Publications by authors named "Rajeev Gupta"

390 Publications

Genome-Wide Assessment of Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Global Finger Millet Germplasm Panel Conserved at the ICRISAT Genebank.

Front Plant Sci 2021 20;12:692463. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India.

Finger millet [ (L.) Gaertn.] is an important climate-resilient nutrient-dense crop grown as a staple food grain in Asia and Africa. Utilizing the full potential of the crop mainly depends on an in-depth exploration of the vast diversity in its germplasm. In this study, the global finger millet germplasm diversity panel of 314 accessions was genotyped, using the DArTseq approach to assess genetic diversity and population structure. We obtained 33,884 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on 306 accessions after filtering. Finger millet germplasm showed considerable genetic diversity, and the mean polymorphic information content, gene diversity, and Shannon Index were 0.110, 0.114, and 0.194, respectively. The average genetic distance of the entire set was 0.301 (range 0.040 - 0.450). The accessions of the race (0.326) showed the highest average genetic distance, and the least was in the race (0.275); and higher genetic divergence was observed between and (0.320), while the least was between and (0.281). An average, landrace accessions had higher gene diversity (0.144) and genetic distance (0.299) than the breeding lines (0.117 and 0.267, respectively). A similar average gene diversity was observed in the accessions of Asia (0.132) and Africa (0.129), but Asia had slightly higher genetic distance (0.286) than African accessions (0.276), and the distance between these two regions was 0.327. This was also confirmed by a model-based STRUCTURE analysis, genetic distance-based clustering, and principal coordinate analysis, which revealed two major populations representing Asia and Africa. Analysis of molecular variance suggests that the significant population differentiation was mainly due to within individuals between regions or between populations while races had a negligible impact on population structure. Finger millet diversity is structured based on a geographical region of origin, while the racial structure made negligible contribution to population structure. The information generated from this study can provide greater insights into the population structure and genetic diversity within and among regions and races, and an understanding of genomic-assisted finger millet improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.692463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417690PMC
August 2021

Heterotopic Ossification in a Neonate with DiGeorge Syndrome.

Indian J Pediatr 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Pediatrics, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, UP, 226003, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-021-03934-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Regional impact of updated guidelines on prevalence and distribution of blood pressure categories for hypertension in India: Results from the National Family Health Survey 4.

Indian Heart J 2021 Jul-Aug;73(4):481-486. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease and Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA.

Introduction: In 2017, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association revised guidelines for diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults. The regional impact of the updated guidelines on the prevalence of hypertension in India is unknown.

Methods: Data from nationally representative Indian households were analyzed to estimate the regional prevalence of hypertension according to the old and the new guidelines in men (age 18-54 years) and women (age 18-49 years). The old guidelines defined hypertension as a systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg or treatment. The new guidelines define hypertension as a systolic blood pressure of ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥80 mmHg or treatment. We calculated the increase in the prevalence of hypertension among the states and union territories of India (hereafter "states").

Results: Among 679,712 participants (85.6% women), the median age was 31 years (interquartile range 24, 40) and was comparable among men and women (33 vs. 31 years, respectively). The overall weighted prevalence according to old and new guidelines was 18.5% (95% CI 18.2, 18.7) and 43.0% (95% CI 42.8, 43.3), respectively. There was a significant increase in hypertension prevalence, both among men and women, and across all regions. The northeast region of the country had the highest prevalence.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of hypertension significantly increases with the new compared to the old guidelines, however, the regional heterogeneity of prevalence of hypertension is maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2021.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424272PMC
June 2021

A Clinical Study to Evaluate the Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Sep 5;73(3):346-350. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of ENT, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, India.

Metabolic syndrome is considered to be a triggering factor for deterioration of health related quality of life. In present study we assessed hearing loss consequent to metabolic syndrome. A total of 100 patients diagnosed for metabolic syndrome (IDF criteria) were included in the study. All the patients underwent pure tone audiometry and impedance audiometry. All the patients underwent anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, blood sugar and blood pressure assessments. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. A total of 62% patients had sensorineural hearing loss. Maximum (35%) had mild hearing loss, followed by moderate hearing loss (23%). Only 4 (4%) cases had severe hearing loss. Older age, wider waist circumference, higher fasting blood glucose levels and lower blood pressure were found to be significantly associated with sensorineural hearing loss and its severity on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate assessment only age and waist circumference showed a significant association with hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12070-021-02539-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364580PMC
September 2021

Statins in Patients with Uncomplicated Hypertension: A Prescription Audit.

J Assoc Physicians India 2021 Apr;69(4):11-12

Departments Preventive Cardiology and Medicine, Eternal Heart Care Centre and Research Institute, Jaipur, Rajasthan Corresponding Author.

Objective: Guidelines recommend prescription of statins in all high-risk patients with hypertension irrespective of their cholesterol levels. We performed a prescription audit in India to determine the application of recommendations.

Methods: A registry-based audit of patients with primary diagnosis of hypertension (n=3073) was performed. Details of co-morbidities and medications were obtained. Patients with known vascular disease were excluded. Patients were classified into subgroups based on risk factors and type of therapy. A multivariate model of risk was developed using clinical data and patients were classified into low, moderate and high risk. Statin prescriptions were divided into low, medium and high intensity based on US guidelines. Descriptive statistics are reported.

