Publications by authors named "Rainer Büscher"

46 Publications

Differential assessment of fluid compartments by bioimpedance in pediatric patients with kidney diseases.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Pediatric Nephrology Division, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The kidney is central for maintaining water balance. As a corollary, patients with impaired kidney function are prone to pathological fluid volumes. Total body water (TBW) is distributed between the extracellular (ECW) and intracellular fluid compartments (ICW). In clinical practice, the judgment of hydration status does not allow to distinguish between ECW and ICW. Here, we evaluate the hydration status in children with chronic kidney disease by analyzing TBW, ECW, and ICW.

Methods: Hydration was quantified using whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM) in 128 outpatients (1-25 years, 52 girls). Forty-two were transplanted (TPL), 43 suffered from chronic kidney disease without kidney replacement therapy (CKD), 21 were on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 22 on hemodialysis (HD). HD patients were investigated before, after, and sequentially during dialysis.

Results: The ECW and ICW values obtained by BCM were of the same magnitude as those from the literature using isotope dilution. When compared with a healthy control group, TBW was increased in 9 TPL, 9 CKD, 1 PD, and 11 HD patients before but in none after dialysis. The decline of overhydration during dialysis (p < 0.001, n = 22) correlated with the change in body weight (R = 0.62). The kinetics of fluid compartment changes assessed twice in six HD patients revealed a reproducible linear decay of the ECW/ICW ratio due to an increase of ICW and a decrease of ECW.

Conclusion: BCM quantifies TBW and acute changes of ECW and ICW in children with chronic kidney failure. The clinical utility of measuring TBW, ECW, and ICW should be defined in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04912-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Unusual Presentation of Polyautoimmunity and Renal Tubular Acidosis in an Adolescent With Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Central Pontine Myelinolysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 14;11:548877. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Pediatrics II, Pediatric Nephrology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases and may include renal involvement. A 17-year-old female with previously diagnosed Hashimoto's thyroiditis and vitiligo was admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit with hypokalemic paralysis and acidosis, after having suffered from recurrent muscular weakness for approximately one year. A few days later she developed central pontine myelinolysis. After initial stabilization she was also diagnosed with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and tubular proteinuria which can occur in Sjögren's syndrome. Extended screening for autoimmune diseases additionally revealed celiac disease. Treatment with Prednisone and substitution of potassium quickly lead to the resolution of proteinuria and dRTA, but unilateral paralysis of the sixth nerve as a result of central pontine myelinolysis was irreversible. This is the rare case of polyautoimmunity including autoimmune thyroiditis, Sjögren's syndrome, vitiligo and celiac disease in an adolescent with few disease-specific symptoms. The diagnoses were made via a complicating nephritis causing dRTA and proteinuria. Delay in diagnosis lead to permanent neurological damage. This case highlights the need for pediatricians to be aware of rare accompanying diseases and their complications in "common" pediatric autoimmune diseases like Hashimoto's thyroiditis and celiac disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.548877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591671PMC
October 2020

Serum indoxyl sulfate concentrations associate with progression of chronic kidney disease in children.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(10):e0240446. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a consequence of altered gut microbiota metabolism and a decline in renal excretion. Despite of solid experimental evidence for nephrotoxic effects, the impact of uremic toxins on the progression of CKD has not been investigated in representative patient cohorts. In this analysis, IS and pCS serum concentrations were measured in 604 pediatric participants (mean eGFR of 27 ± 11 ml/min/1.73m2) at enrolment into the prospective Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD study. Associations with progression of CKD were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazard models. During a median follow up time of 2.2 years (IQR 4.3-0.8 years), the composite renal survival endpoint, defined as 50% loss of eGFR, or eGFR <10ml/min/1.73m2 or start of renal replacement therapy, was reached by 360 patients (60%). Median survival time was shorter in patients with IS and pCS levels in the highest versus lowest quartile for both IS (1.5 years, 95%CI [1.1,2.0] versus 6.0 years, 95%CI [5.0,8.4]) and pCS (1.8 years, 95%CI [1.5,2.8] versus 4.4 years, 95%CI [3.4,6.0]). Multivariable Cox regression disclosed a significant association of IS, but not pCS, with renal survival, which was independent of other risk factors including baseline eGFR, proteinuria and blood pressure. In this exploratory analysis we provide the first data showing a significant association of IS, but not pCS serum concentrations with the progression of CKD in children, independent of other known risk factors. In the absence of comorbidities, which interfere with serum levels of uremic toxins, such as diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, these results highlight the important role of uremic toxins and accentuate the unmet need of effective elimination strategies to lower the uremic toxin burden and abate progression of CKD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240446PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591021PMC
December 2020

Cardiovascular Outcome of Pediatric Patients With Bi-Allelic (Homozygous) Familial Hypercholesterolemia Before and After Initiation of Multimodal Lipid Lowering Therapy Including Lipoprotein Apheresis.

