Publications by authors named "Rajeev Jain"

217 Publications

BiO/ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterizations and its application in electrochemical detection of balofloxacin as an anti-biotic drug.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Feb 4;11(1):57-67. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011, India.

In the present work, a chemically modified electrode has been fabricated utilizing BiO/ZnO nanocomposite. The nanocomposite was synthesized by simple sonochemical method and characterized for its structural and morphological properties by using XRD, FESEM, EDAX, HRTEM and XPS techniques. The results clearly indicated co-existence of BiO and ZnO in the nanocomposite with chemical interaction between them. BiO/ZnO nanocomposite based glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was utilized for sensitive voltammetric detection of an anti-biotic drug (balofloxacin). The modification amplified the electroactive surface area of the sensor, thus providing more sites for oxidation of analyte. Cyclic and square wave voltammograms revealed that BiO/ZnO modified electrode provides excellent electrocatalytic action towards balofloxacin oxidation. The current exhibited a wide linear response in concentration range of 150-1000 nM and detection limit of 40.5 nM was attained. The modified electrode offered advantages in terms of simplicity of preparation, fair stability (RSD 1.45%), appreciable reproducibility (RSD 2.03%) and selectivity. The proposed sensor was applied for determining balofloxacin in commercial pharmaceutical formulations and blood serum samples with the mean recoveries of 99.09% and 99.5%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.03.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930882PMC
February 2021

A Case of Multiple Adenomatous Colon Polyps and Meningiomas.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Texas Digestive Disease Consultants, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.12.074DOI Listing
January 2021

Stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Viral Lysis Buffer Stored at Different Temperatures.

J Lab Physicians 2020 Dec 30;12(4):268-270. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Microbiology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

 The present COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increased need for molecular diagnostic testing. Delay in the specimen processing and suboptimal storage of suspected samples in laboratories leads to degradation of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA. Viral lysis buffers from RNA extraction kits have the potential to stabilize RNA. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in viral lysis buffer at different temperatures and time periods.  Aliquots of samples with known SARS-CoV-2 RNA were processed in viral lysis buffers simultaneously, stored separately at 2 to 8°C and 22 to 28°C for 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was extracted from each aliquot and analyzed using multiplex real-time PCR.  SARS-CoV-2 RNA in samples placed in viral lysis buffer was stable for 48 hours at both 2 to 8°C and 22 to 28°C temperatures. Slight decline in the viral RNA quantity was found on aliquots tested after 48 hours of both the temperatures.  Viral lysis buffer maintains the integrity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for up to 48 hours even at room temperature and supports delayed diagnosis with an overwhelming sample load in testing laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1722551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773443PMC
December 2020

A Seizuring Child: Accidental Ingestion of an Ancient Remedy.

Indian J Pediatr 2021 Mar 29;88(3):298. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Ministry of Home Affairs, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03505-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Surface plasmon resonance sensing of Ebola virus: a biological threat.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2020 Jul 19;412(17):4101-4112. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011, India.

Here, different monoclonal antibodies (mAb1, mAb2 and mAb3) of Ebola virus were screened in a real-time and label-free manner using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to select an appropriate antibody for biosensor applications against a biological warfare agent. For this purpose, a gold SPR chip was modified with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), and modification was confirmed by FTIR-ATR and EIS. The 4-MBA-modified gold SPR chip was used for immobilization of the recombinant nucleoprotein of Ebola (EBOV-rNP), and the interactions of mAb1, mAb2 and mAb3 were then investigated to determine the best mAb based on the affinity constant (K), expressed as equilibrium dissociation constant. K values of 809 nM, 350 pM and 52 pM were found for the interaction of mAb1, mAb2 and mAb3 of Ebola with the immobilized EBOV-rNP, respectively, thus reflecting the high affinity of mAb3. This was confirmed by ELISA results. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) for the interaction between mAb3 and EBOV-rNP were also determined, which revealed that the interaction was spontaneous, endothermic and driven by entropy. The SPR limit of detection of EBOV-rNP with mAb3 was 0.5 pg ml, showing mAb3 to be the best high-affinity antibody in our study. This study has opened up new possibilities for SPR screening of different monoclonal antibodies of BWA through the convergence of materials science and optical techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02641-5DOI Listing
July 2020

A simple, cost-effective and rapid method for simultaneous determination of Strychnos nux-vomica alkaloids in blood and Ayurvedic medicines based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-thin-layer chromatography-image analysis.

J Chromatogr Sci 2020 Apr;58(5):477-484

Forensic Toxicology Division, Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Urput-Kumeria Road, P.O. Maniari Tiniali, Kamrup (Rural), Assam 781125, India.