Results: Mean age of patients was 59±13 years, 47 % were women and 26 % were less than 50 years age. Diabetes was noted in 31.1 %, current smoking in 1.3 %, obesity in 14.7 % and hypothyroidism in 7.9 %. Statins were prescribed in 41.2 % (95% CI 39.4-42.9%), more in men compared to women (47.7% vs 33.7%, p<0.001). Most of the patients received moderate intensity statins (83.9%). In age-groups >40, 40-59, 60-79 and 80+ years, statins were prescribed in 18.7%, 36.5%, 49.5% and 49.4% respectively (ptrend <0.001). Statins were prescribed in 52.0% diabetics, 60.9% obese, 52.5% smokers and 34.8% hypothyroid. In the multivariate model statins use in low, medium and high risk patients was 28.4%, 46.6% and 55.1% respectively (ptrend <0.001).

Conclusion: In an Indian secondary care practice only half of patients with moderate to high risk uncomplicated hypertension receive statins.
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April 2021

Association of SARS CoV-2 Cycle Threshold (Ct) with Outcomes in COVID-19: Hospital-Based Study.

J Assoc Physicians India 2021 07;69(7):20-23

Academic Research Development Unit, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan.

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July 2021

Erratum to "Escalating Ischemic Heart Disease Burden among Women in India: Insights from GBD, NCDRisC and NFHS Reports" [American Journal of Preventive Cardiology 2C (2020) 100035].

Am J Prev Cardiol 2021 Mar 29;5:100154. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, India.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpc.2020.100035.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpc.2021.100154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315598PMC
March 2021

Efficacy of IVRS-based mHealth intervention in reducing cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome: A cluster randomized trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Jun 21;15(5):102182. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Academic Research Development Unit, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, 302033, Jaipur, India.

Aims: Efficacy of mobile-phone based intervention for reducing cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn).

Methods: We screened adults 20-60 years in 10 villages in India for MetSyn using stratified cluster sampling. Lifestyle and biochemical risk factors were assessed. International Harmonized Criteria were used for diagnosis. Villages were randomized with 5 each in control and intervention groups. Interactive voice response system (IVRS) in Hindi was developed. In intervention clusters two messages for promotion of healthy lifestyle and medical treatment were broadcast daily over 12-months and risk factors reassessed.

Results: 1012/1200(84%) persons were screened and MetSyn diagnosed in 286(28.3%). Villages were divided into 5 control(n = 136) and 5 intervention(n = 147) clusters. Baseline characteristics in both clusters were similar. Acceptability of intervention was >60% in 80% participants. At 12 months, significantly greater participants in intervention vs control clusters had healthier lifestyle (healthy diet 28.8vs14.7%, physical activity 25.9vs13.1%, tobacco 13.7vs32.5%), anthropometry (waist circumference 85.7 ± 6.3vs88.6 ± 14.0 cm, body mass index 21.9 ± 2.8vs23.1 ± 2.9 kg/m), systolic BP 123.6 ± 7.7vs128.6 ± 14.1 mmHg, fasting glucose 95.6 ± 19.4vs109.4 ± 43.7 mg/dl, cholesterol 175.5 ± 36.5vs186.4 ± 43.3 mg/dl, and triglycerides 147.6 ± 48.3vs159.5 ± 60.7 mg/dl (p < 0.01). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome declined in intervention group by 22.3%vs3.9%, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: An interactive voice response system based technology significantly reduced multiple cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2021.06.019DOI Listing
June 2021

Escalating ischemic heart disease burden among women in India: Insights from GBD, NCDRisC and NFHS reports.

Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Jun 17;2:100035. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, India.

Objective: To determine trends in ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and burden among women in India we performed a study.

Methods: Data were obtained from three publicly available resources. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and IHD mortality were obtained from 2017 Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study. Metabolic risk factor data (body-mass index, blood pressure and diabetes) were obtained from Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration (NCDRiSC) and lifestyle factors were obtained from National Family Health Surveys (NFHS). Descriptive statistics are reported.

Results: GBD study reported that in year 2017 in India CVD caused 2.64 million deaths (women 1.18, men 1.45 million) and IHD 1.54 million (women 0.62, men 0.92 million). Burden of IHD related disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was 36.99 million (women 13.80, men 23.19 million). From 2000 to 2017 annual IHD mortality increased from 0.85 to 1.54 million (+81.1%) with greater increase in women 0.32 to 0.62 million (+93.7%) compared to men (0.53-0.92 million, +73.6%). Increase in age-adjusted IHD mortality rate/100,000 was also more in women (62.9-92.7, +47.4%) than men (97.5-129.5, +32.8%). Trends in cardiometabolic risk factors from 2000 to 2015 showed greater increase in body-mass index, diabetes, tobacco-use and periodontal infections among women than men.

Conclusion: IHD is increasing more rapidly among women than men in India and there is sex-associated convergence. This is associated with greater increase in overweight, diabetes, tobacco use and periodontal infections in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpc.2020.100035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315408PMC
June 2020

The role of the mitochondrial protein VDAC1 in inflammatory bowel disease: a potential therapeutic target.

Mol Ther 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Life Sciences and the National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. Electronic address:

Recent studies have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction as a trigger of inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We have investigated the role of the mitochondria gate-keeper protein, the voltage-dependent-anion channel 1 (VDAC1), in gastrointestinal inflammation and tested the effects of the newly developed VDAC1-interacting molecules, VBIT-4 and VBIT-12, on UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in mice. VDAC1, which controls metabolism, lipids transport, apoptosis, and inflammasome activation, is overexpressed in the colon of CD and UC patients and DSS-treated mice. VBIT-12 treatment of cultured colon cells inhibited the DSS-induced VDAC1 overexpression, oligomerization, and apoptosis. In the DSS-treated mice, VBIT-12 suppressed weight loss, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, crypt and epithelial cell damage, and focal inflammation. VBIT-12 also inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells, apoptosis, mtDNA release, and activation of caspase-1 and NRLP3 inflammasome to reduce the inflammatory response. The levels of the ATP-gated PX-Ca/K channel and ER-IP3R-Ca channel, and of the mitochondrial anti-viral protein (MAVS), mediating NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, were highly increased in DSS-treated mice, but not when VBIT-12 treated. We conclude that UC may be promoted by VDAC1-overexpression and may therefore be amenable to treatment with novel VDAC1-interacting molecules. This VDAC1-based strategy exploits a completely new target for UC treatment and opens a new avenue for treating other inflammatory/autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.06.024DOI Listing
July 2021

