Publications by authors named "Raja S Settivari"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterization of dermal sensitization potential for industrial or agricultural chemicals with EpiSensA.

J Appl Toxicol 2020 Oct 30. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

R&D, Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, Tochigi, Japan.

The regulatory community is transitioning to the use of nonanimal methods for dermal sensitization assessments; however, some in vitro assays have limitations in their domain of applicability depending on the properties of chemicals being tested. This study explored the utility of epidermal sensitization assay (EpiSensA) to evaluate the sensitization potential of complex and/or "difficult to test" chemicals. Assay performance was evaluated by testing a set of 20 test chemicals including 10 methacrylate esters, 5 silicone-based compounds, 3 crop protection formulations, and 2 surfactant mixtures; each had prior in vivo data plus some in silico and in vitro data. Using the weight of evidence (WoE) assessments by REACH Lead Registrants, 14 of these chemicals were sensitizers and, six were nonsensitizers based on in vivo studies (local lymph node assay [LLNA] and/or guinea pig studies). The EpiSensA correctly predicted 16/20 materials with three test materials as false positive and one silane as false negative. This silane, classified as weak sensitizer via LLNA, also gave a "false negative" result in the KeratinoSens™ assay. Overall, consistent with prior evaluations, the EpiSensA demonstrated an accuracy level of 80% relative to available in vivo WoE assessments. In addition, potency classification based on the concentration showing positive marker gene expression of EpiSensA was performed. The EpiSensA correctly predicted the potency for all seven sensitizing methacrylates classified as weak potency via LLNA (EC3 ≥ 10%). In summary, EpiSensA could identify dermal sensitization potential of these test substances and mixtures, and continues to show promise as an in vitro alternative method for dermal sensitization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4076DOI Listing
October 2020

Systems Modeling of Developmental Vascular Toxicity.

Curr Opin Toxicol 2019 Jun;15(1):55-63

National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Research Triangle Park NC 27711.

The more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce present a challenge for hazard assessments that toxicity testing in the 21 century strives to address through high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. Assessing chemical effects on human development adds an additional layer of complexity to the screening, with a need to capture complex and dynamic events essential for proper embryo-fetal development. HTS data from ToxCast/Tox21 informs systems toxicology models, which incorporate molecular targets and biological pathways into mechanistic models describing the effects of chemicals on human cells, 3D organotypic culture models, and small model organisms. Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) provide a useful framework for integrating the evidence derived from these and systems to inform chemical hazard characterization. To illustrate this formulation, we have built an AOP for developmental toxicity through a mode of action linked to embryonic vascular disruption (Aop43). Here, we review the model for quantitative prediction of developmental vascular toxicity from ToxCast HTS data and compare the HTS results to functional vascular development assays in complex cell systems, virtual tissues, and small model organisms. ToxCast HTS predictions from several published and unpublished assays covering different aspects of the angiogenic cycle were generated for a test set of 38 chemicals representing a range of putative vascular disrupting compounds (pVDCs). Results boost confidence in the capacity to predict adverse developmental outcomes from HTS data and model computational dynamics for reconstruction of developmental systems biology. Finally, we demonstrate the integration of the AOP and developmental systems toxicology to investigate the unique modes of action of two angiogenesis inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cotox.2019.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004230PMC
June 2019

An evaluation framework for new approach methodologies (NAMs) for human health safety assessment.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Apr 1;112:104592. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Imperial College London, London, UK.