A simple, rapid, cost-effective and green analytical method is developed based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) coupled to thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-image analysis for the simultaneous determination of two major alkaloids of Strychnos nux-vomica L i.e., strychnine and brucine. The method is composed of three steps, namely (i) US-DLLME by injecting a mixture of 100-μL chloroform (extraction solvent) and 1-mL methanol (disperser solvent) in 5 mL of aqueous sample, followed by ultrasonication and centrifugation, (ii) TLC of 20 μL of sedimented phase with methanol: ammonia (100:1.5, v/v) as the mobile phase and visualization under ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) and (iii) photography of TLC plate and quantification of spots by image analysis using freely available imageJ software (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). The limit of detection and limit of quantification for both alkaloids were found to be in the range of 0.12-0.15 and 0.36-0.48 μg/spot, respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 0.5-5 μg/spot with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.995 and 0.997 for strychnine and brucine, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of strychnine and brucine in Ayurvedic formulations and blood samples. The method does not require any sophisticated instrument and handling skills and can be adopted for rapid analysis of strychnine and brucine in forensic toxicological laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmaa007DOI Listing
April 2020

Reply.

Gastroenterology 2019 11 9;157(5):1435-1436. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Charleston Maternal Fetal Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.07.065DOI Listing
November 2019

Voltammetric sensor for the monitoring of hazardous herbicide triclopyr (TCP).

J Hazard Mater 2019 04 23;367:246-255. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011, India.

The herbicide Triclopyr (TCP) is widely applied to minimize the growth of woody plants. Monitoring of TCP is of major environmental concern due to its adverse impact on aquatic organisms, soils and animals. Electrochemical behavior of TCP was investigated at C decorated PANI modified glassy carbon sensor (PANI/C/GC). The experimental parameters, such as concentration, pH, amplitude, frequency, deposition potential were optimized. The modified sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic response towards the reduction of TCP with a well-defined reduction peak at 1.72 V. The developed sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical measurements were carried out using square wave (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The modified sensor exhibited linear calibration curve for TCP over a concentration range of 10 ngmL-100 ngmL with detection limit of 1.9 ngmL. The developed sensor could detect TCP efficiently without any interference from the common metabolites. The voltammetric procedure was applied successfully to real sample analysis with high sensitivity and good selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.083DOI Listing
April 2019

CANDLE/Supervisor: a workflow framework for machine learning applied to cancer research.

BMC Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 21;19(Suppl 18):491. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Minerva, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Current multi-petaflop supercomputers are powerful systems, but present challenges when faced with problems requiring large machine learning workflows. Complex algorithms running at system scale, often with different patterns that require disparate software packages and complex data flows cause difficulties in assembling and managing large experiments on these machines.

Results: This paper presents a workflow system that makes progress on scaling machine learning ensembles, specifically in this first release, ensembles of deep neural networks that address problems in cancer research across the atomistic, molecular and population scales. The initial release of the application framework that we call CANDLE/Supervisor addresses the problem of hyper-parameter exploration of deep neural networks.

Conclusions: Initial results demonstrating CANDLE on DOE systems at ORNL, ANL and NERSC (Titan, Theta and Cori, respectively) demonstrate both scaling and multi-platform execution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-018-2508-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302440PMC
December 2018

Staffing at Ambulatory Endoscopy Centers in the United States: Practice, Trends, and Rationale.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2018 13;2018:9463670. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Texas Digestive Disease Consultants, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: Endoscopy nurse (RN) has a pivotal role in administration and monitoring of moderate sedation during endoscopic procedures. When sedation for the procedure is administered and monitored by an anesthesia specialist, the role of an RN is less clear. The guidelines on this issue by nursing and gastroenterology societies are contradictory.

Methods: Survey study of endoscopy lab managers and directors at outpatient endoscopy units in Texas. The questions related to staffing patterns for outpatient endoscopies and responsibilities of different personnel assisting with endoscopies.

Results: Responses were received from 65 endoscopy units (response rate 38%). 63/65 (97%) performed at least a few cases with an anesthesia specialist. Of these, 49/63 (78%) involved only an endoscopy technician, without an additional RN in the room. At 12/49 (25%) units, the RN performed tasks of an endoscopy technician. At 14/63 (22%), an additional RN was present during endoscopic procedures and performed tasks not directly related to patient care.

Conclusions: Many ambulatory endoscopy units do not have an RN present at all times when sedation is administered by an anesthesia specialist. An RN, when present, did not perform tasks commensurate with the education and training. This has implications about optimal utilization of nurses and cost of performing endoscopies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9463670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6158976PMC
September 2018

Corrigendum to "Advances in sensing and biosensing of bisphenols: A review" [ACA 998 (2018) 1-27].

Anal Chim Acta 2018 10 31;1029:125-129. Epub 2018 May 31.