Am J Cardiol 2020 12 16;136:38-48. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Renal Unit, KfH Pediatric Kidney Centre, and Centre for Undiagnosed and Rare Diseases, University Hospital Marburg, Germany.

Twenty-four patients with bi-allelic familial hypercholesterolemia commencing chronic lipoprotein apheresis (LA) at a mean age of 8.5 ± 3.1 years were analysed retrospectively and in part prospectively with a mean follow-up of 17.2 ± 5.6 years. Mean age at diagnosis was 6.3 ± 3.4 years. Untreated mean LDL-C concentrations were 752 mg/dl ± 193 mg/dl (19.5 mmol/l ± 5.0 mmol/l). Multimodal lipid lowering therapy including LA resulted in a mean LDL-C concentration of 184 mg/dl (4.8 mmol/l), which represents a 75.5% mean reduction. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9-antibodies contributed in 3 patients to LDL-C lowering with 5 patients remaining to be tested. After commencing chronic LA, 16 patients (67%) remained clinically stable with only subclinical findings of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and neither cardiovascular events, nor need for vascular interventions or surgery. In 19 patients (79%), pathologic findings were detected at the aortic valve (AV), which in the majority were mild. AV replacement was required in 2 patients. Mean Lipoprotein(a) concentration was 42.4 mg/dl, 38% had >50 mg/dl. There was no overt correlation of AV pathologies with other ASCVD complications, or Lipoprotein(a) concentration. Physicochemical elimination of LDL particles by LA appears indispensable for patients with bi-allelic familial hypercholesterolemia and severe hypercholesterolemia to maximize the reduction of LDL-C. In conclusion, in this rare patient group regular assessment of both the AV, as well as all arteries accessible by ultrasound should be performed to adjust the intensity of multimodal lipid lowering therapy with the goal to prevent ASCVD events and aortic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.09.015DOI Listing
December 2020

Determinants of Statural Growth in European Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings From the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease (4C) Study.

Front Pediatr 2019 5;7:278. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Failure of statural growth is one of the major long-term sequelae of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. In recent years effective therapeutic strategies have become available that lead to evidence based practice recommendations. To assess the current growth performance of European children and adolescents with CKD, we analyzed a cohort of 594 patients from 12 European countries who were followed prospectively for up to 6 years in the 4C Study. While all patients were on conservative treatment with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 28 ml/min/1.73 m at study entry, 130 children commenced dialysis during the observation period. At time of enrolment the mean height standard deviation score (SDS) was -1.57; 36% of patients had a height below the third percentile. The prevalence of growth failure varied between countries from 7 to 44% Whereas patients on conservative treatment showed stable growth, height SDS gradually declined on those on dialysis. Parental height, pubertal status and treatment with recombinant growth hormone (GH) were positively, and the diagnosis of syndromic disease and CKD stage were negatively associated with height SDS during the observation period. Unexpectedly, higher body mass index (BMI) SDS was associated with lower height SDS both at enrolment and during follow up. Renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperparathyroidism were mostly mild and not predictive of growth rates by multivariable analysis. GH therapy was applied in only 15% of growth retarded patients with large variation between countries. When adjusting for all significant covariates listed above, the country of residence remained a highly significant predictor of overall growth performance. In conclusion, growth failure remains common in European children with CKD, despite improved general management of CKD complications. The widespread underutilization of GH, an approved efficacious therapy for CKD-associated growth failure, deserves further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625460PMC
July 2019

Arterial tissue transcriptional profiles associate with tissue remodeling and cardiovascular phenotype in children with end-stage kidney disease.

Sci Rep 2019 07 16;9(1):10316. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charité - University Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) greatly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, molecular mechanisms underlying CKD-induced arterial remodeling are largely unknown. We performed a systematic analysis of arterial biopsies from children with stage 5 predialysis CKD participating in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (4 C) study. For comparison, we studied biopsies from children without CKD, coronary bypass vessels from adults with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease without CKD and aortic sections of subtotally nephrectomized rats. In pediatric CKD patients, gene expression was correlated to the cardiovascular phenotype assessed by surrogate end-points. The arterial calcium content correlated with the intima-media thickness (IMT) of biopsied vessels from pediatric CKD patients, was markedly increased compared to biopsies from children without CKD and comparable to adult coronary bypass patients. Significant transcriptional changes included ECM components, pro-calcifying factors, and physiological calcification inhibitors; most were highly accordant with changes observed in adults with atherosclerosis and in uremic rats. Individual gene expression levels were significantly associated with the left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness. Thus, inflammatory processes (TNF, IL-10), calcification inhibitors (CA2), the Wnt-pathway (FGF-2) and foremost, ECM components (HMGA1, VNN1, VCAN), impact pathobiological responses in arteries from children with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46805-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635360PMC
July 2019

Peritoneal Dialysis Vintage and Glucose Exposure but Not Peritonitis Episodes Drive Peritoneal Membrane Transformation During the First Years of PD.