The need to develop new tools and increase capacity to test pharmaceuticals and other chemicals for potential adverse impacts on human health and the environment is an active area of development. Much of this activity was sparked by two reports from the US National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies of Sciences, Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) and Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009), both of which advocated for "science-informed decision-making" in the field of human health risk assessment. The response to these challenges for a "paradigm shift" toward using new approach methodologies (NAMS) for safety assessment has resulted in an explosion of initiatives by numerous organizations, but, for the most part, these have been carried out independently and are not coordinated in any meaningful way. To help remedy this situation, a framework that presents a consistent set of criteria, universal across initiatives, to evaluate a NAM's fit-for-purpose was developed by a multi-stakeholder group of industry, academic, and regulatory experts. The goal of this framework is to support greater consistency across existing and future initiatives by providing a structure to collect relevant information to build confidence that will accelerate, facilitate and encourage development of new NAMs that can ultimately be used within the appropriate regulatory contexts. In addition, this framework provides a systematic approach to evaluate the currently-available NAMs and determine their suitability for potential regulatory application. This 3-step evaluation framework along with the demonstrated application with case studies, will help build confidence in the scientific understanding of these methods and their value for chemical assessment and regulatory decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104592DOI Listing
April 2020

Utility of a next generation framework for assessment of genomic damage: A case study using the industrial chemical benzene.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2020 01 27;61(1):94-113. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

We recently published a next generation framework for assessing the risk of genomic damage via exposure to chemical substances. The framework entails a systematic approach with the aim to quantify risk levels for substances that induce genomic damage contributing to human adverse health outcomes. Here, we evaluated the utility of the framework for assessing the risk for industrial chemicals, using the case of benzene. Benzene is a well-studied substance that is generally considered a genotoxic carcinogen and is known to cause leukemia. The case study limits its focus on occupational and general population health as it relates to benzene exposure. Using the framework as guidance, available data on benzene considered relevant for assessment of genetic damage were collected. Based on these data, we were able to conduct quantitative analyses for relevant data sets to estimate acceptable exposure levels and to characterize the risk of genetic damage. Key observations include the need for robust exposure assessments, the importance of information on toxicokinetic properties, and the benefits of cheminformatics. The framework points to the need for further improvement on understanding of the mechanism(s) of action involved, which would also provide support for the use of targeted tests rather than a prescribed set of assays. Overall, this case study demonstrates the utility of the next generation framework to quantitatively model human risk on the basis of genetic damage, thereby enabling a new, innovative risk assessment concept. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 61:94-113, 2020. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6972600PMC
January 2020

Use of connectivity mapping to support read across: A deeper dive using data from 186 chemicals, 19 cell lines and 2 case studies.

Toxicology 2019 07 21;423:84-94. Epub 2019 May 21.

Mason Business Center, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, 45040, USA.

We previously demonstrated that the Connectivity Map (CMap) (Lamb et al., 2006) concept can be successfully applied to a predictive toxicology paradigm to generate meaningful MoA-based connections between chemicals (De Abrew et al., 2016). Here we expand both the chemical and biological (cell lines) domain for the method and demonstrate two applications, both in the area of read across. In the first application we demonstrate CMap's utility as a tool for testing biological relevance of source chemicals (analogs) during a chemistry led read across exercise. In the second application we demonstrate how CMap can be used to identify functionally relevant source chemicals (analogs) for a structure of interest (SOI)/target chemical with minimal knowledge of chemical structure. Finally, we highlight four factors: promiscuity of chemical, dose, cell line and timepoint as having significant impact on the output. We discuss the biological relevance of these four factors and incorporate them into a work flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.05.008DOI Listing
July 2019

Genetic instability of in vitro cell lines: Implications for genetic toxicity testing.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2019 07 5;60(6):559-562. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Toxicology & Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan.

Cell line-based in vitro testing has been widely used as an important component of the genotoxicity testing battery; however, the use of cell lines is constrained by several limitations, including the genetic drift and variability. A study recently reported in the literature comprehensively examined genomic changes in a large number of cell lines and reported extensive genetic variations within the same cell lines across passage numbers and laboratories, even for single-cell derived subclones. The primary objective of this communication is to raise awareness and stimulate discussion within the genotoxicity testing community of the extent of genetic variability of cell lines in general and how these variables could potentially influence the results and reproducibility of genotoxicity testing. Meanwhile, some recommendations for good cell culture practices are highlighted to mitigate, at least to some extent, the concern about genetic variation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 60:559-562, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22280DOI Listing
July 2019

Pilot studies evaluating the nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens phenobarbital and clofibrate in the rat Pig-a assay.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2019 01 19;60(1):42-46. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan.

