Publications by authors named "Raja Chakraborty"

45 Publications

Low-dose Aspirin prevents hypertension and cardiac fibrosis when thromboxane A is unrestrained.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Aug 26;170:105744. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University, School of Medicine, Chieti, Italy; CAST (Center for Advanced Studies and Technology), "G. d'Annunzio" University, School of Medicine, Chieti, Italy. Electronic address:

Enhanced platelet activation has been reported in patients with essential hypertension and heart failure. The possible contribution of platelet-derived thromboxane (TX)A in their pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated the systemic TXA biosynthesis in vivo and gene expression of its receptor TP in 22 essential hypertension patients and a mouse model of salt-sensitive hypertension. The contribution of platelet TXA biosynthesis on enhanced blood pressure (BP) and overload-induced cardiac fibrosis was explored in mice by treating with low-dose Aspirin, resulting in selective inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1-dependent TXA generation. In essential hypertensive patients, systemic biosynthesis of TXA [assessed by measuring its urinary metabolites (TXM) reflecting predominant platelet source] was enhanced together with higher gene expression of circulating leukocyte TP and TGF-β, vs. normotensive controls. Similarly, in hypertensive mice with prostacyclin (PGI) receptor (IP) deletion (IPKO) fed with a high-salt diet, enhanced urinary TXM, and left ventricular TP overexpression were detected vs. normotensive wildtype (WT) mice. Increased cardiac collagen deposition and profibrotic gene expression (including TGF-β) was found. Low-dose Aspirin administration caused a selective inhibition of platelet TXA biosynthesis and mitigated enhanced blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular profibrotic gene expression in IPKO but not WT mice. Moreover, the number of myofibroblasts and extravasated platelets in the heart was reduced. In cocultures of human platelets and myofibroblasts, platelet TXA induced profibrotic gene expression, including TGF-β1. In conclusion, our results support tailoring low-dose Aspirin treatment in hypertensive patients with unconstrained TXA/TP pathway to reduce blood pressure and prevent early cardiac fibrosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105744DOI Listing
August 2021

TET2 Protects Against VSMC Apoptosis and Intimal Thickening in Transplant Vasculopathy.

Circulation 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a devastating sequelae of heart transplant in which arterial intimal thickening limits coronary blood flow. There are currently no targeted therapies to prevent or reduce this pathology that leads to transplant failure. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic plasticity is critical in CAV neointima formation. TET methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) is an important epigenetic regulator of VSMC phenotype, but the role of TET2 in the progression of CAV is unknown. We assessed TET2 expression and activity in human CAV and renal transplant samples. We also employed the sex-mismatched murine aortic graft model of graft arteriopathy (GA) in wild type and inducible smooth muscle-specific knockout mice; and studies in murine and human VSMCs using knockdown, overexpression, and transcriptomic approaches to assess the role of TET2 in VSMC responses to IFNу, a cytokine elaborated by T cells that drives CAV progression. In the present study, we found that TET2 expression and activity is negatively regulated in human CAV and renal transplant samples and in the murine aortic graft model of GA. IFNу was sufficient to repress TET2 and induce an activated VSMC phenotype . TET2 depletion mimicked the effects of IFNу, and TET2 overexpression rescued IFNу-induced dedifferentiation. VSMC-specific TET2 depletion in aortic grafts, and in the femoral wire restenosis model, resulted in increased VSMC apoptosis and medial thinning. In GA, this apoptosis was tightly correlated with proliferation. , TET2 deficient VSMCs undergo apoptosis more readily in response to IFNγ and expressed a signature of increased susceptibility to extrinsic apoptotic signaling. Notably, enhancing TET2 enzymatic activity with high-dose ascorbic acid rescued the effect of GA-induced VSMC apoptosis and intimal thickening in a TET2-dependent manner. TET2 is repressed in CAV and GA, likely mediated by IFNу. TET2 serves to protect VSMCs from apoptosis in the context of transplant vasculopathy or IFNу stimulation. Promoting TET2 activity with systemic ascorbic acid reduces VSMC apoptosis and intimal thickening. These data suggest that promoting TET2 activity in CAV may be an effective strategy for limiting CAV progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050553DOI Listing
June 2021

The effect of a natural disaster on handgrip strength in prepubertal Indian children exposed to a severe cyclone during the prenatal and early postnatal growth.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7473. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Anthropology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.

Natural disasters (NDs) experienced by women and their children during prenatal and infant growth may have long-lasting effects on offspring's development. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one of the measures of muscular strength and an indicator of health status. This study compared HGS in children exposed to cyclone Aila in India during their prenatal and infant growth compared to a control group from a non-affected, adjacent area. The total sample involved 444 boys and 423 girls aged 7-9 years, categorised into 3 groups: prenatally exposed to Aila, exposed to Aila in infancy, and the control group, non-exposed to Aila. Results revealed that prenatally exposed children of both sexes had significantly lower HGS than the controls (at least, p < 0.001 in boys; p < 0.05 in girls). On the other hand, the postnatally exposed boys, but not the girls, showed lower HGS than the controls. A significant effect of a group factor (ND exposure) on HGS was observed even after controlling for confounding variables (age, height, BMI, birth weight, gestational age; at least, p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that prenatal or early postnatal experience of a ND may have association with impaired HGS in prepubertal children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86845-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018953PMC
April 2021

Nutritional and weight status of Indian mother-child dyads experienced by a natural disaster.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 07 25;17(3):e13164. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Anthropology, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.