School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.05.047DOI Listing
October 2018

Metastatic Fallopian Tube Cancer Detected During Colonoscopy.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 10 3;17(11):A16. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Medicine, Texas Health Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Texas Digestive Disease Consultants, Dallas, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.04.053DOI Listing
October 2019

Voltammetric sensing based on the use of advanced carbonaceous nanomaterials: a review.

Mikrochim Acta 2018 01 8;185(2):89. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

School of Studies in Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011, India.

This review (with 210 references) summarizes recent developments in the design of voltammetric chemical sensors and biosensors based on the use of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs). It is divided into subsections starting with an introduction into the field and a description of its current state. This is followed by a large section on various types of voltammetric sensors and biosensors using CNMs with subsections on sensors based on the use of carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxides, graphene nanoribbons, fullerenes, ionic liquid composites with CNMs, carbon nanohorns, diamond nanoparticles, carbon dots, carbon nanofibers and mesoporous carbon. The third section gives conclusion and an outlook. Tables are presented on the application of such sensors to voltammetric detection of neurotransmitters, metabolites, dietary minerals, proteins, heavy metals, gaseous molecules, pharmaceuticals, environmental pollutants, food, beverages, cosmetics, commercial goods and drugs of abuse. The authors also describe advanced approaches for the fabrication of robust functional carbon nano(bio)sensors for voltammetric quantification of multiple targets. Graphical Abstract Featuring execellent electrical, catalytic and surface properies, CNMs have gained enormous attention for designing voltammetric sensors and biosensors. Functionalized CNM-modified electrode interfaces have demonstrated their prominent role in biological, environmental, pharmaceutical, chemical, food and industrial analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-017-2626-0DOI Listing
January 2018

Synergistic effect of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide and titanium oxide on the redox behaviour of flunarizine in solubilized media.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Jun 2;166:72-78. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011, India. Electronic address:

Titanium oxide nanoparticles and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide modified glassy carbon electrode (TiO/IL/GCE) has been fabricated for electrochemical sensing of flunarizine (FRH). The electrochemical properties and morphology of the prepared nanocomposite were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The response of the electrochemical sensor was found to be proportional to the concentrations of FRH in the range from 0.5 μgmL to 16 μgmL. The detection limit obtained was 0.03 μgmL. The proposed method was also applied to the determination of FRH in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum with good recoveries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.02.057DOI Listing
June 2018

Global analysis of A-to-I RNA editing reveals association with common disease variants.

PeerJ 2018 6;6:e4466. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Integrated Cardio Metabolic Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

RNA editing modifies transcripts and may alter their regulation or function. In humans, the most common modification is adenosine to inosine (A-to-I). We examined the global characteristics of RNA editing in 4,301 human tissue samples. More than 1.6 million A-to-I edits were identified in 62% of all protein-coding transcripts. mRNA recoding was extremely rare; only 11 novel recoding sites were uncovered. Thirty single nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies were associated with RNA editing; one that influences type 2 diabetes (rs2028299) was associated with editing in . Twenty-five genes, including and had editing sites that were associated with plasma lipid levels. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic regulation of RNA editing and establish a rich catalogue for further exploration of this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844249PMC
March 2018

A Rare Tumor Presenting as a Rectal Mass.

Gastroenterology 2018 08 1;155(2):273-275. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Medicine, Texas Health Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Texas Digestive Disease Consultants, Dallas, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.01.056DOI Listing
August 2018

Advances in sensing and biosensing of bisphenols: A review.

Anal Chim Acta 2018 Jan 17;998:1-27. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, India.

Bisphenols (BPs) are well known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that cause adverse effects on the environment, biotic life and human health. BPs have been studied extensively because of an increasing concern for the safety of the environment and for human health. They are major raw materials for manufacturing polycarbonates, thermal papers and epoxy resins and are considered hazardous environmental contaminants. A vast array of sensors and biosensors have been developed for the sensitive screening of BPs based on carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene and graphene oxide), quantum dots, metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, polymer nanocomposites, metal organic frameworks, ionic liquids and molecularly imprinted polymers. This review is devoted mainly to a variety of sensitive, selective and reliable sensing and biosensing methods for the detection of BPs using electrochemistry, fluorescence, colorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, luminescence, ELISAs, circular dichroism, resonance Rayleigh scattering and adsorption techniques in plastic products, food samples, food packaging, industrial wastes, pharmaceutical products, human body fluids and many other matrices. It summarizes the advances in sensing and biosensing methods for the detection of BPs since 2010. Furthermore, the article discusses challenges and future perspectives in the development of novel sensing methods for the detection of BP analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.09.048DOI Listing
January 2018

A Peculiar Cause of Rectal Prolapse.

Gastroenterology 2018 May 10;154(6):1586-1587. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Texas Digestive Disease Consultants, Dallas, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.015DOI Listing
May 2018

Empagliflozin/linagliptin single-pill combination therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2017 Apr 4;18(6):545-549. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

a Aurora Health Center , Aurora Advanced Healthcare, Inc ., Milwaukee , WI , USA.