Front Physiol 2019 2;10:356. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The impact of peritoneal dialysis (PD) associated peritonitis on peritoneal membrane integrity is incompletely understood. Children are particularly suited to address this question, since they are largely devoid of preexisting tissue damage and life-style related alterations. Within the International Peritoneal Biobank, 85 standardized parietal peritoneal tissue samples were obtained from 82 children on neutral pH PD fluids with low glucose degradation product (GDP) content. 37 patients had a history of peritonitis and 16 of the 37 had two or more episodes. Time interval between tissue sampling and the last peritonitis episode was 9 (4, 36) weeks. Tissue specimen underwent digital imaging and molecular analyses. Patients with and without peritonitis were on PD for 21.0 (12.0, 36.0) and 12.8 (7.3, 27.0) months ( = 0.053), respectively. They did not differ in anthropometric or histomorphometric parameters [mesothelial coverage, submesothelial fibrosis, blood, and lymphatic vascularization, leukocyte, macrophage and activated fibroblast counts, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), podoplanin positivity and vasculopathy]. VEGF and TGF-ß induced pSMAD abundance were similar. Similar findings were also obtained after matching for age and PD vintage and a subgroup analysis according to time since last peritonitis (<3, <6, >6 months). In patients with more than 24 months of PD vintage, submesothelial thickness, vessel number per mmm section length and ASMA fibroblast positivity were higher in patients with peritonitis history; only the difference in ASMA positivity persisted in multivariable analyses. While PD duration and EMT were independently associated with submesothelial thickness, and glucose exposure and EMT with peritoneal vessel density in the combined groups, submesothelial thickness was independently associated with EMT in the peritonitis free patients, and with duration of PD in patients with previous peritonitis. This detailed analysis of the peritoneal membrane in pediatric patients on PD with neutral pH, low GDP fluids, does not support the notion of a consistent long-term impact of peritonitis episodes on peritoneal membrane ultrastructure, on inflammatory and fibrotic cell activity and EMT. Peritoneal alterations are mainly driven by PD duration, dialytic glucose exposure, and associated EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455046PMC
April 2019

Effects of Hemodiafiltration versus Conventional Hemodialysis in Children with ESKD: The HDF, Heart and Height Study.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 04 7;30(4):678-691. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Nephrology Unit, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Hypertension and cardiovascular disease are common in children undergoing dialysis. Studies suggest that hemodiafiltration (HDF) may reduce cardiovascular mortality in adults, but data for children are scarce.

Methods: The HDF, Heart and Height study is a nonrandomized observational study comparing outcomes on conventional hemodialysis (HD) versus postdilution online HDF in children. Primary outcome measures were annualized changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) SD score and height SD score.

Results: We enrolled 190 children from 28 centers; 78 on HD and 55 on HDF completed 1-year follow-up. The groups were comparable for age, dialysis vintage, access type, dialysis frequency, blood flow, and residual renal function. At 1 year, cIMT SD score increased significantly in children on HD but remained static in the HDF cohort. On propensity score analysis, HD was associated with a +0.47 higher annualized cIMT SD score compared with HDF. Height SD score increased in HDF but remained static in HD. Mean arterial pressure SD score increased with HD only. Factors associated with higher cIMT and mean arterial pressure SD-scores were HD group, higher ultrafiltration rate, and higher 2-microglobulin. The HDF cohort had lower 2-microglobulin, parathyroid hormone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein at 1 year; fewer headaches, dizziness, or cramps; and shorter postdialysis recovery time.

Conclusions: HDF is associated with a lack of progression in vascular measures versus progression with HD, as well as an increase in height not seen in the HD cohort. Patient-related outcomes improved among children on HDF correlating with improved BP control and clearances. Confirmation through randomized trials is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018100990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442347PMC
April 2019

Greater Susceptibility for Metabolic Syndrome in Pediatric Solid Organ and Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Transplantation 2019 11;103(11):2423-2433

Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Germany.

Background: Cardiovascular comorbidity is of increasing importance after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome (MS) contributes to the risk for cardiovascular sequelae. Our aim was to assess the risk for MS in pediatric solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients by comparing them with matched untransplanted peers in a multicenter study.

Methods: We prospectively assessed MS in 295 pediatric transplant recipients and compared them with 1475 age- and sex-matched controls.

Results: Posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS) was most frequent in lung (43%) and kidney (39%), followed by liver (16%) and stem cell (13%) recipients, compared with nontransplanted peers (4%; P < 0.01). The risk of displaying PTMS was almost 22-fold higher after lung (95% confidence interval, CI, 8.2-57.4), 16-fold higher after kidney (95% CI, 9.1-28.9), 5-fold higher after liver (95% CI, 2.1-10.1), and 4-fold higher after stem cell (95% CI, 1.4-9.5) transplantation. The contribution of individual components leading to MS differed depending on transplant type. In the combined analysis of all transplant groups, older age, less physical activity, calcineurin or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based immunosuppression, and hypovitaminosis D were associated with PTMS.