Tribological Behavior of Carbon-Based Nanomaterial-Reinforced Nickel Metal Matrix Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 24;14(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Mechanical Engineering Department, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) with exceptional mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical properties are enticing reinforcements for fabricating lightweight, high-strength, and wear-resistant metal matrix composites with superior mechanical and tribological performance. Nickel-carbon nanotube composite (Ni-CNT) and nickel-graphene nanoplatelet composite (Ni-GNP) were fabricated via mechanical milling followed by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The Ni-CNT/GNP composites with varying reinforcement concentrations (0.5, 2, and 5 wt%) were ball milled for twelve hours to explore the effect of reinforcement concentration and its dispersion in the nickel microstructure. The effect of varying CNT/GNP concentration on the microhardness and the tribological behavior was investigated and compared with SPS processed monolithic nickel. Ball-on-disc tribological tests were performed to determine the effect of different structural morphologies of CNTs and GNPs on the wear performance and coefficient of friction of these composites. Experimental results indicate considerable grain refinement and improvement in the microhardness of these composites after the addition of CNTs/GNPs in the nickel matrix. In addition, the CNTs and GNPs were effective in forming a lubricant layer, enhancing the wear resistance and lowering the coefficient of friction during the sliding wear test, in contrast to the pure nickel counterpart. Pure nickel demonstrated the highest CoF of ~0.9, Ni-0.5CNT and Ni-0.5GNP exhibited a CoF of ~0.8, whereas the lowest CoF of ~0.2 was observed for Ni-2CNT and Ni-5GNP composites. It was also observed that the uncertainty of wear resistance and CoF in both the CNT/GNP-reinforced composites increased when loaded with higher reinforcement concentrations. The wear surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis to elucidate the wear mechanism in these composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14133536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269552PMC
June 2021

Transport properties of ZnVOand its correlation to the doping at the cationic sites.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jul 16;33(37). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Materials Science Programme, IIT Kanpur 208016, India.

We investigate the effect of Fe and Cr doping at Zn and V sites, respectively, on the electrical transport behavior of polycrystalline spinel ZnVO. The resistivity studies as a function of temperature reveal the presence of two different transport mechanisms: Arrhenius conduction (170-300 K) and Mott variable range hopping conduction (VRH) (80-170 K). The results also show that Fe doping at Zn sites has a pronounced effect on the electrical transport property together with the V-V distance, accompanied by a decreasing magnetic transition temperature,. Cr doping, on the other hand, shows a contrasting Arrhenius transport behavior with decreasing V-V distance as well as a decreasing. In the VRH transport regime, a systematic variation of the values of the Mott parameters due to the change in the localization length along the V-V chains is observed. Further, x-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy studies supporting the stabilization of the doped cation phases are presented in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac101dDOI Listing
July 2021

Timing and Length of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping and Associations With Obesity Types in High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Countries.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2113775. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Importance: Obesity is a growing public health threat leading to serious health consequences. Late bedtime and sleep loss are common in modern society, but their associations with specific obesity types are not well characterized.

Objective: To assess whether sleep timing and napping behavior are associated with increased obesity, independent of nocturnal sleep length.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This large, multinational, population-based cross-sectional study used data of participants from 60 study centers in 26 countries with varying income levels as part of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Participants were aged 35 to 70 years and were mainly recruited during 2005 and 2009. Data analysis occurred from October 2020 through March 2021.

Exposures: Sleep timing (ie, bedtime and wake-up time), nocturnal sleep duration, daytime napping.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were prevalence of obesity, specified as general obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 or greater, and abdominal obesity, defined as waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men or greater than 88 cm for women. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for study centers were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs.

Results: Overall, 136 652 participants (81 652 [59.8%] women; mean [SD] age, 51.0 [9.8] years) were included in analysis. A total of 27 195 participants (19.9%) had general obesity, and 37 024 participants (27.1%) had abdominal obesity. The mean (SD) nocturnal sleep duration was 7.8 (1.4) hours, and the median (interquartile range) midsleep time was 2:15 am (1:30 am-3:00 am). A total of 19 660 participants (14.4%) had late bedtime behavior (ie, midnight or later). Compared with bedtime between 8 pm and 10 pm, late bedtime was associated with general obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) and abdominal obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), particularly among participants who went to bed between 2 am and 6 am (general obesity: AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54; abdominal obesity: AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58). Short nocturnal sleep of less than 6 hours was associated with general obesity (eg, <5 hours: AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43), but longer napping was associated with higher abdominal obesity prevalence (eg, ≥1 hours: AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.31-1.47). Neither going to bed during the day (ie, before 8pm) nor wake-up time was associated with obesity.

Conclusions And Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that late nocturnal bedtime and short nocturnal sleep were associated with increased risk of obesity prevalence, while longer daytime napping did not reduce the risk but was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity. Strategic weight control programs should also encourage earlier bedtime and avoid short nocturnal sleep to mitigate obesity epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.13775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246307PMC
June 2021

Single-center experience of 105-minimalistc transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement and its outcome.

Indian Heart J 2021 May-Jun;73(3):301-306. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Cardiology, Eternal Hospital, Jaipur, India.