Natural disasters have detrimental effects not only on local infrastructure in an affected population but may also have an impact on the human biological condition, particularly during critical periods of life. This study aimed to assess the nutritional and weight status of women and their children who had experienced cyclone Aila prenatally and postnatally in comparison with a non-affected neighbouring group. The study sample involved N = 597 dyads consisting of mothers and their prepubertal children prenatally or postnatally (during infancy) exposed to a natural disaster and a control group from a neighbouring region (West Bengal, India). The analysed anthropometric indices involved body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). Moreover, several socioeconomic characteristics were collected (mother's and father's education, family size and family income). Analyses revealed that the group factor (Aila-exposed or non-exposed groups) had the highest impact on both children's and their mothers' BMI and MUAC (p < 0.001) in comparison with socioeconomic variables. Surprisingly, both mothers and their children revealed deteriorated nutritional and relative weight status several years after the occurrence of cyclone Aila, which is in opposition to the results obtained in developed countries, where prenatal maternal stress caused by the natural disaster led to the subsequent higher risk of excessive weight in affected children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189233PMC
July 2021

Mother's education level is associated with anthropometric failure among 3- to 12-year-old rural children in Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India.

J Biosoc Sci 2020 Oct 15:1-12. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Anthropology, Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya, Bongaon, West Bengal, India.

Maternal education plays a central role in children's health and nutrition. Living conditions and socioeconomic status are linked with mother's education, which in turn determines the health and development of a child. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) is a single indicator that reflects overall rate of three conventional indices of undernutrition: underweight, stunting and wasting. The study was undertaken among 621 rural Bengalee children (308 boys and 313 girls) aged 3-12 years from the Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. Height (cm) and weight (kg) were recorded and NCHS standard values used to calculate z-scores (<-2SD). The same data were used to calculate CIAF as an indicator of 'anthropometric failure' (AF) or undernutrition. The prevalence of AF among the children was 59.40%. Chi-squared analysis was employed to evaluate the significance of differences in the prevalence of CIAF between the sexes and the association between nutritional indicators and socioeconomic parameters in the two sexes. Multiple binary logistic regression (MBLR) analyses (including the forward stepwise method) were also performed. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the risk of having AF. Results showed that mother's education was significantly associated with undernutrition (AF) controlling for the other factors considered. A very high prevalence of undernutrition is persisting in this region of India despite national nutritional supplementation programmes being operational. More attention to the improvement of living conditions and hygiene, and more particularly the education of women, in this population might be effective in attaining improved child growth and health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932020000577DOI Listing
October 2020

Determining a global mid-upper arm circumference cut-off to assess underweight in adults (men and non-pregnant women).

Public Health Nutr 2020 12 17;23(17):3104-3113. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Consultant, Washington, DC, USA.

Objective: To determine if a global mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut-off can be established to classify underweight in adults (men and non-pregnant women).

Design: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) to explore the sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of various MUAC cut-offs for identifying underweight among adults (defined as BMI < 18·5 kg/m2). Measures of diagnostic accuracy were determined every 0·5 cm across MUAC values from 19·0 to 26·5 cm. A bivariate random effects model was used to jointly estimate SENS and SPEC while accounting for heterogeneity between studies. Various subgroup analyses were performed.

Setting: Twenty datasets from Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, North America and South America were included.

Participants: All eligible participants from the original datasets were included.

Results: The total sample size was 13 835. Mean age was 32·6 years and 65 % of participants were female. Mean MUAC was 25·7 cm, and 28 % of all participants had low BMI (<18·5 kg/m2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the pooled dataset was 0·91 (range across studies 0·61-0·98). Results showed that MUAC cut-offs in the range of ≤23·5 to ≤25·0 cm could serve as an appropriate screening indicator for underweight.

Conclusions: MUAC is highly discriminatory in its ability to distinguish adults with BMI above and below 18·5 kg/m2. This IPDMA is the first step towards determining a global MUAC cut-off for adults. Validation studies are needed to determine whether the proposed MUAC cut-off of 24 cm is associated with poor functional outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020000397DOI Listing
December 2020

Promoters to Study Vascular Smooth Muscle.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019 04;39(4):603-612

From the Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine (R.C., F.Z.S., A.C.C., D.M.G., K.A.M.).

Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a critical component of blood vessel walls that provide structural support, regulate vascular tone, and allow for vascular remodeling. These cells also exhibit a remarkable plasticity that contributes to vascular growth and repair but also to cardiovascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis, intimal hyperplasia and restenosis, aneurysm, and transplant vasculopathy. Mouse models have been an important tool for the study of SMC functions. The development of smooth muscle-expressing Cre-driver lines has allowed for exciting discoveries, including recent advances revealing the diversity of phenotypes derived from mature SMC transdifferentiation in vivo using inducible CreER lines. We review SMC-targeting Cre lines driven by the Myh11, Tagln, and Acta2 promoters, including important technical considerations associated with these models. Limitations that can complicate study of the vasculature include expression in visceral SMCs leading to confounding phenotypes, and expression in multiple nonsmooth muscle cell types, such as Acta2-Cre expression in myofibroblasts. Notably, the frequently employed Tagln/ SM22α- Cre driver expresses in the embryonic heart but can also confer expression in nonmuscular cells including perivascular adipocytes and their precursors, myeloid cells, and platelets, with important implications for interpretation of cardiovascular phenotypes. With new Cre-driver lines under development and the increasing use of fate mapping methods, we are entering an exciting new era in SMC research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.312449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527360PMC
April 2019

Digit ratio (2D:4D) moderates the change in handgrip strength on an aggressive stimulus: A study among Polish young adults.

Early Hum Dev 2019 01 6;128:62-68. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Anthropology, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Background: The ratio of the lengths of second finger (2D) to the fourth (4D) is a putative indicator of foetal hormonal exposure. The link between 2D:4D and physical strength or sports performance in not consistent. It was suggested that the association of 2D:4D with the sporting and physical ability is better demonstrated in the context of challenge and competition, either real or simulated. However the evidence is limited to a few studies till date.

Aim: The objective of this study was to assess whether an aggressive video show could increase muscular strength and if 2D:4D moderated such increase.

Study Design: We compared outcome measures in two experimental conditions.

Outcome Measures: Lengths of second (2D) and fourth (4D) digits and their ratio (2D:4D) for both hands, height and weight, handgrip strength of both hands.

Subjects: 250 healthy young adults (76 female).

Results: The mean left-, right- and average HGS values increased after aggressive video watching than after control blank screen show. The increase was higher in females compared to males. The increase was higher among the individuals with lower 2D:4D, more clearly among females.

Conclusions: The 2D:4D correlated negatively with HGS after exposure to challenge condition and this relationship is pronounced in females than males. Thus there is link between prenatal androgenisation and enhanced physical power in challenge situation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.11.009DOI Listing
January 2019

Natural Starch in Biomedical and Food Industry: Perception and Overview.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2019 ;16(4):355-367

Department of Pharmacy, Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati, Assam - 781026, India.

Utilization of native starch is increasing globally because of its wide distribution and natural occurrence. Starch is mainly abundant in tubers and food grains. Scientific research on starch is increasing in recent years due to its unique physiochemical and biomedical properties. Native starch is an emerging biopolymer and copolymer in the biomedical and pharmaceutical areas due to its renewability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and relative inexpensiveness. Today, there is an increasing interest in natural starches to design and produce diverse products due to their pertinent structural properties and non-toxicity. Due to these attributes, these natural polymers are becoming functional core materials in the biomedical industry, construction materials, medicine industry, food industry, food packaging, and carrier for active drugs. In this paper, we mainly attempt to analyze the physicochemical attributions and the biomedical applications on native or non-conventional starches obtained from the natural botanical sources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163815666181003143732DOI Listing
August 2020

SMAD4 Prevents Flow Induced Arteriovenous Malformations by Inhibiting Casein Kinase 2.

Circulation 2018 11;138(21):2379-2394

Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine (R.O., S.H.K., F.Z., G.G., R.C., K.M., A.D., A.E.), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an inherited vascular disorder that causes arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Mutations in the genes encoding Endoglin ( ENG) and activin-receptor-like kinase 1 ( AVCRL1 encoding ALK1) cause HHT type 1 and 2, respectively. Mutations in the SMAD4 gene are present in families with juvenile polyposis-HHT syndrome that involves AVMs. SMAD4 is a downstream effector of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family ligands that signal via activin-like kinase receptors (ALKs). Ligand-neutralizing antibodies or inducible, endothelial-specific Alk1 deletion induce AVMs in mouse models as a result of increased PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/AKT (protein kinase B) signaling. Here we addressed if SMAD4 was required for BMP9-ALK1 effects on PI3K/AKT pathway activation.

Methods: The authors generated tamoxifen-inducible, postnatal, endothelial-specific Smad4 mutant mice ( Smad4).

Results: We found that loss of endothelial Smad4 resulted in AVM formation and lethality. AVMs formed in regions with high blood flow in developing retinas and other tissues. Mechanistically, BMP9 signaling antagonized flow-induced AKT activation in an ALK1- and SMAD4-dependent manner. Smad4 endothelial cells in AVMs displayed increased PI3K/AKT signaling, and pharmacological PI3K inhibitors or endothelial Akt1 deletion both rescued AVM formation in Smad4 mice. BMP9-induced SMAD4 inhibited casein kinase 2 ( CK2) transcription, in turn limiting PTEN phosphorylation and AKT activation. Consequently, CK2 inhibition prevented AVM formation in Smad4 mice.