Conclusions: By investigating a large group of patients, our study not only shows a high prevalence of PTMS but also identifies kidney and lung transplant patients as being at a particularly high risk. Moreover, knowledge on the factors associated with PTMS allows for individualized treatment approaches as well as potential preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002675DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of haemodiafiltration vs conventional haemodialysis on growth and cardiovascular outcomes in children - the HDF, heart and height (3H) study.

BMC Nephrol 2018 08 10;19(1):199. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent in children on dialysis and accounts for almost 30% of all deaths. Randomised trials in adults suggest that haemodiafiltration (HDF) with high convection volumes is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality compared to high-flux haemodialysis (HD); however paediatric data are scarce. We designed the haemodiafiltration, heart and height (3H) study to test the hypothesis that children on HDF have an improved cardiovascular risk profile, growth and nutritional status and quality of life, compared to those on conventional HD. We performed a non-randomised parallel-arm intervention study within the International Paediatric Haemodialysis Network Registry comparing children on HDF and conventional HD to determine annualised change in cardiovascular end-points and growth. Here we present the 3H study design and baseline characteristics of the study population.

Methods: 190 children were screened and 177 (106 on HD and 71 on HDF) recruited from 28 centres in 10 countries. There was no difference in age, underlying diagnosis, comorbidities, previous dialysis therapy, dialysis vintage, residual renal function, type of vascular access or blood flow between HD and HDF groups. High flux dialysers were used in 63% of HD patients and ultra-pure water was available in 52%. HDF patients achieved a median convection volume of 13.3 L/m; this was associated with the blood flow rate only ((p = 0.0004, r = 0.42) and independent of access type (p = 0.38).

Discussion: This is the largest study on dialysis outcomes in children that involves deep phenotyping across a wide range of cardiovascular, anthropometric, nutritional and health-related quality of life measures, to test the hypothesis that HDF leads to improved cardiovascular and growth outcomes compared to conventional HD.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02063776 . The trial was prospectively registered on the 14 Feb 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-018-0998-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086045PMC
August 2018

Impaired Microcirculation in Children After Kidney Transplantation: Everolimus Versus Mycophenolate Based Immunosuppression Regimen.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2018 22;43(3):793-806. Epub 2018 May 22.

Dept. of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background/aims: Whether the immunosuppressive regimen is associated with micro- and macro-vascular status in pediatric kidney transplant recipients (KTx) is unknown.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, case-control study in 44 pediatric KTx patients on either everolimus (EVR) plus calcineurin inhibitor or standard treatment, i.e. mycophenolate mofetil plus calcineurin inhibitor. Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) via ultrasound, central pulse wave velocity (PWV) by a cuff-based oscillometric technique, and skin microvascular blood flow during local heating via laser-Doppler-fluximetry (LDF) served as marker of subclinical vascular disease. Serum concentrations of angiopoietin-1 and -2, fibroblast-growth factor 23 (FGF23) and soluble klotho were measured.

Results: EVR-treated patients exhibited a similar degree of hypertension, increased cIMT, elevated pro-inflammatory angiopoietin-2, and diminished endothelial survival factor angiopoietin-1 compared to healthy children but presented with a twofold more reduced skin micro-vascular function compared to standard treatment (each p< 0.001). By contrast, PWV and soluble klotho levels were normal in both groups.

Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction seems more frequent in KTx patients on EVR-based immunosuppressive regimen compared to standard immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000489915DOI Listing
October 2018

Neutral pH and low-glucose degradation product dialysis fluids induce major early alterations of the peritoneal membrane in children on peritoneal dialysis.

Kidney Int 2018 08;94(2):419-429

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

The effect of peritoneal dialysates with low-glucose degradation products on peritoneal membrane morphology is largely unknown, with functional relevancy predominantly derived from experimental studies. To investigate this, we performed automated quantitative histomorphometry and molecular analyses on 256 standardized peritoneal and 172 omental specimens from 56 children with normal renal function, 90 children with end-stage kidney disease at time of catheter insertion, and 82 children undergoing peritoneal dialysis using dialysates with low-glucose degradation products. Follow-up biopsies were obtained from 24 children after a median peritoneal dialysis of 13 months. Prior to dialysis, mild parietal peritoneal inflammation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and vasculopathy were present. After up to six and 12 months of peritoneal dialysis, blood microvessel density was 110 and 93% higher, endothelial surface area per peritoneal volume 137 and 95% greater, and submesothelial thickness 23 and 58% greater, respectively. Subsequent peritoneal changes were less pronounced. Mesothelial cell coverage was lower and vasculopathy advanced, whereas lymphatic vessel density was unchanged. Morphological changes were accompanied by early fibroblast activation, leukocyte and macrophage infiltration, diffuse podoplanin presence, epithelial mesenchymal transdifferentiation, and by increased proangiogenic and profibrotic cytokine abundance. These transformative changes were confirmed by intraindividual comparisons. Peritoneal microvascular density correlated with peritoneal small-molecular transport function by uni- and multivariate analysis. Thus, in children on peritoneal dialysis neutral pH dialysates containing low-glucose degradation products induce early peritoneal inflammation, fibroblast activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and marked angiogenesis, which determines the PD membrane transport function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.02.022DOI Listing
August 2018

Teaching paediatric basic life support in medical schools using peer teaching or video demonstration: A prospective randomised trial.