Introduction: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) increases worldwide, and indications expand from high-risk aortic stenosis patients to low-risk aortic stenosis. Studies have shown that minimalistic TAVR done under conscious sedation is safe and effective. We report single-operator, the single-center outcome of 105 minimalist transfemoral, conscious sedation TAVR patients, analyzed retrospectively.

Methods: All patients underwent TAVR in cardiac catheterization lab via percutaneous transfemoral, conscious sedation approach. A dedicated cardiac anesthetist team delivered the conscious sedation with a standard protocol described in the main text. The outcomes were analyzed as per VARC-2 criteria and compared with the latest low-risk TAVR trials.

Results: A total of 105 patients underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement between July 2016 to February 2020. The mean age of the population was 73 years, and the mean STS score was 3.99 ± 2.59. All patients underwent a percutaneous transfemoral approach. Self-expanding valve was used in 40% of cases and balloon-expandable valve in 60% (Sapien3™ in 31% and MyVal™ in 29%) of cases. One patient required conversion to surgical aortic valve replacement. The success rate was 99 percent. The outcomes were: all-cause mortality: 0.9%, stroke rate 1.9%, New pacemaker rate 5.7%, 87.6% had no paravalvular leak. The mild and moderate paravalvular leak was seen in 2.8% and 1.9%, respectively. The mean gradient decreased from 47.5 mmHg to 9 mmHg. The average ICU stay was 26.4 h, and the average hospital stay was 5.4 days. Our outcomes are comparable with the latest published low-risk trial.

Conclusion: Minimalist, conscious sedation, transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement when done following a standard protocol is safe and effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2021.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322745PMC
February 2021

Sorghum Pan-Genome Explores the Functional Utility for Genomic-Assisted Breeding to Accelerate the Genetic Gain.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:666342. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India.

Sorghum ( L.) is a staple food crops in the arid and rainfed production ecologies. Sorghum plays a critical role in resilient farming and is projected as a smart crop to overcome the food and nutritional insecurity in the developing world. The development and characterisation of the sorghum pan-genome will provide insight into genome diversity and functionality, supporting sorghum improvement. We built a sorghum pan-genome using reference genomes as well as 354 genetically diverse sorghum accessions belonging to different races. We explored the structural and functional characteristics of the pan-genome and explain its utility in supporting genetic gain. The newly-developed pan-genome has a total of 35,719 genes, a core genome of 16,821 genes and an average of 32,795 genes in each cultivar. The variable genes are enriched with environment responsive genes and classify the sorghum accessions according to their race. We show that 53% of genes display presence-absence variation, and some of these variable genes are predicted to be functionally associated with drought adaptation traits. Using more than two million SNPs from the pan-genome, association analysis identified 398 SNPs significantly associated with important agronomic traits, of which, 92 were in genes. Drought gene expression analysis identified 1,788 genes that are functionally linked to different conditions, of which 79 were absent from the reference genome assembly. This study provides comprehensive genomic diversity resources in sorghum which can be used in genome assisted crop improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.666342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204017PMC
June 2021

Prevalence and follow-up of subclinical rheumatic heart disease among asymptomatic school children in a north-western district of India based on the World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria.

Echocardiography 2021 07 28;38(7):1173-1178. Epub 2021 May 28.

Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: The present study is based on the World Heart Federation (WHF) echocardiographic criteria to assess the prevalence of subclinical rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and elucidate evolution of the disease when the cases were placed on appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis and regular follow-up. The prevalence of subclinical RHD reported by previous active surveillance studies among asymptomatic school children is not comparable to our study because of major differences in screening methods.

Methods: A random inclusion strategy was adopted to recruit urban and rural school children of Bikaner district in the state of Rajasthan, India. The diagnosis of RHD was based on the echocardiographic criteria proposed by the WHF. All studies were reported on-site by a single experienced cardiologist and the digitally preserved studies were reported by a second cardiologist off-site. The final diagnosis was made by consensus. The second echocardiogram was performed for cases diagnosed with RHD after two years from start of study to document early evolution of the disease with ongoing antibiotic prophylaxis.

Results: A high prevalence of subclinical RHD was observed in the study population. Pathological mitral and/or aortic valve regurgitation was the commonest lesion, and a significant proportion of cases improved while on regular antibiotic prophylaxis. No case showed fixity of leaflets/ stenosis.

Conclusion: The prevalence of subclinical RHD is high in the study population, and the disease seems to regress over time in the presence of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.15035DOI Listing
July 2021

Enhancement of euryhaline biomass production for improving biogas generation through anaerobic co-digestion with carbon rich substrate.

3 Biotech 2021 May 3;11(5):251. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004 India.

The microalga was isolated from Muktsar, the southwestern zone of Indian Punjab and identified as BGLR5 (MF661929) by 18S rRNA sequence analysis. The optimization of various cultural factors by the Plackett-Burman and central composite (CCD) designs helped in discerning the significant cultural factors for the increased production of biomass and other functional components (chlorophyll, carbohydrate, lipid and protein). The optimal cultural conditions as per the model were pH 9.9, 81 μmol m s light intensity, 22 °C temperature, growth period of 25 days, NaNO 12 mM, 15 mM NHCl, and 7 mM KHPO. In comparison to the basal condition biomass (0.886 g L), a 0.42-fold increase in biomass yield was attained. Further, the highest yield of biogas (: 361.81 mL g VS) with enhanced biogas production rate ( : 8.19 mL g day) was achieved in co-digesting paddy straw with biomass in 1:1 ratio compared to their digestion individually. Further, the co-digestion resulted in the positive synergistic effect which increased the observed biogas yield compared to the estimated yield by 11-58% depending upon the amount of algal biomass and paddy straw used. Hence, the present study signifies that the biomass of BGLR5 can be utilized as a co-substrate with paddy straw to enhance the biogas yield.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02792-x.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02792-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093355PMC
May 2021

Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Sorghum: Exploring Native Variability for Traits Under Variable N-Regimes.