Conclusions: Our study reveals SMAD4 as an essential effector of BMP9-10/ALK1 signaling that affects AVM pathogenesis via regulation of CK2 expression and PI3K/AKT1 activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309254PMC
November 2018

The validity of mid-upper arm circumference as an indicator of low BMI in population screening for undernutrition: a study among adult slum dwellers in eastern India.

Public Health Nutr 2018 10 30;21(14):2575-2583. Epub 2018 May 30.

2Department of Anthropology,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya,Bongaon,North 24 Parganas,743235 West Bengal,India.

Objective: To explore the possibility for a statistically appropriate value of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) to identify the state of severe undernutrition, based on very low BMI, among adult Indian slum dwellers.

Design: Cross-sectional study on adults. Height and MUAC were recorded and BMI was computed. Chronic energy deficiency (CED) was determined using the WHO international guidelines as BMI<18·5 kg/m2 and normal as BMI≥18·5 kg/m2. Besides calculating mean, sd and 25th, 50th and 75th percentile values, multiple linear regression analysis was undertaken to assess the associations between age, MUAC and BMI. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the best MUAC cut-off to identify CED status. The χ 2 test was used to assess significance of the difference in CED prevalence across MUAC categories.

Setting: An urban slum in Midnapore town, West Bengal State, India.

Subjects: Male (n 467) and female (n 488) Indian slum dwellers.

Results: MUAC of 22·7 and 21·9 cm, respectively, in males and females were the best cut-off points to differentiate CED from non-CED.

Conclusions: Results supported the validity of the WHO-recommended MUAC cut-offs for adults. There is still a need to establish statistically appropriate MUAC cut-offs to predict undernutrition and morbidity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980018001301DOI Listing
October 2018

Is Increased Facial Asymmetry Associated With The Use Of Hormonal Contraceptive Among Polish Young Women In Wroclaw?

Coll Antropol 2017 Mar;41(1):39-43

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the small random deviations from a perfect bilateral symmetry in a morphological trait. It is considered as an indicator of biological quality and developmental stability of individual. Adverse environmental conditions and high levels of sex steroids may increase FA. Symmetry in women was found to be related with phases of the menstrual cycles (MC). This cross sectional study aimed to compare facial symmetry between women using and not using hormonal contraceptives with reference to the phases of their fertile and non-fertile phases of MC. Participants were 150 young adult Polish female students in Wrocław, Poland. Facial photograph of each woman was taken and information on the use of hormonal contraception, date of menarche, number of days past since the last menstruation (beginning of bleeding) were collected. Measurements of facial asymmetry were taken digitally in pixels on facial photographs by using ImageJ software. The results revealed that the women who used HC had a significantly higher total and central facial FA than those who did not use HC. However, the women in relatively non fertile phase did not demonstrate a difference in FA among the non-users of HC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2017

Physical Fitness And Digit Ratio (2D:4D) In Male Students From Wrocław, Poland.

Coll Antropol 2017 Mar;41(1):31-7

There is sex-difference in humans as regards aerobic efficiency, physical strength and endurance and the sex difference is greatly dependent upon differential concentration of testosterone during different phases of growth and development including the intrauterine phase or prenatal growth. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an putative indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher prenatal testosterone exposure and vice versa. Males generally have lower 2D:4D than females. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the fitness measures and 2D:4D in young adult Polish males. The study included 118 Polish male students first course in General Kościuszko Military Academy of Land Forces in Wroclaw. Their mean (+SD) age was 20.4 (+1.60) years. Eurofit test set was employed to assess physical fitness. Apart from height, weight, second and fourth digit lengths, hand grip strength was also measured by a standard isometric dynamometer. The study showed a weak relationship between 2D:4D of right hand and results of physical fitness tests. The smaller was the 2D:4D, the better was the result of endurance and strength tests. This finding was in accord with reports by other studies, indicating that individuals with smaller 2D:4D tend to perform better in these aspects of physical ability. However, we also found an opposite relationship with the results to agility tests. Male students with higher 2D:4D scored better in 5x10 meters shuttle run. This finding did not match with results reported by other studies. This study indicated towards possibility that an association between low 2D:4D and sport and athletic achievement and also physical performances were due to, at least in part, the action of prenatal testosterone. Further studies are required to investigate the relationship of fitness parameters with digit ratio and ultimately with prenatal testosterone exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2017

Characterization of GPCR signaling in hypoxia.