J Paediatr Child Health 2018 09 13;54(9):981-986. Epub 2018 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics II, Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Aim: The outcome of children with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is still poor, but bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation can increase survival and minimise severe neurological sequelae. While teaching basic life support is standardised in emergency medicine classes, paediatric basic life support (PBLS) in neonates and toddlers is under-represented in paediatric curricula during university education. The appropriate mixture of E-learning and peer teaching lessons remains controversial in teaching paediatric basic skills. However, an increasing number of medical schools and paediatric classes switch their curricula to much cheaper and less tutor-dependent E-learning modules. We hypothesise that a peer teaching lesson is superior to a PBLS video demonstration with co-extensive contents and improves knowledge, skills and adherence to resuscitation guidelines.

Methods: Eighty-eight medical students were randomly assigned to a video PBLS lesson (n = 44) or a peer teaching group (n = 44). An objective structured clinical examination was performed immediately after the class and at the end of the semester.

Results: Students taught by a peer teacher performed significantly better immediately after the initial course and at the end of the semester when compared to the video-trained group (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003, respectively). In addition, a borderline regression analysis also revealed a better resuscitation performance of students instructed in the peer teaching group.

Conclusions: In our setting, peer teaching is superior and more sustainable than a co-extensive video demonstration alone when teaching PBLS to medical students. However, additional studies with combinations of different teaching methods are necessary to evaluate long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13937DOI Listing
September 2018

Multimodal lipid-lowering treatment in pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia-target attainment requires further increase of intensity.

Pediatr Nephrol 2018 07 3;33(7):1199-1208. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Apheresis Research Institute, Stadtwaldguertel 77, 50935, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) causes premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is recommended as first-line lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) for homozygous (ho) FH.

Methods: Efficacy of multimodal LLT including lifestyle counseling, drug treatment, and LA was analyzed in 17 pediatric hoFH or compound heterozygous (c-het) FH patients, who commenced chronic LA in Germany before the age of 18.

Results: At time of diagnosis, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration was 19.6 mmol/l (756 mg/dl). Multimodal LLT resulted in 73% reduction of mean LDL-C concentration including a 62% contribution of LA. Only three children (18%) achieved mean LDL-C concentrations below the recommended pediatric target of 3.5 mmol/l (135 mg/dl). In 13 patients (76%) during chronic LA, neither cardiovascular events occurred nor was CVD progression detected clinically or by routine imaging techniques. In four patients (24%), cardiovascular events documented progression of CVD despite weekly LA, including one death due to coronary and cerebrovascular CVD which was not stabilized after commencing LA. Based on the mutational status, only 6 out of the 17 children were candidates for proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition. Two already responded with further LDL-C decrease by 40%.

Conclusions: Next to drug therapy, regular LA is an essential component of LLT for approaching LDL-C targets in children with hoFH or c-hetFH, which was successful only in a minority of children. Progression of CVD morbidity and resulting mortality remain unresolved issues. Early and intensified multimodal LLT guided by risk factors beyond LDL-C concentration is needed to improve outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-018-3906-6DOI Listing
July 2018

Whole Exome Sequencing of Patients with Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 01 10;13(1):53-62. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Due to the number of contributing authors, the affiliations are provided in the Supplemental Material.

Background And Objectives: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome overwhelmingly progresses to ESRD. More than 30 monogenic genes have been identified to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We previously detected causative mutations using targeted panel sequencing in 30% of patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Panel sequencing has a number of limitations when compared with whole exome sequencing. We employed whole exome sequencing to detect monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in an international cohort of 300 families.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Three hundred thirty-five individuals with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome from 300 families were recruited from April of 1998 to June of 2016. Age of onset was restricted to <25 years of age. Exome data were evaluated for 33 known monogenic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes.

Results: In 74 of 300 families (25%), we identified a causative mutation in one of 20 genes known to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. In 11 families (3.7%), we detected a mutation in a gene that causes a phenocopy of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This is consistent with our previously published identification of mutations using a panel approach. We detected a causative mutation in a known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene in 38% of consanguineous families and in 13% of nonconsanguineous families, and 48% of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. A total of 68 different mutations were detected in 20 of 33 steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. Fifteen of these mutations were novel. , , , and were the most common genes in which we detected a mutation. In another 28% of families, we detected mutations in one or more candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Conclusions: Whole exome sequencing is a sensitive approach toward diagnosis of monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. A molecular genetic diagnosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome may have important consequences for the management of treatment and kidney transplantation in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.04120417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5753307PMC
January 2018

Early Effects of Renal Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children With End-Stage Kidney Disease: Findings From the 4C-T Study.