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:643192. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid and Tropics, Patancheru, India.

Exploring the natural genetic variability and its exploitation for improved Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) in sorghum is one of the primary goals in the modern crop improvement programs. The integrated strategies include high-throughput phenotyping, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based genotyping technologies, and selected candidate gene studies that help understand the detailed physiological and molecular mechanisms underpinning this complex trait. A set of sixty diverse sorghum genotypes was evaluated for different vegetative, reproductive, and yield traits related to NUE in the field (under three N regimes) for two seasons. Significant variations for different yield and related traits under 0 and 50% N confirmed the availability of native genetic variability in sorghum under low N regimes. Sorghum genotypes with distinct genetic background had interestingly similar NUE associated traits. The Genotyping-By-Sequencing based SNPs (>89 K) were used to study the population structure, and phylogenetic groupings identified three distinct groups. The information of grain N and stalk N content of the individuals covered on the phylogenetic groups indicated randomness in the distribution for adaptation under variable N regimes. This study identified promising sorghum genotypes with consistent performance under varying environments, with buffer capacity for yield under low N conditions. We also report better performing genotypes for varied production use-grain, stover, and dual-purpose sorghum having differential adaptation response to NUE traits. Expression profiling of NUE associated genes in shoot and root tissues of contrasting lines (PVK801 and HDW703) grown in varying N conditions revealed interesting outcomes. Root tissues of contrasting lines exhibited differential expression profiles for transporter genes [ammonium transporter (, nitrate transporters ()]; primary assimilatory (glutamine synthetase (, glutamate synthase (, assimilatory genes [nitrite reductase ()]; and amino acid biosynthesis associated gene [glutamate dehydrogenase ()]. Identification and expression profiling of contrasting sorghum genotypes in varying N dosages will provide new information to understand the response of NUE genes toward adaptation to the differential N regimes in sorghum. High NUE genotypes identified from this study could be potential candidates for in-depth molecular analysis and contribute toward the development of N efficient sorghum cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.643192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097177PMC
April 2021

Bis(μ-thiolato)-dicopper Containing Fully Spin Delocalized Mixed Valence Copper-Sulfur Clusters and Their Electronic Structural Properties with Relevance to the Cu Site.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 8;60(8):5779-5790. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713 209, India.

With aromatic and aliphatic thiol-S donor Schiff base ligands, the copper-sulfur clusters, [(L1)CuCu](ClO)·DMF·0.5CHOH () and [(L2)CuCu(μ-S)(μ-O)](ClO)·4HO, respectively, have been reported ( 2017, 53, 3334); HL1/HL2 are 2-(((3-methylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)amino)benzene/ethanethiol). Complex comprises a wheel shaped CuS framework, made up of interlinked Cu{μ-S(R)} units. To understand the properties with relevance to the Cu site and to check whether self-assembly generates similar type clusters to , three complexes, [(L3)CuCu](ClO)·(CH)O·2.5HO (), [(L3)CuCu](ClO)·1.25(CH)O·1.25CHOH·2HO (), and [(L3)CuCu](ClO)·2(CH)O·HO () have been synthesized with supporting ligands HL3 (HL3 = 2-((furan-2-ylmethylene)amino)benzenethiol when X = -H; X = -Cl or -CF to thiol-S are HL3 and HL3 ligands, respectively). The X-ray structures of and feature a similar CuS architecture to . The spectroscopic properties and the X-ray structures revealed that - are fully spin delocalized mixed valence (MV) of type clusters. The structural parameters of the NCu{μ-S(R)} units of and closely resemble those of the MV binuclear Cu site. With the aid of UV-vis-NIR, EPR, and spectroelectrochemical studies, the electronic properties of these complexes have been described in comparison with the MV model complexes and Cu site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00075DOI Listing
April 2021

International Pediatric Perfusion Practice: 2016 Survey Results.

J Extra Corpor Technol 2021 Mar;53(1):7-26

The Heart Center Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Norton Children's Hospital, University of Louisville Physicians, Louisville, Kentucky; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; A. N. Bakulev National Medical Research Center of Cardiovascular Surgery, Moscow, Russia; Heart Institute, University of São Paulo, Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil; and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tenwek Mission Hospital, Bomet, Kenya.

New cardiopulmonary bypass device techniques emerge and are reported in the scientific literature. The extent to which they are actually adopted into clinical practice is not well known. Since 1989, we have periodically surveyed pediatric cardiac centers to ascertain practice patterns. In December 2016, a 186-question perfusion survey was distributed to pediatric cardiac surgery centers all over the world using a Web-based survey tool. Responses were received from 93 North American (NA) centers (the United States and Canada) and 67 non-NA (NNA) centers, representing 19,645 cumulative annual procedures in NA and 27,776 in NNA centers on patients <18 years. Wide variation in practice was evident across geographic regions. However, the most common pediatric circuit consisted of a hard-shell (open) venous reservoir, an arterial roller pump, and a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator with a separate or integrated arterial filter. Compared with our previous surveys, there was increased utilization of all types of safety devices. The use of an electronic perfusion record was reported by 50% of NA centers and 31% of NNA centers. There was wide regional variation in cardioplegia delivery systems and cardioplegia solutions. Seventy-nine percent of the centers reported the use of some form of modified ultrafiltration. The survey demonstrated that there remains variation in perfusion practice for pediatric patients. Future surveys will be useful to evaluate the adoption of emerging perfusion practice guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/ject-2000033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995632PMC
March 2021

Impact of social isolation on mortality and morbidity in 20 high-income, middle-income and low-income countries in five continents.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 03;6(3)

Advocate Aurora Research Institute, Downers Grove, Illinois, USA.