Methods Cell Biol 2017 4;142:101-110. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

College of Dentistry, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Manitoba Chemosensory Biology (MCSB) Research Group, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Biology of Breathing Group, Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal in response to various external stimuli including stress. GPCR signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the adaptation of cell response to limited oxygen supply. Hypoxia has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, human pulmonary arterial responses, and persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborns. One of the key GPCRs implicated in hypoxia is the prostanoid receptor, thromboxane A2 receptor (TP). Hypoxia can affect TP localization, stability, and activity both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate hypoxia-mediated GPCR signaling in vitro, we lay out a general strategy to perform hypoxic experiments using both primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and TP expressed in HEK293T cells. We describe assay for measuring moderate tissue hypoxia using static cell cultures, monitoring pericellular media oxygen content, and signaling of TP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mcb.2017.07.005DOI Listing
May 2018

FURTHER EVIDENCE OF AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LOW SECOND-TO-FOURTH DIGIT RATIO (2D:4D) AND SELECTION FOR THE UNIFORMED SERVICES: A STUDY AMONG POLICE PERSONNEL IN WROCŁAW, POLAND.

J Biosoc Sci 2018 07 22;50(4):527-539. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

¶Faculty of Physical Education,University School of Physical Education in Wrocław,Wrocław,Poland.

Males and females differ in their preference for occupations and sporting activities, and differ also in risk-taking attitudes. In addition to other explanations, prenatal hormone exposure has been implicated in these gender-associated differences. The ratio of the relative lengths of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) is a proxy indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone relative to oestrogen. The 2D:4D ratio has been found to be associated with choice of occupation, particularly among females. This study investigated whether 2D:4D differed between police officers and a control group of civilians in Wrocław, Poland. Participants were 147 male and 55 female police officers and 91 male and 75 female civilian controls. The police officers had to undergo rigorous physical ability tests during recruitment and their job bore relatively higher risk, whereas the controls had a normal civilian lifestyle. Height, weight, hand grip strength and lengths of the second and fourth digits were measured. Analyses of variance and covariance were employed to assess the significance of difference in digit ratio between groups (police officers and civilians) allowing for interaction with sex. The policewomen, compared with the female controls, were taller and had stronger hand grip strength, but had lower 2D:4D in the right hand and average 2D:4D of both hands. However, male and female police officers slightly differed only in the right hand digit ratio but not in the left hand ratio or the average for the two hands. However, the control group showed significant sex differences in all digit ratios with higher (feminine) mean values in females. The study provides further evidence that prenatal testosterone exposure, as reflected in the 2D:4D ratio, might have an association with choice of occupation, particularly among females.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932017000438DOI Listing
July 2018

Revival, modernization and integration of Indian traditional herbal medicine in clinical practice: Importance, challenges and future.

J Tradit Complement Med 2017 Apr 28;7(2):234-244. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Assam down town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati, Assam 781026, India.

In spite of incredible advances in modern science, technology and allopathic medicine a large we are unable to provide quality healthcare to all. Traditional medicine particularly herbal medicine considered as a major healthcare provider around the globe particularly in rural and remote areas. A large section of people depends on such medicine for their primary healthcare mainly in underdeveloped or developing countries. Indian traditional medicinal system like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani has a very rich history of their effectiveness; modern research also acknowledged the importance of such medicine. Indian traditional medicine or medicinal plants are also considered as a vital source of new drug. Mainstreaming of such medicine is important for the people. Several steps have been taken in India to promote such medicine and to integrate them into clinical practice. Evidence based incorporation of Indian traditional medicine in clinical practice will help to provide quality healthcare to all.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.05.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388083PMC
April 2017

Clonal hematopoiesis associated with TET2 deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis development in mice.

Science 2017 02 19;355(6327):842-847. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Molecular Cardiology, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Human aging is associated with an increased frequency of somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells. Several of these recurrent mutations, including those in the gene encoding the epigenetic modifier enzyme TET2, promote expansion of the mutant blood cells. This clonal hematopoiesis correlates with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We studied the effects of the expansion of -mutant cells in atherosclerosis-prone, low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient () mice. We found that partial bone marrow reconstitution with TET2-deficient cells was sufficient for their clonal expansion and led to a marked increase in atherosclerotic plaque size. TET2-deficient macrophages exhibited an increase in NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1β secretion. An NLRP3 inhibitor showed greater atheroprotective activity in chimeric mice reconstituted with TET2-deficient cells than in nonchimeric mice. These results support the hypothesis that somatic mutations in blood cells play a causal role in atherosclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aag1381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542057PMC
February 2017

SPORTS PREFERENCE AND DIGIT RATIO (2D:4D) AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS IN WROCŁAW, POLAND.

J Biosoc Sci 2017 Sep 11;49(5):623-633. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

§Faculty of Physical Education,University School of Physical Education in Wrocław,Wrocław,Poland.