Transplantation 2018 03;102(3):484-492

Integrated Research and Treatment Center Transplantation, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The early impact of renal transplantation on subclinical cardiovascular measures in pediatric patients has not been widely investigated. This analysis is performed for pediatric patients participating in the prospective cardiovascular comorbidity in children with chronic kidney disease study and focuses on the early effects of renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality on cardiovascular comorbidity in patients receiving a preemptive transplant or started on dialysis.

Methods: We compared measures indicating subclinical cardiovascular organ damage (aortal pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, left ventricular mass index) and evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in 166 pediatric patients before and 6 to 18 months after start of RRT (n = 76 transplantation, n = 90 dialysis).

Results: RRT modality had a significant impact on the change in arterial structure and function: compared to dialysis treatment, transplantation was independently associated with decreases in pulse wave velocity (ß = -0.67; P < 0.001) and intima media thickness (ß = -0.40; P = 0.008). Independent of RRT modality, an increase in pulse wave velocity was associated with an increase in diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.31; P < 0.001). Increasing intima media thickness was associated with a larger increase in body mass index (ß = 0.26; P = 0.003) and the use of antihypertensive agents after RRT (ß = 0.41; P = 0.007). Changes in left ventricular mass index were associated with changes in systolic blood pressure (ß = 1.47; P = 0.01).

Conclusions: In comparison with initiating dialysis, preemptive transplantation prevented further deterioration of the subclinical vascular organ damage early after transplantation. Classic cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and obesity are of major importance for the development of cardiovascular organ damage after renal transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000001948DOI Listing
March 2018

Factors associated with cardiovascular target organ damage in children after renal transplantation.

Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Nov 13;32(11):2143-2154. Epub 2017 Aug 13.

Department of Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the second-most common cause of death in pediatric renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate subclinical cardiovascular target organ damage defined as the presence of arterio- and atherosclerotic lesions and cardiac remodeling and to analyze contributing risk factors in a large cohort of children after renal transplantation (RT).

Methods: A total of 109 children aged 13.1 ± 3.3 years who had undergone RT at one of three German transplant centers were enrolled in this study. Patients had been transplanted a mean of 5.5 (±4.0) years prior to being enrolled in the study. Anthropometric data, laboratory values and office- and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were evaluated. Cardiovascular target organ damage was determined through non-invasive measurements of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM).

Results: Elevated PWV or IMT values were detected in 22 and 58% of patients, respectively. Left ventricular hypertrophy was found in as many as 43% of patients. The prevalence of uncontrolled or untreated hypertension was 41%, of which 16% of cases were only detected by ABPM measurements. In the multivariable analysis, higher diastolic blood pressure, everolimus intake and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate were independently associated with high PWV. Higher systolic blood pressure and body mass index were associated with elevated LVM.

Conclusions: Our results showed an alarming burden of cardiovascular subclinical organ damage in children after RT. Hypertension, obesity, immunosuppressive regimen and renal function emerged as independent risk factors of organ damage. Whereas the latter is not modifiable, the results of our study strongly indicate that the management of children after RT should focus on the control of blood pressure and weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-017-3771-8DOI Listing
November 2017

Glomerular and Tubular Renal Function after Repeated Once-Daily Tobramycin Courses in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

Pulm Med 2017 4;2017:2602653. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Pediatric Pulmonology and Sleep Medicine, University Children's Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen, Germany.

. Antibiotic treatment regimens against lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often include aminoglycoside antibiotics that may cause chronic renal failure after repeated courses. Aminoaciduria is an early marker of acute aminoglycoside-induced renal tubular dysfunction. We hypothesized that urinary amino acid reabsorption is decreased after repeated once-daily tobramycin therapies. . In this prospective cross-sectional study creatinine clearance was estimated by the Schwartz and the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Tubular amino acid reabsorption was determined by ion exchange chromatography in 46 patients with CF who received multiple tobramycin courses (6.3 ± 10.1 (1-57)) in a once-daily dosing regimen and 10 who did not. . Estimated creatinine clearance employing the Cockcroft-Gault was mildly reduced in 17/46 (37%) of the patients who received tobramycin and 5/10 (50%) of the patients who did not but in none using the Schwartz formula. No association with lifetime tobramycin courses was found. Tubular amino acid reabsorption was not influenced by the amount of once-daily tobramycin courses. . Clinically not significant reduction of eCCL occurred in a minority of CF patients. However, chronic tubular dysfunction was not present in patients with CF repeatedly treated with tobramycin in the once-daily dosing scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2602653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241496PMC
March 2017

FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy.

