwide seroprevalence in the general population in India.

Methods: We did a second household serosurvey among individuals aged 10 years or older in the same 700 villages or wards within 70 districts in India that were included in the first serosurvey. Individuals aged younger than 10 years and households that did not respond at the time of survey were excluded. Participants were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographics, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, exposure history to laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, and history of COVID-19 illness. 3-5 mL of venous blood was collected from each participant and blood samples were tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. Seroprevalence was estimated after applying the sampling weights and adjusting for clustering and assay characteristics. We randomly selected one adult serum sample from each household to compare the seroprevalence among adults between the two serosurveys.

Findings: Between Aug 18 and Sept 20, 2020, we enrolled and collected serum samples from 29 082 individuals from 15 613 households. The weighted and adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in individuals aged 10 years or older was 6·6% (95% CI 5·8-7·4). Among 15 084 randomly selected adults (one per household), the weighted and adjusted seroprevalence was 7·1% (6·2-8·2). Seroprevalence was similar across age groups, sexes, and occupations. Seroprevalence was highest in urban slum areas followed by urban non-slum and rural areas. We estimated a cumulative 74·3 million infections in the country by Aug 18, 2020, with 26-32 infections for every reported COVID-19 case.

Interpretation: Approximately one in 15 individuals aged 10 years or older in India had SARS-CoV-2 infection by Aug 18, 2020. The adult seroprevalence increased approximately tenfold between May and August, 2020. Lower infection-to-case ratio in August than in May reflects a substantial increase in testing across the country.

Funding: Indian Council of Medical Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30544-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906675PMC
March 2021

Radiofrequency radiation: A possible threat to male fertility.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 03 23;100:90-100. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Environmental Studies, Satyawati College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110052, India. Electronic address:

Radiofrequency exposure from man-made sources has increased drastically with the era of advanced technology. People could not escape from such RF radiations as they have become the essential part of our routine life such as Wi-Fi, microwave ovens, TV, mobile phones, etc. Although non-ionizing radiations are less damaging than ionizing radiations but its long term exposure effect cannot be avoided. For fertility to be affected, either there is an alteration in germ cell, or its nourishing environment, and RF affects both the parameters subsequently, leading to infertility. This review with the help of in vitro and in vivo studies shows that RF could change the morphology and physiology of germ cells with affected spermatogenesis, motility and reduced concentration of male gametes. RF also results in genetic and hormonal changes. In addition, the contribution of oxidative stress and protein kinase complex after RFR exposure is also summarized which could also be the possible mechanism for reduction in sperm parameters. Further, some preventative measures are described which could help in reverting the radiofrequency effects on germ cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.01.007DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between reproductive health and nonionizing radiation exposure.

Electromagn Biol Med 2021 Jan 20;40(1):92-102. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Environmental Studies, Satyawati College, University of Delhi , Ashok Vihar, Delhi, India.

Recently, a decreasing rate of fertility has to be credited to an array of factors such as environmental, health and lifestyle. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the strong exposure to heat and radiations. The most common sources of nonionizing radiations are cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, which may participate to the cause of male infertility. One of the major sources of daily exposure to non-ionizing radiation is mobile phones. A mobile phone is now basically dominating our daily life through better services such as connectivity, smartphone devices. However, the health consequences are linked with their usage are frequently ignored. Constant exposure to non-ionizing radiations produced from a cell phone is one of the possible reasons for growing male infertility. Recently, several studies have shown that cell phone users have altered sperm parameters causing declining reproductive health. Cell phone radiation harms male fertility by affecting the different parameters like sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology, semen concentration, morphometric abnormalities, increased oxidative stress along with some hormonal changes. This review is focusing on the prevailing literature from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that non-ionizing exposure negatively affects human male infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15368378.2021.1874973DOI Listing
January 2021

Abundance of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and Presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma in Ticks Infesting Domestic Animals From Northern India.

J Med Entomol 2021 05;58(3):1370-1375

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Rickettsia and Anaplasma are bacteria that can be transmitted by hematophagous arthropods such as ticks infesting animals in close proximity to humans. The main objective of the present study was to investigate abundance of common tick species infesting domestic animals and presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma in tick populations. Adult ticks were collected from domestic animals in rural areas and screened by molecular detection of bacterial DNA for these two genera of bacteria. A total of 1,778 adult ixodid tick specimens were collected from 200 cattle, 200 buffaloes, 200 goats, and 40 dogs. The collection consisted of four species of ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (83.8%), Hyalomma kumari (Sharif) (7.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (6.4%), and Dermacentor auratus (Supino) (2.7%) infesting the domestic animals. The prevalence of all the collected tick species was highest in the month of October. Anaplasma spp. was the most frequently identified bacteria (3.3%) in tested ticks. Of 17 positive tick pools for Anaplasma spp., 14 pools were from ticks infesting cattle, 2 pools of ticks collected from buffalo, and the remaining pool were ticks infesting a goat at the time of collection. Although 1.6% tick pools of R. microplus collected from cattle tested positive for Rickettsia spp., present investigation provides evidence of the most prevalent ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals and the presence of obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia and Anaplasma, in these ticks collected in the Gorakhpur division of Northern India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa296DOI Listing
May 2021

Biohydrogen production using kitchen waste as the potential substrate: A sustainable approach.