Humans exhibit sex differences in competitiveness, sensation seeking and risk-taking attitude, which are required in sports. These attributes are often linked to prenatal testosterone (PT) exposure. The second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of PT exposure. A lower 2D:4D indicates higher PT exposure and vice versa. Males generally have a lower 2D:4D than females. Sensation- and/or thrill-seeking behaviours have also been found to be negatively associated with 2D:4D. Boxing and judo are considered to be high-risk sports. Voluntary participation in judo/boxing in contrast to aerobics can be guided by such behaviours and thus have an association with lower 2D:4D. This cross-sectional study included 167 female students from a military academy in Wrocław, Poland. Of them, 119 had voluntarily chosen aerobic exercise, and 48 opted for judo/boxing. Height, weight and second and fourth digit lengths were measured. Physical fitness was assessed using Eurofit tests. The two groups showed similar physical fitness and body size. However, the judo/boxing group had significantly lower mean 2D:4D values than the aerobics group. It is proposed that voluntary choice of participation in a sport discipline by women could be linked to the 'organizational' effect of intrauterine testosterone exposure during prenatal growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932016000523DOI Listing
September 2017

Is sports choice and participation related to 2D:4D? A study among adult male students in Wrocław, Poland.

Coll Antropol 2016 Jun;40(2):105-10

Psychology and personality of individuals may have implications for choice of, and performance in sports disciplines. Individual- and group sports differ in psychological requirements, such as, competitiveness, sensation seeking and risk taking attitude, often required in sports. There is sex difference in human in these qualities, which also show association with prenatal testosterone exposures. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher prenatal testosteron exposure and vice versa. Males generally have lower 2D:4D than females. This study cross-sectional study investigated the relationship of 2D:4D with team based- or individual sports. The participants were 421 Polish male students with a mean (+SD) age of 19.78 (+0.79) years. Among them, 139 were engaged in sports and 282 were not. Mean 2D:4D in each hand of individual sporting group was significantly lower than the team sports- and no sports groups. Participants not involved in any sports had the highest mean 2D:4D value. However, the team sportsmen’s 2D:4D did not differ from the non sporting group. Prenatal testosterone exposure might have implication in sports choice and participation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2016

The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors.

PLoS One 2016 25;11(5):e0156347. Epub 2016 May 25.

Department of Oral Biology, and Manitoba Chemosensory Biology (MCSB) Research group, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0W2, Canada.

Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156347PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880206PMC
July 2017

SEX DIFFERENCES IN DIGIT RATIO (2D:4D) AMONG MILITARY AND CIVIL COHORTS AT A MILITARY ACADEMY IN WROCŁAW, POLAND.

J Biosoc Sci 2016 Sep 23;48(5):658-71. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

‡Department of Anthropology,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya,Bongaon,West Bengal,India.

The ratio of second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D), which is generally higher in women compared with men, is a putative marker of prenatal testosterone (PT) exposure. Lower 2D:4D is linked with greater physical ability and strength, better sporting performance and a propensity towards jobs demanding greater physical ability. The objectives of this paper were to examine the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D in both hands 1and compare this dimorphism in the students of military and civil courses at the General Kuściuszko Military Academy of Land Forces in Wrocław. The cross-sectional study compared 59 female and 118 male students from the military courses and 53 females and 64 male students from the civil courses. Besides calculating 2D:4D (2D/4D) for each hand, height and weight were also recorded. Physical fitness and endurance were assessed using Eurofit tests. Handgrip strength was measured using a standardized isometric dynamometer. In almost all physical tests, students in the military cohort showed highly significant greater physical ability and strength (e.g. handgrip strength) when compared with the civil cohort. Male participants had a significantly lower 2D:4D than females for each hand, as well as for the average value for both hands. The sexual dimorphism was, however, a little more pronounced in the right hand than in the left. Both sex and course type were significant predictors of 2D:4D. There were significant interactions between sex and the student type. Among females, but not in males, the military cohort had a significantly lower, i.e. more 'masculine', 2D:4D for the left hand and right hand and average for both hands (t=3.290, p<0.001) than the civil cohort. This was not the case in males. However, the sex difference in 2D:4D was only significant among the civil students, and not among the military cadets. In conclusion, higher PT exposure, as represented by a lower 2D:4D, among the Polish females might be an indicator of relatively increased physical ability and motivation to choose professions that require higher strength and endurance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932015000401DOI Listing
September 2016

Treatment and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complication: Advanced Approaches.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2015 ;15(14):1132-3

Institute of Pharmacy, Assam Down Town University Panikhaiti, Guwahati, Assam-781026 India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138955751514151006154616DOI Listing
April 2016

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Karisalai Karpam, a polyherbal Siddha formulation against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rats.

Anc Sci Life 2015 Apr-Jun;34(4):198-202

R&D Division, SKM Siddha and Ayurveda Company (India) Limited, Modakurichi, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

Background: The usage of Siddha medicine in Tamil Nadu and several parts of Southern India has considerably increased over the past two decades and it is steadily crossing the various geographies owing to its inexpensiveness compared to conventional medicines and has fairly high acceptance rates because of its herbal origin and therefore its nontoxic nature.

Aim: This study aims to investigate the anti-hepatotoxic and antioxidant potential of the Karisalai Karpam formulation.