Nat Commun 2016 Feb 24;7:10822. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Division of Nephrology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770090PMC
February 2016

Mutations in nuclear pore genes NUP93, NUP205 and XPO5 cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Nat Genet 2016 Apr 15;48(4):457-65. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Nucleoporins are essential components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Only a few diseases have been attributed to NPC dysfunction. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease, is caused by dysfunction of glomerular podocytes. Here we identify in eight families with SRNS mutations in NUP93, its interaction partner NUP205 or XPO5 (encoding exportin 5) as hitherto unrecognized monogenic causes of SRNS. NUP93 mutations caused disrupted NPC assembly. NUP93 knockdown reduced the presence of NUP205 in the NPC, and, reciprocally, a NUP205 alteration abrogated NUP93 interaction. We demonstrate that NUP93 and exportin 5 interact with the signaling protein SMAD4 and that NUP93 mutations abrogated interaction with SMAD4. Notably, NUP93 mutations interfered with BMP7-induced SMAD transcriptional reporter activity. We hereby demonstrate that mutations of NUP genes cause a distinct renal disease and identify aberrant SMAD signaling as a new disease mechanism of SRNS, opening a potential new avenue for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4811732PMC
April 2016

Combined liver and kidney transplantation and kidney after liver transplantation in children: Indication, postoperative outcome, and long-term results.

Pediatr Transplant 2015 Dec 5;19(8):858-65. Epub 2015 Sep 5.

Department of Pediatrics II, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

CLKT and sequential KALT are decided on a case-by-case basis in children for special indications such as ARPKD or PH1. We report on 21 children who underwent CLKT or KALT at our hospital between 1998 and 2013. Eleven children were diagnosed with PH1 and six with ARPKD. Other diagnosis were Joubert syndrome (n = 1), nephronophthisis (n = 1), CF (n = 1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1). Children (12 males, nine females) were aged 7.8 ± 6.2 yr (range, 10 months to 18 yr) at time of transplantation. Average wait time was 1.9 ± 0.9 yr (range, four months to 2.3 yr). Fifteen patients received dialysis prior to transplantation. In PH1 patients, four children received CLKT, five received KALT, and two infants have received only an LTx, whereas all six patients with ARPKD received CLKT. In patients with other indications, CLKT was performed in three cases and KALT in one girl. Cumulative 10-yr survival of all 21 patients was 78.4%. At the time of transfer into adult care, 13 patients retained stable liver and kidney function. Regardless the underlying diagnosis, CLKT and KALT can be performed in children with good surgical outcomes and long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.12595DOI Listing
December 2015

Automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with chronic kidney disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2015 Jul 19;30(7):1173-9. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Growth restriction and retarded bone age are common findings in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared the automated BoneXpert™ method with the manual assessment of an X-ray of the non-dominant hand.

Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study, 359 patients with CKD stages 2-5, aged 2-14.5 (girls) or 2.5-17 years (boys) were included. Bone age was determined manually by three experts (according to Greulich and Pyle). Automated determination of bone age was performed using the image analysis software BoneXpert™.

Results: There was a strong correlation between the automatic and the manual method (r = 0.983, p < 0.001). The automatic method tended to generate higher bone age values (0.64 ± 0.73 years) in the younger patients (4-5 years) and to underestimate retardation or acceleration of bone age. The so-called "bone health index" (BHI) was reduced in comparison to the reference population. Bone health index standard deviation score (BHI-SDS) was not related to the stage of CKD, but weakly negatively correlated with plasma PTH concentrations (r = 0.12, p = 0.019).

Conclusions: BoneXpert™ allows an objective, time-saving, and in general valid bone age assessment in children with CKD. Possible underestimation of retarded or accelerated bone age should be taken into account. Validation of the BHI needs further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-015-3042-5DOI Listing
July 2015

Clinical manifestations of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD): kidney-related and non-kidney-related phenotypes.

Pediatr Nephrol 2014 Oct 10;29(10):1915-25. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

Children's Hospital, Pediatrics II, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45122, Essen, Germany,

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), although less frequent than the dominant form, is a common, inherited ciliopathy of childhood that is caused by mutations in the PKHD1-gene on chromosome 6. The characteristic dilatation of the renal collecting ducts starts in utero and can present at any stage from infancy to adulthood. Renal insufficiency may already begin in utero and may lead to early abortion or oligohydramnios and lung hypoplasia in the newborn. However, there are also affected children who have no evidence of renal dysfunction in utero and who are born with normal renal function. Up to 30 % of patients die in the perinatal period, and those surviving the neonatal period reach end stage renal disease (ESRD) in infancy, early childhood or adolescence. In contrast, some affected patients have been diagnosed as adults with renal function ranging from normal to moderate renal insufficiency to ESRD. The clinical spectrum of ARPKD is broader than previously recognized. While bilateral renal enlargement with microcystic dilatation is the predominant clinical feature, arterial hypertension, intrahepatic biliary dysgenesis remain important manifestations that affect approximately 45 % of infants. All patients with ARPKD develop clinical findings of congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF); however, non-obstructive dilation of the intrahepatic bile ducts in the liver (Caroli's disease) is seen at the histological level in only a subset of patients. Cholangitis and variceal bleeding, sequelae of portal hypertension, are life-threatening complications that may occur more often in advanced cases of liver disease. In this review we focus on common and uncommon kidney-related and non-kidney-related phenotypes. Clinical management of ARPKD patients should include consideration of potential problems related to these manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-013-2634-1DOI Listing
October 2014

Evaluation of the peer teaching program at the University Children´s Hospital Essen - a single center experience.