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is typically progressive, with sequential addition of therapies often needed to address increasing hyperglycemia over the disease course. Using treatments in combination may be preferred to sequential addition, as a means of providing a more rapid clinical response and potentially avoiding clinical inertia. In such cases, a single-pill combination can help to reduce pill burden. Although various single-pill combinations of oral glucose-lowering agents are available, empagliflozin/linagliptin was the first approved combination of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in the United States. Areas covered: Two publications of the clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of single-pill combinations of empagliflozin/linagliptin in treatment-naive or metformin-treated patients with T2DM (NCT01422876) are reviewed, and their potential impact on clinical practice is discussed. Expert opinion: The study discussed provides evidence for the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin/linagliptin single pills. Addition of an empagliflozin/linagliptin single pill may be considered in patients with inadequate glycemic control on metformin, or as an alternative to first-line treatment with empagliflozin or linagliptin when metformin is not suitable, particularly in patients with very poor glycemic control, or those who need to achieve target more quickly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2017.1299712DOI Listing
April 2017

A Rare Cause of Duodenal Obstruction: Metastatic Parotid Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 11 27;15(11):A29-A30. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of Medicine, Texas Health Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Texas Digestive Disease Consultants, Dallas, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2017.03.027DOI Listing
November 2017

Optimal strategies for pancreatic cyst surveillance: we need better comparative data, not more case series.

Gastrointest Endosc 2017 03;85(3):685-686

Division of Gastroenterology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2016.09.007DOI Listing
March 2017

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Caused by Aortoesophageal Fistula.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 12 19;14(12):A22. Epub 2016 Aug 19.

Department of Medicine, Texas Health Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Texas Digestive Disease Consultants, Dallas, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2016.08.013DOI Listing
December 2016

Recent trends in electrochemical sensors for multianalyte detection - A review.

Talanta 2016 Dec 22;161:894-916. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

School of Studies in Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, India.

Voltammetric methods for screening compounds of varied interests are reviewed on the basis of the types of electrodes and analytical strategies. The scope of conventional voltammetric method has been considerably expanded in the last years due to the development of a plethora of modified electrodes, in particular, those involving nanocomposites. Voltammetric methods have distinct advantages over other existing methods regarding sensitivity, minimum detectability, applicability to biological samples without any pretreatment and time saving. Simultaneous determination of compounds by voltammetry offers the advantages of being economical and less time consuming as more than one analyte can be detected easily on the fabricated sensor at the same time. Present review article focuses on the simultaneous voltammetric detection of various compounds reported during the last five years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.08.084DOI Listing
December 2016

Automatic Analysis of Retinal Vascular Parameters for Detection of Diabetes in Indian Patients with No Retinopathy Sign.

Int Sch Res Notices 2016 8;2016:8423289. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Save Sight Centre, Delhi 110033, India.

This study has investigated the association between retinal vascular parameters with type II diabetes in Indian population with no observable diabetic retinopathy. It has introduced two new retinal vascular parameters: total number of branching angles (TBA) and average acute branching angles (ABA) as potential biomarkers of diabetes in an explanatory model. A total number of 180 retinal images (two (left and right) × two (ODC and MC) × 45 subjects (13 diabetics and 32 nondiabetics)) were analysed. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to model the association between type II diabetes with the best subset of explanatory variables (predictors), consisting of retinal vascular parameters and patients' demographic information. P value of the estimated coefficients (P < 0.001) indicated that, at α level of 0.05, the newly introduced retinal vascular parameters, that is, TBA and ABA together with CRAE, mean tortuosity, SD of branching angle, and VB, are related to type II diabetes when there is no observable sign of retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8423289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4992751PMC
August 2016

Insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2016 Jan 18;11(1):7-19. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg , MB , Canada.

The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes necessitates that treatment is intensified as the disease advances. Several studies have shown that basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) can be used in combination to successfully improve glycemic control and this combination is increasingly being considered as an alternative to intensification with prandial insulin. Insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) is the first fixed-ratio combination of a basal insulin and a GLP-1RA in a single formulation. Here we consider the benefits and potential limitations of such a combination, focusing on the unique modes of action of insulin degludec and the once-daily GLP-1RA liraglutide. IDegLira offers an efficacious combination therapy (mean end-of-trial HbA was 6.4-6.9% across the five completed Phase 3 trials), which was well-tolerated in clinical trials. The complementary modes of action resulted in a low rate of hypoglycemia and no weight gain in insulin-treated patients. As a once-daily injection with effects on both fasting and post prandial hyperglycemia, IDegLira has the potential to help many patients reach glycemic target (60-81% of patients achieved HbA <7% in clinical trials).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.2016.1113129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4894076PMC
January 2016