The Pig-a assay is an emerging and promising in vivo method to determine mutagenic potential of chemicals. Since its development in 2008, remarkable progress has been made in harmonizing and characterizing the test procedures, primarily using known mutagenic chemicals. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate specificity of the Pig-a assay using two nongenotoxic and well-characterized rodent liver carcinogens, phenobarbital and clofibrate, in male F344/DuCrl rats. Daily oral administration of phenobarbital or clofibrate at established hepatotoxic doses for 28 days resulted in substantial hepatic alterations, however, did not increase the frequency of Pig-a mutation markers (RET and RBC ) compared to vehicle control or pre-exposure (Day -5) mutant frequencies. These results are consistent with the existing literature on the nonmutagenic mode of action (MoA) of phenobarbital and clofibrate liver tumors. The present study contributes to the limited, but expanding evidence on the specificity of the Pig-a assay and further for the investigations of carcinogenic MoAs, i.e., mutagenic or nonmutagenic potential of chemicals. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 60:42-46, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22232DOI Listing
January 2019

Embryonic vascular disruption adverse outcomes: Linking high throughput signaling signatures with functional consequences.

Reprod Toxicol 2017 06 17;70:82-96. Epub 2017 May 17.

Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, 1803 Building, Midland, MI 48674, United States.

Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay. Both were identified as putative vascular disruptive compounds (pVDCs) in ToxCastDB and disrupted angiogenesis and embryogenesis in the functional assays. Differences were observed in potency and adverse effects: 5HPP-33 was embryolethal (WEC and ZET); TNP-470 produced caudal defects at lower concentrations. This study demonstrates how a tiered approach using HTS signatures and complex functional in vitro assays might be used to prioritize further in vivo developmental toxicity testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6706853PMC
June 2017

Embryonic vascular disruption adverse outcomes: Linking high-throughput signaling signatures with functional consequences.

Reprod Toxicol 2017 08 13;71:16-31. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, 1803 Building, Midland, MI 48674, United States.

Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High-throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay. Both were identified as putative vascular disruptive compounds (pVDCs) in ToxCastDB and disrupted angiogenesis and embryogenesis in the functional assays. Differences were observed in potency and adverse effects: 5HPP-33 was embryolethal (WEC and ZET); TNP-470 produced caudal defects at lower concentrations. This study demonstrates how a tiered approach using HTS signatures and complex functional in vitro assays might be used to prioritize further in vivo developmental toxicity testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.04.003DOI Listing
August 2017

Tiered application of the neutral red release and EpiOcular™ assays for evaluating the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Nov 28;81:407-420. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Dow AgroSciences LLC, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Agrochemical formulations have been underrepresented in validation efforts for implementing alternative eye irritation approaches but represent a significant opportunity to reduce animal testing. This study assesses the utility of the neutral red release assay (NRR) and EpiOcular™ assay (EO) for predicting the eye irritation potential of 64 agrochemical formulations relative to Draize data. In the NRR, formulations with an NRR50 value ≤ 50 mg/mL were categorized as UN GHS Cat 1 and those >250 mg/mL were classified as UN GHS Non Classified (NC). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 78, 85 and 76% and 73, 85 and 61% for identifying UN GHS 1 and NC formulations, respectively. Specificity was poor for formulations with NRR50 > 50 to ≤250 mg/mL. The EO (ET-40 method) was explored to differentiate formulations that were UN GHS 1/2 and UN GHS NC. The EO resulted in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 65%, 58% and 75% for identifying UN GHS NC formulations. To improve the overall performance, the assays were implemented using a tiered-approach where the NRR was run as a first-tier followed by the EO. The tiered-approach resulted in improved accuracy (75%) and balanced sensitivity (73%) and specificity (77%) for distinguishing between irritating and non-irritating agrochemical formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.09.028DOI Listing
November 2016

Grouping 34 Chemicals Based on Mode of Action Using Connectivity Mapping.