Chemosphere 2021 May 4;271:129537. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

This review explores the sustainable feasibility of kitchen wastes to implement as an effective substrate for biohydrogen production through dark fermentation. Being organic in nature, kitchen wastes are enomerous source of nutrients and carbohydrate, which are produced in huge quantity in our daily life, and therefore can be potentially used for biohydrogen production through microbial technique. The review discussed in detail about the impact of kitchen waste, its availability and sustainability on the biohydrogen production process along with future scope at industrial scale for the production of sustainable and renewable energy. In addition, recent advances, and their possibility to enhance the fermentative biohydrogen production using kitchen waste have been covered. Emphasis is also made on the application of nanomaterials to increase the yield of biohydrogen production and to make the entire process more economical and sustainable while using kitchen wastes as substrate for the microbial fermentation. Finally, advantages, limitations and future prospects of the process of biohydrogen production using kitchen wastes as potential substrate have been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129537DOI Listing
May 2021

COVIDScreen: explainable deep learning framework for differential diagnosis of COVID-19 using chest X-rays.

Neural Comput Appl 2021 Jan 8:1-22. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Shiv Nadar University, NCR, Gautam Budh Nagar, India.

COVID-19 has emerged as a global crisis with unprecedented socio-economic challenges, jeopardizing our lives and livelihoods for years to come. The unavailability of vaccines for COVID-19 has rendered rapid testing of the population instrumental in order to contain the exponential rise in cases of infection. Shortage of RT-PCR test kits and delays in obtaining test results calls for alternative methods of rapid and reliable diagnosis. In this article, we propose a novel deep learning-based solution using chest X-rays which can help in rapid triaging of COVID-19 patients. The proposed solution uses image enhancement, image segmentation, and employs a modified stacked ensemble model consisting of four CNN base-learners along with Naive Bayes as meta-learner to classify chest X-rays into three classes viz. COVID-19, pneumonia, and normal. An effective pruning strategy as introduced in the proposed framework results in increased model performance, generalizability, and decreased model complexity. We incorporate explainability in our article by using Grad-CAM visualization in order to establish trust in the medical AI system. Furthermore, we evaluate multiple state-of-the-art GAN architectures and their ability to generate realistic synthetic samples of COVID-19 chest X-rays to deal with limited numbers of training samples. The proposed solution significantly outperforms existing methods, with 98.67% accuracy, 0.98 Kappa score, and F-1 scores of 100, 98, and 98 for COVID-19, normal, and pneumonia classes, respectively, on standard datasets. The proposed solution can be used as one element of patient evaluation along with gold-standard clinical and laboratory testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00521-020-05636-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791540PMC
January 2021

Metabarcoding analysis of the bacterial succession during vermicomposting of municipal solid waste employing the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 25;766:144389. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Environment & Sustainable Development, Institute of Environment & Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:

A culture-independent DNA metabarcoding analysis of the bacterial communities was carried out throughout a complete vermicomposting cycle of municipal solid waste material using the earthworm Eisenia fetida. 16S rRNA amplicons from the initial material (0 days), an intermediate (42 days), and a final stage (84 days) were sequenced in an Illumina NGS platform and compared. A steady increase in community diversity was observed corresponding to a 2.5-fold higher taxa richness and correspondingly risen values of the Shannon and Simpson ecological indexes and the evenness parameter. A total of 49,665 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were counted. From the qualitative standpoint, a clear successional shift was observed with an initial community dominated by putatively plant-associated groups belonging to the Rhizobiales order within the Alphaproteobacteria class, regressively leaving the scores of relative abundance (RA) to the Firmicutes phylum and in particular to the Bacilli. Vermistabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) increased (p < 0.001) the TKN and total P content in the final vermicompost, while pH, TOC, and C/N ratio declined (p < 0.001) in the process. Likewise, a progressive decrease was noticed in β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, and urease activity while protease and dehydrogenase showed a slight increase, followed by a steep fall. A strong positive correlation was observed among the canonical functions of physico-chemical attributes and enzyme activities. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that significant families did not change on the temporal scale; however, their abundance was influenced by the abiotic environmental factors. In comparison to prior studies on vermicomposting that used different earthworm species (Eisenia andrei) and different substrates, results reflect a considerable degree of substrate specificity for the earthworm species used. The results offer clues to optimize the vermistabilization of MSW along with its potential use in agriculture, to foster improved levels of the circular economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144389DOI Listing
April 2021

Morbidity compression or expansion? A temporal analysis of the age at onset of non-communicable diseases in India.

Geroscience 2021 02 7;43(1):409-422. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

While there is evidence of morbidity compression in many countries, temporal patterns of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in developing countries, such as India, are less clear. Age at onset of disease offers insights to understanding epidemiologic trends and is a key input for public health programs. Changes in age at onset and duration of major NCDs were estimated for 2004 (n = 38,044) and 2018 (n = 43,239) using health surveys from the India National Sample Survey (NSS). Survival regression models were used to compare trends by sociodemographic characteristics. Comparing 2004 to 2018, there were reductions in age at onset and increases in duration for overall and cause-specific NCDs. Median age at onset decreased for NCDs overall (57 to 53 years) and for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, asthma, mental diseases, eye disease, and bone disease in the range of 2-7 years and increased for cancer, neurological disorders, some genitourinary disorders, and injuries/accidents in the range of 2-14 years. Hazards of NCDs were higher among females for cancers (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19-1.90) and neurological disorders (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32) but lower for heart diseases (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.97) and injuries/accidents (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). Hazards were greater among those with lower educational attainment at younger ages and higher educational attainment later in life. Unlike many countries, chronic disease morbidity may be expanding in India for many chronic diseases, indicating excess strain on the health system. Public health programs should focus on early diagnosis and prevention of NCDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00296-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050145PMC
February 2021
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