Objective: To examine the association between social isolation and mortality and incident diseases in middle-aged adults in urban and rural communities from high-income, middle-income and low-income countries.

Design: Population-based prospective observational study.

Setting: Urban and rural communities in 20 high income, middle income and low income.

Participants: 119 894 community-dwelling middle-aged adults.

Main Outcome Measures: Associations of social isolation with mortality, cardiovascular death, non-cardiovascular death and incident diseases.

Results: Social isolation was more common in middle-income and high-income countries compared with low-income countries, in urban areas than rural areas, in older individuals and among women, those with less education and the unemployed. It was more frequent among smokers and those with a poorer diet. Social isolation was associated with greater risk of mortality (HR of 1.26, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.36), incident stroke (HR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.40), cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.25) and pneumonia (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.37), but not cancer. The associations between social isolation and mortality were observed in populations in high-income, middle-income and low-income countries (HR (95% CI): 1.69 (1.32 to 2.17), 1.27 (1.15 to 1.40) and 1.47 (1.25 to 1.73), respectively, interaction p=0.02). The HR associated with social isolation was greater in men than women and in younger than older individuals. Mediation analyses for the association between social isolation and mortality showed that unhealthy behaviours and comorbidities may account for about one-fifth of the association.

Conclusion: Social isolation is associated with increased risk of mortality in countries at different economic levels. The increasing share of older people in populations in many countries argues for targeted strategies to mitigate its adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986654PMC
March 2021

Prescription practice and clinical utility of chest radiographs in a pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective observational study.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 03 9;21(1):44. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Pediatric Emergency and Intensive Care Units, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector-12, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Background: Chest radiograph (CXR) prescribing pattern and practice vary widely among pediatric intensive care units (PICU). 'On demand' approach is increasingly recommended as against daily 'routine' CXRs; however, the real-world practice is largely unknown.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study performed in children younger than 12 years admitted to PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Data were collected on all consecutive CXRs performed between December 2016 and April 2017. The primary outcome was to assess the factors that were associated with higher chest radiograph prescriptions in PICU. Secondary outcomes were to study the indications, association with mechanical ventilation, image quality and avoidable radiation exposure.

Results: Of 303 children admitted during the study period, 159 underwent a total of 524 CXRs in PICU. Median (IQR) age of the study cohort was 2 (0.6-5) years. More than two thirds [n = 115, 72.3%] were mechanically ventilated. Most CXRs (n = 449, 85.7%) were performed on mechanically ventilated patients, amounting to a median (IQR) of 3 (2-5) radiographs per ventilated patient. With increasing duration of ventilation, the number of CXRs proportionately increased in the first two weeks of mechanical ventilation. In non-ventilated children, about two thirds (68%) underwent only one CXR. Majority of the prescriptions were on demand (n = 461, 88%). Most common indications were peri-procedure prescriptions (37%) followed by evaluation for respiratory disease status (24%). About 40% CXRs resulted in interventions; adjustment in ventilator settings (13.5%) was the most frequent intervention. In 26% (n = 138) of radiographs, image quality required improvement. One or more additional body part exposure other than chest and upper abdomen were noted 336 (64%) images. Children with > 3 CXR had higher PRISM III score, more often mechanically ventilated, had higher number of indwelling devices [mean (SD) 2.6 (1.2) vs. 1.7 (1.0)] and stayed longer in PICU [median (IQR) 11(7.5-18.5) vs. 6 (3-9)].

Conclusion: On demand prescription was the prevalent practice in our PICU. Most non-ventilated children underwent only one CXR while duration of PICU stay and the number of devices determined the number of CXRs in mechanically ventilated children. Quality improvement strategies should concentrate on the process of acquisition of images and limiting the radiation exposure to unwanted body parts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00576-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941116PMC
March 2021

What Is the Acceptable Noninferiority Limit for Nodal Recurrences When Ascertaining Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy as an Alternative to Neck Dissection for Early Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 11;39(14):1599-1600. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Deep Chakrabarti, MD, Department of Radiation Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India; Naseem Akhtar, MS, MCh, Shiv Rajan, MS, MCh, Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India; Sumaira Qayoom, MD, Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India; Vijay Kumar, MS, MCh and Arun Chaturvedi, MS, MAMS, Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India; Mranalini Verma, MD; Rajeev Gupta, MD; and Madan LalBrahma Bhatt, MD, Department of Radiation Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India; and Shirin Parveen, DNB, Department of Anesthesiology, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03439DOI Listing
May 2021

Associations of Fish Consumption With Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Among Individuals With or Without Vascular Disease From 58 Countries.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 May;181(5):631-649

Physiology Department, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Importance: Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between fish consumption, a major source of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Whether the associations vary between those with and those without vascular disease is unknown.

Objective: To examine whether the associations of fish consumption with risk of CVD or of mortality differ between individuals with and individuals without vascular disease.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This pooled analysis of individual participant data involved 191 558 individuals from 4 cohort studies-147 645 individuals (139 827 without CVD and 7818 with CVD) from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and 43 413 patients with vascular disease in 3 prospective studies from 40 countries. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression separately within each study and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. This analysis was conducted from January to June 2020.

Exposures: Fish consumption was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. In 1 of the cohorts with vascular disease, a separate qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of individual types of fish.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Mortality and major CVD events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, or sudden death).