Materials And Methods: Karisalai Karpam tablet at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o. doses were administered orally to rats for three consecutive days. Single dose of acetaminophen (3 g/kg, p.o.) was administered on the 3(rd) day. Animals were sacrificed 48 h after the administration of acetaminophen, and their serum bilirubin, different hepatic enzymes and in vivo antioxidant activity were estimated.

Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using analysis of variance, followed by Tukey tests. A level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Pretreatment with Karisalai Karpam tablet showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity. Karisalai Karpam tablet (200 mg/kg) reduces serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, direct bilirubin by 67.8%, 72.3%, 47.6%, 61.3% and 62.9% respectively compared to disease control group. A significant increase (P < 0.001) in antioxidant enzyme level was observed in Karisalai Karpam treated animals. At higher doses, Karisalai Karpam prevented the depletion of glutathione in liver tissue.

Conclusion: Results confirmed that Karisalai Karpam tablet could protect the liver against acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage possibly by increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0257-7941.160863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4535067PMC
August 2015

Expression of G protein-coupled receptors in Mammalian cells.

Methods Enzymol 2015 20;556:267-81. Epub 2015 Mar 20.

Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Biology of Breathing Group, Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface proteins and play crucial role in mediating effective communication between extracellular and intracellular milieu of the cell. To understand the structure and function of these membrane proteins, it is imperative to express the proteins in a functional form and in sufficient quantities. However, heterologous expression of GPCRs in sufficient amounts for structural studies is a daunting task and over the years researchers have tried various expression systems to achieve this goal. Here, we describe a method developed in the laboratory of Dr. Har Gobind Khorana and successfully used over the past decade to express GPCRs and other membrane proteins in mammalian cells. Improvements to this method include use of genes codon optimized for expression in mammalian cells, use of expression tags at N-terminus, and affinity tags at the N-terminus and C-terminus of GPCRs. It also provides details for the process of selection for stably transfected clones, and to identify clones that are effectively expressing the GPCR of interest on the cell surface using flow cytometry. Purification of the overexpressed GPCR involves use of affinity chromatography. The method discussed here can also be effectively used to express cytotoxic proteins such as some constitutively active GPCRs. The method is robust and reliable to express GPCRs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2014.12.013DOI Listing
January 2016

Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

PLoS One 2014 23;9(10):e110373. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Department of Oral Biology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0110373PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4207743PMC
June 2015

Sibling composition and household room sharing are associated with menarcheal status among rural Bengalee girls of West Bengal, India.

Hum Biol 2013 Aug;85(4):607-18

Department of Anthropology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.

Menarche, the first menstruation, is one of the most important events in a woman's reproductive life. The timing of menarche varies across populations and depends upon social interaction and family environment. It is also associated with several biological as well as social factors. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between sibling composition and age at menarche (AAM) and to assess the association between the pattern of room sharing with family members of different sexes and menarcheal occurrence among rural Bengalee girls from West Bengal, India. The total sample comprised 577 Bengalee girls, 6-17 years of age, from various schools and madrasas in two blocks of the Nadia District of West Bengal State in India. The effects of room sharing on the occurrence of menarche, and of sibling composition on the menarcheal age, were assessed by analyses of covariance. The room-sharing pattern had a significant effect on menarcheal status (yes÷no): a significantly higher percentage of girls who shared a room with the mother and÷or sisters were postmenarcheal compared with those who shared a room with male family members. AAM did not differ significantly between girls having brothers or sisters. However, sibling order had a significant impact on AAM. Girls who had a younger sibling only (brother or sister) had a higher mean AAM, and girls who had both younger brothers and younger sisters had significantly higher mean AAM, than did the girls who had no younger sibling (singletons or having only elder siblings). There was no difference in AAM between the girls who had younger sister(s) and those who had younger brother(s). These differences were also independent of body mass index. In conclusion, the room sharing characteristics and the sibling sex composition, particularly their order, had significant effect on menarche in adolescent rural Bengalee girls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3378/027.085.0407DOI Listing
August 2013

Differential expression of bitter taste receptors in non-cancerous breast epithelial and breast cancer cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 Apr 12;446(2):499-503. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Department of Oral Biology, University of Manitoba, and The Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0W4, Canada. Electronic address:

The human bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are chemosensory receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. T2Rs are present on the surface of oral and many extra-oral cells. In humans 25 T2Rs are present, and these are activated by hundreds of chemical molecules of diverse structure. Previous studies have shown that many bitter compounds including chloroquine, quinidine, bitter melon extract and cucurbitacins B and E inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the existence of T2Rs in cancer cell is not yet elucidated. In this report using quantitative (q)-PCR and flow cytometry, we characterized the expression of T2R1, T2R4, T2R10, T2R38 and T2R49 in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, poorly metastatic cell line MCF-7, and non-cancerous mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Among the 5 T2Rs analyzed by qPCR and flow cytometry, T2R4 is expressed at 40-70% in mammary epithelial cells in comparison to commonly used breast cancer marker proteins, estrogen receptor and E-cadherin. Interestingly, the expression of T2R4 was downregulated in breast cancer cells. An increase in intracellular calcium mobilization was observed after the application of bitter agonists, quinine, dextromethorphan, and phenylthiocarbamide that are specific for some of the 5 T2Rs. This suggests that the endogenous T2Rs expressed in these cells are functional. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that T2Rs are differentially expressed in mammary epithelial cells, with some T2Rs downregulated in breast cancer cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.02.140DOI Listing
April 2014

Inverse agonism of SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban on Thromboxane A2 receptor.