Toxicol Sci 2016 06 29;151(2):447-61. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

*Mason Business Center, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio 45040 and.

Connectivity mapping is a method used in the pharmaceutical industry to find connections between small molecules, disease states, and genes. The concept can be applied to a predictive toxicology paradigm to find connections between chemicals, adverse events, and genes. In order to assess the applicability of the technique for predictive toxicology purposes, we performed gene array experiments on 34 different chemicals: bisphenol A, genistein, ethinyl-estradiol, tamoxifen, clofibrate, dehydorepiandrosterone, troglitazone, diethylhexyl phthalate, flutamide, trenbolone, phenobarbital, retinoic acid, thyroxine, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, clobetasol, farnesol, chenodeoxycholic acid, progesterone, RU486, ketoconazole, valproic acid, desferrioxamine, amoxicillin, 6-aminonicotinamide, metformin, phenformin, methotrexate, vinblastine, ANIT (1-naphthyl isothiocyanate), griseofulvin, nicotine, imidacloprid, vorinostat, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at the 6-, 24-, and 48-hour time points for 3 different concentrations in the 4 cell lines: MCF7, Ishikawa, HepaRG, and HepG2 GEO (super series accession no.: GSE69851). The 34 chemicals were grouped in to predefined mode of action (MOA)-based chemical classes based on current literature. Connectivity mapping was used to find linkages between each chemical and between chemical classes. Cell line-specific linkages were compared with each other and to test whether the method was platform and user independent, a similar analysis was performed against publicly available data. The study showed that the method can group chemicals based on MOAs and the inter-chemical class comparison alluded to connections between MOAs that were not predefined. Comparison to the publicly available data showed that the method is user and platform independent. The results provide an example of an alternate data analysis process for high-content data, beneficial for predictive toxicology, especially when grouping chemicals for read across purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfw058DOI Listing
June 2016

Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2015 Jul 14;72(2):350-60. Epub 2015 May 14.

The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, United States.

Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.05.006DOI Listing
July 2015

Predicting the future: opportunities and challenges for the chemical industry to apply 21st-century toxicity testing.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2015 Mar;54(2):214-23

Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan, USA.

Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382627PMC
March 2015

A critical assessment of the methodologies to investigate the role of inhibition of apoptosis in rodent hepatocarcinogenesis.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2015 Mar 11;25(3):192-200. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Toxicology and Environmental Research & Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company , Midland, MI , USA.

Non-genotoxic carcinogens act by promoting the clonal expansion of preneoplastic cells by directly or indirectly stimulating cell division or inhibiting cell loss in the target organ. The specific mode-of-action (MoA) by which some non-genotoxic carcinogens ultimately cause cancer is not completely understood. To date, there are several proposed MoAs for non-genotoxic carcinogens, and some of these propose inhibition of apoptosis as one of the key events. In general, inhibition of apoptosis is considered a necessary step for cell survival and in theory can occur in combination or in association with other key promotional events, such as cell proliferation, oxidative stress and inhibition of intercellular communication to promote carcinogenesis. However, the evidence supporting the role of inhibition of apoptosis as a necessary step in promoting specific chemically induced tumors is often debated. To address this evidence, we reviewed studies that utilized prototypical nuclear receptor-mediated hepatocarcinogens. Based on this review, it is proposed that the ability to determine the importance of inhibition of apoptosis as a key event in the MoA for tumor promotion is hampered by the limitations of the methods utilized for its detection. This review provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the current methodology used for detection of apoptosis and provides suggestions for improving its detection, thereby strengthening the weight of evidence supporting inhibition of apoptosis as a key event in a MoA for tumor promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15376516.2015.1007541DOI Listing
March 2015

Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008 Mar 21;227(3):347-56. Epub 2007 Nov 21.

Division of Animal Science, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured using real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.11.011DOI Listing
March 2008