Results: Overall, 191 558 participants with a mean (SD) age of 54.1 (8.0) years (91 666 [47.9%] male) were included in the present analysis. During 9.1 years of follow-up in PURE, compared with little or no fish intake (≤50 g/mo), an intake of 350 g/wk or more was not associated with risk of major CVD (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04) or total mortality (HR, 0.96; 0.88-1.05). By contrast, in the 3 cohorts of patients with vascular disease, the HR for risk of major CVD (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and total mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) was lowest with intakes of at least 175 g/wk (or approximately 2 servings/wk) compared with 50 g/mo or lower, with no further apparent decrease in HR with consumption of 350 g/wk or higher. Fish with higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids were strongly associated with a lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 per 5-g increment of intake), whereas other fish were neutral (collected in 1 cohort of patients with vascular disease). The association between fish intake and each outcome varied by CVD status, with a lower risk found among patients with vascular disease but not in general populations (for major CVD, I2 = 82.6 [P = .02]; for death, I2 = 90.8 [P = .001]).

Conclusions And Relevance: Findings of this pooled analysis of 4 cohort studies indicated that a minimal fish intake of 175 g (approximately 2 servings) weekly is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD but not in general populations. The consumption of fish (especially oily fish) should be evaluated in randomized trials of clinical outcomes among people with vascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.0036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941252PMC
May 2021

Genetic Variation for Nitrogen Use Efficiency Traits in Global Diversity Panel and Parents of Mapping Populations in Pearl Millet.

Front Plant Sci 2021 4;12:625915. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India.

Nitrogen (N) is one of the primary macronutrients required for crop growth and yield. This nutrient is especially limiting in the dry and low fertility soils where pearl millet [ (L.) R. Br] is typically grown. Globally, pearl millet is the sixth most important cereal grown by subsistence farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Most of these agro-ecologies have low N in the root zone soil strata. Therefore, there is an immense need to identify lines that use nitrogen efficiently. A set of 380 diverse pearl millet lines consisting of a global diversity panel (345), parents of mapping populations (20), and standard checks (15) were evaluated in an alpha-lattice design with two replications, 25 blocks, a three-row plot for 11 nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) related traits across three growing seasons (Summer 2017, Rainy 2017, and Summer 2018) in an N-depleted precision field under three different N levels (0%-N, 50%-N, 100%-N of recommended N, i.e., 100 kg ha). Analysis of variance revealed significant genetic variation for NUE-related traits across treatments and seasons. Nitrogen in limited condition (N) resulted in a 27.6 and 17.6% reduction in grain yield (GY) and dry stover yield (DSY) compared to N. Higher reduction in GY and DSY traits by 24.6 and 23.6% were observed under N compared to N. Among the assessed traits, GY exhibited significant positive correlations with nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE) and nitrogen harvest index (NHI). This indicated the pivotal role of N remobilization to the grain in enhancing yield levels. Top 25 N-insensitive (NIS-top grain yielders) and N-sensitive (NS-poor grain yielders) genotypes were identified under low N conditions. Out of 25 NIS lines, nine genotypes (IP 10820, IP 17720, ICMB 01222-P1, IP 10379, ICMB 89111-P2, IP 8069, ICMB 90111-P2, ICMV IS89305, and ICMV 221) were common with the top 25 lines for N level showing the genotype plasticity toward varying N levels. Low N tolerant genotypes identified from the current investigation may help in the identification of genomic regions responsible for NUE and its deployment in pearl millet breeding programs through marker-assisted selection (MAS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.625915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893144PMC
February 2021

Association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events: an analysis of 112,198 individuals from 21 countries in the PURE study.

Sleep Med 2021 04 5;80:265-272. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events.

Methods: Bedtime was recorded based on self-reported habitual time of going to bed in 112,198 participants from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Participants were prospectively followed for 9.2 years. We examined the association between bedtime and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Participants with a usual bedtime earlier than 10PM were categorized as 'earlier' sleepers and those who reported a bedtime after midnight as 'later' sleepers. Cox frailty models were applied with random intercepts to account for the clustering within centers.

Results: A total of 5633 deaths and 5346 major cardiovascular events were reported. A U-shaped association was observed between bedtime and the composite outcome. Using those going to bed between 10PM and midnight as the reference group, after adjustment for age and sex, both earlier and later sleepers had a higher risk of the composite outcome (HR of 1.29 [1.22, 1.35] and 1.11 [1.03, 1.20], respectively). In the fully adjusted model where demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors (including total sleep duration) and history of diseases were included, results were greatly attenuated, but the estimates indicated modestly higher risks in both earlier (HR of 1.09 [1.03-1.16]) and later sleepers (HR of 1.10 [1.02-1.20]).

Conclusion: Early (10 PM or earlier) or late (Midnight or later) bedtimes may be an indicator or risk factor of adverse health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.01.057DOI Listing
April 2021

Genome-Wide Association Study for major Biofuel Traits in Sorghum Using Minicore Collection.

Protein Pept Lett 2021 02 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324. India.

Background: Production of biofuels from lignocellulosic crop biomass is an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The biofuel production involves collecting biomass, breaking down cell wall components followed by the conversion of sugars to ethanol. The lingo-cellulosic biomass comprises 40-50% cellulose, 20-30% hemicellulose, and 10-25% lignin. Sorghum is a widely adapted energy crop for biofuel production. Biomass with low lignin, high cellulose, and high hemicellulose contents are exploited to attain maximum biofuel production efficiency. Resistance to lodging, pest, disease, and abiotic stresses related to cell wall components is well documented, and quantitative trait loci were identified to understand these traits' genetic correlation. Selection for reduced lignin and increased cellulose content in stover can increase the ethanol yield. The Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) is a complementary approach to evaluating the marker and phenotype associations among large diversity panels. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were scanned to identify loci associated with the traits of interest. In this study, the GWAS was performed on 245 sorghum minicore genotypes to analyze agronomic traits (days to 50%flowering, fresh biomass yield, dry biomass yield) and cell wall components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin). Further, in-silico validation of the candidate genes was performed in a global gene expression data from large-scale RNA sequencing studies in sorghum available in the NCBI GEO database was used.