PLoS One 2014 23;9(1):e85937. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Oral Biology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada ; Departments of Pediatrics, Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada ; Biology of Breathing Group- Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show some level of basal activity even in the absence of an agonist, a phenomenon referred to as constitutive activity. Such constitutive activity in GPCRs is known to have important pathophysiological roles in human disease. The thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) is a GPCR that promotes thrombosis in response to binding of the prostanoid, thromboxane A2. TP dysfunction is widely implicated in pathophysiological conditions such as bleeding disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported the characterization of a few constitutively active mutants (CAMs) in TP, including a genetic variant A160T. Using these CAMs as reporters, we now test the inverse agonist properties of known antagonists of TP, SQ 29,548, Ramatroban, L-670596 and Diclofenac, in HEK293T cells. Interestingly, SQ 29,548 reduced the basal activity of both, WT-TP and the CAMs while Ramatroban was able to reduce the basal activity of only the CAMs. Diclofenac and L-670596 showed no statistically significant reduction in basal activity of WT-TP or CAMs. To investigate the role of these compounds on human platelet function, we tested their effects on human megakaryocyte based system for platelet activation. Both SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban reduced the platelet hyperactivity of the A160T genetic variant. Taken together, our results suggest that SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban are inverse agonists for TP, whereas, L-670596 and Diclofenac are neutral antagonists. Our findings have important therapeutic applications in the treatment of TP mediated pathophysiological conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085937PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3900440PMC
November 2014

High-level expression, purification and characterization of a constitutively active thromboxane A2 receptor polymorphic variant.

PLoS One 2013 23;8(9):e76481. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Department of Oral Biology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit some level of basal signaling even in the absence of a bound agonist. This basal or constitutive signaling can have important pathophysiological roles. In the past few years, a number of high resolution crystal structures of GPCRs have been reported, including two crystal structures of constitutively active mutants (CAM) of the dim-light receptor, rhodopsin. The structural characterizations of CAMs are impeded by the lack of proper expression systems. The thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) is a GPCR that mediates vasoconstriction and promotes thrombosis in response to the binding of thromboxane. Here, we report on the expression and purification of a genetic variant and CAM in TP, namely A160T, using tetracycline-inducible HEK293S-TetR and HEK293S (GnTI¯)-TetR cell lines. Expression of the TP and the A160T genes in these mammalian cell lines resulted in a 4-fold increase in expression to a level of 15.8 ±0.3 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors expressed in the HEK293S (GnTI(-))-TetR cell line showed homogeneous glycosylation. The functional yield of the receptors using a single step affinity purification was 45 µg/10⁶ cells. Temperature- dependent secondary structure changes of the purified TP and A160T receptors were characterized using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry. The CD spectra shows that the loss of activity or thermal sensitivity that was previously observed for the A160T mutant, is not owing to large unfolding of the protein but rather to a more subtle effect. This is the first study to report on the successful high-level expression, purification, and biophysical characterization of a naturally occurring, diffusible ligand activated GPCR CAM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0076481PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3781061PMC
June 2014

Relative fat distribution in relation to menarcheal status among Bengalee Hindu girls of West Bengal, India.

J Nat Sci Biol Med 2013 Jul;4(2):369-73

Department of Anthropology, Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya, Bongaon, West Bengal, India.

Background: Menarche seems be related to the relative distribution rather than the total amount of body fat. Previous studies showed that the ratio between lower-body vs. upper-body fat was associated with the timing of menarche.

Aim: To compare the relative distribution of subcutaneous fat among Bengali Hindu pre- and post-menarcheal girls.

Materials And Methods: The participants were 234 Bengali Hindu girls aged 11-14 years: 111 pre-menarcheal and 123 post-menarcheal girls, randomly selected from a secondary school from a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Triceps, abdominal, sub-scapular, and calf skinfolds were measured. For each skinfold site, ratio was calculated as follows: Log (one skinfold/sum of skinfolds). Principal components (PC) analysis was performed to derive components which express the maximum contrast among the log of ratios. T-test was employed to assess differences between individual scores of components between pre- and post-menarcheal girls.

Results: The three identified PC suggested extremities-trunk, lower trunk-upper trunk, and an upper extremity-lower extremity contrasts, respectively. Scores for second and third components showed significant differences between pre- and post-menarcheal groups of girls.

Conclusion: The attainment of menarche by Bengali girls aged 11-14 years was associated with characteristically more relative subcutaneous fat distribution in the upper trunk and in the lower limbs, in contrast to lower trunk and upper limbs, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.116997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3783782PMC
July 2013
-->