Objective: The objectives of this study are to evaluate native variations in biofuel related agronomic traits and stalk cell wall components and to identify significant SNPs or loci related to the cell wall components.

Methods: In this article, an association mapping panel, comprising of 245 sorghum minicore germplasm accessions, was evaluated during two post rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014, and observations were recorded on the whole plot- for days to 50% flowering, fresh biomass yield (tha-1), and dry biomass yield (tha-1). The biomass of sun-dried plants from both seasons was collected separately, chopped, dried, and ground to powder. The cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents were determined in the powdered. The content of each of these three components in sorghum was expressed in percent of dry matter. The data on agronomic traits and composition analysis was subjected to Analysis of Variance. For the current study, we remapped the raw GBS data with the sorghum assembly version v3.1. A total of 27,589 SNPs were obtained with a minor allele frequency (MAF) >1% and missing data <50%. The GWAS was performed in a single minicore population using FarmCPU, in R software. The syntactic positions of the identified significant SNPs between sorghum and other model crop species viz., maize, switchgrass, and Arabidopsis were represented using CIRCOS software for traits viz., dry biomass yield, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The transcriptome dataset from where sorghum gene atlas studies of grain, sweet, and bioenergy sorghums are available through NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under accession number GSE49879, was used to cross-validate the identified SNPs for cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin through GWAS.

Results: High broad-sense heritability was exhibited for all the traits in individual seasons along with significant genotype × environment interaction across seasons except lignin. Association mapping with a P < 1×10-4 revealed genomic regions associated with the- (i) agronomic traits (days to 50% flowering, fresh and dry biomass), and (ii) biochemical traits (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) associated with biofuels production, in individual seasons. Twelve significant SNPs for flowering time, 30 fresh biomass yields, and 24 for dry biomass yield, 25 for cellulose, 7 for hemicellulose, and 21 for lignin were identified. CIRCOS plot was constructed to identify and analyze similarities and differences while comparing the sorghum genome with different crops. For cellulose high similarity of >80% was observed for all sorghum gene sequences with the maize homologs. The overall similarity of sorghum homologs with foxtail millet was >65%, for Arabidopsis from 30.6% to 48.6%, and rice from 28.2% to 92.8%. SNPs for hemicellulose displayed maximum similarity to foxtail millet followed by maize. The sequence similarity of lignin SNPs in sorghum was highest with the maize genome followed by Arabidopsis. Both rice and foxtail millet showed >55% similarity to the sorghum genome.

Conclusion: This study reports large variability for agronomic and biofuel traits in the sorghum minicore collection with high heritability. The genetic architecture of cell wall components using the GWAS approach was studied and candidate genes for each component were annotated. These results give a better understanding of the genetic basis of the sorghum cell wall composition. The association analysis identified regions of the genome that could be targeted to enhance the quality of biomass and yield along with the desired composition promoting breeding efficiency for enhanced biofuel yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866528666210215141243DOI Listing
February 2021

Ruthenium complexes of phosphine-amide based ligands as efficient catalysts for transfer hydrogenation reactions.

Dalton Trans 2021 Mar;50(9):3269-3279

Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007, India.

This work presents three mononuclear Ru(ii) complexes of tridentate phosphine-carboxamide based ligands providing a NNP coordination environment. The octahedral Ru(ii) ion shows additional coordination with co-ligands; CO, Cl and CH3OH. All three Ru(ii) complexes were thoroughly characterized including their crystal structures. These Ru(ii) complexes were utilized as catalysts for the transfer hydrogenation of assorted carbonyl compounds, including some challenging biologically relevant substrates, using isopropanol as the hydrogen source. The binding studies illustrated the coordination of the isopropoxide ion by replacing a Ru-ligated chloride ion followed by the generation of the Ru-H intermediate that was isolated and characterized and was found to be involved in the catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt04401fDOI Listing
March 2021

A Few More Findings on the Inspection of Cardiovascular System in Telehealth.

Am J Med 2021 02;134(2):e139

Mediclinic Al-Jowhara Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.08.025DOI Listing
February 2021

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) for Traits Related to Fodder Quality and Biofuel in Sorghum: Progress and Prospects.

Protein Pept Lett 2021 01 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid and Tropics, Hyderabad. India.

The main focus of this review is to discuss the current status of the use of GWAS for fodder quality and biofuel owing to its similarity of traits. Sorghum is a potential multipurpose crop, popularly cultivated for various uses as food, feed fodder, and biomass for ethanol. Production of a huge quantity of biomass and genetic variation for complex sugars are the main motivation not only to use sorghum as fodder for livestock nutritionists but also a potential candidate for biofuel generation. Few studies have been reported on the knowledge transfer that can be used from the development of biofuel technologies to complement improved fodder quality and vice versa. With recent advances in genotyping technologies, GWAS became one of the primary tools used to identify the genes/genomic regions associated with the phenotype. These modern tools and technologies accelerate the genomic assisted breeding process to enhance the rate of genetic gains. Hence, this mini-review focuses on GWAS studies on genetic architecture and dissection of traits underpinning fodder quality and biofuel traits and their limited comparison with other related model crop species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866528666210127153103DOI Listing
January 2021
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