GMS Z Med Ausbild 2013 15;30(2):Doc25. Epub 2013 May 15.

Universitätskinderklinik Essen, Klinik für Kinderheilkunde II, Essen, Deutschland.

Since 1986 medical students at the University Children's Hospital Essen are trained as peers in a two week intensive course in order to teach basic paediatric examination techniques to younger students. Student peers are employed by the University for one year. Emphasis of the peer teaching program is laid on the mediation of affective and sensomotorical skills e.g. get into contact with parents and children, as well as manual paediatric examination techniques. The aim of this study is to analyse whether student peers are able to impart specific paediatric examination skills as good as an experienced senior paediatric lecturer. 123 students were randomly assigned to a group with either a senior lecturer or a student peer teacher. Following one-hour teaching-sessions in small groups students had to demonstrate the learned skills in a 10 minute modified OSCE. In comparison to a control group consisting of 23 students who never examined a child before, both groups achieved a significantly better result. Medical students taught by student peers almost reached the same examination result as the group taught by paediatric teachers (21,7±4,1 vs. 22,6±3,6 of 36 points, p=0,203). Especially the part of the OSCE where exclusively practical skills where examined revealed no difference between the two groups (7,44±2,15 vs. 7,97±1,87 of a maximum of 16 points, p=0,154). The majority of students (77%) evaluated peer teaching as stimulating and helpful. The results of this quantitative teaching study reveal that peer teaching of selected skills can be a useful addition to classical paediatric teaching classes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/zma000868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671321PMC
March 2014

COL4A5-associated X-linked Alport syndrome in a female patient with early inner ear deafness due to a mutation in MYH9.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012 Nov;27(11):4236-40

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Children's Hospital, Essen, Germany.

Alport syndrome (ATS) is a type-IV collagen inherited disorder, caused by mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 (autosomal recessive) or COL4A5 (X-linked). Clinical symptoms include progressive renal disease, eye abnormalities and high-tone sensorineural deafness. A renal histology very similar to ATS is observed in a subset of patients affected by mutations in MYH9, encoding non-muscle-myosin Type IIa--a cytoskeletal contractile protein. MYH9-associated disorders (May-Hegglin anomaly, Epstein and Fechtner syndrome, and others) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and characterized by defects in different organs (including eyes, ears, kidneys and thrombocytes). We describe here a 6-year-old girl with haematuria, proteinuria, and early sensorineural hearing loss. The father of the patient is affected by ATS, the mother by isolated inner ear deafness. Genetic testing revealed a pathogenic mutation in COL4A5 (c.2605G>A) in the girl and her father and a heterozygous mutation in MYH9 (c.4952T>G) in the girl and her mother. The paternal COL4A5 mutation seems to account for the complete phenotype of ATS in the father and the maternal mutation in MYH9 for the inner ear deafness in the mother. It has been discussed that the interaction of both mutations could be responsible for both the unexpected severity of ATS symptoms and the very early onset of inner ear deafness in the girl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs468DOI Listing
November 2012

Obesity in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome: influence of appetite-regulating hormones.

Pediatr Nephrol 2012 Nov 5;27(11):2065-2071. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Department of Paediatrics II, Paediatric Nephrology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology and Transplant Medicine, Children's Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetic disorder with obesity as one of the major phenotypic criterion, which is proposed to be of neuroendocrine origin. Therefore, disturbances in appetite-regulating hormones have been considered as causative factors. Acyl ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone, whereas its desacylated form, obestatin, and leptin have the opposite functions. Ghrelin is negatively regulated in relation to nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormone alterations on obesity development in BBS patients.

Methods: Total and acylated ghrelin, obestatin, leptin and adiponectin were measured in eight children with BBS. The results were analyzed in relation to auxological parameters [body mass index (BMI), height].

Results: The mean BMI was significantly increased in BBS patients compared to the controls. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, total ghrelin and obestatin were slightly elevated in BBS patients compared to controls, as was the acyl/total ghrelin ratio. Leptin levels were significantly elevated in BBS patients.

Conclusion: BBS patients lack the negative regulatory mechanisms of appetite-regulating hormones with respect to nutritional status and exhibit resistance to anorexigenic leptin. This results in a shift towards the orexigenic effects of this self-regulating system. These alterations may in part be responsible for the disturbed appetite regulation in BBS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-012-2220-yDOI Listing
November 2012

Quantitative real-time ARMS-qPCR for mitochondrial DNA enables accurate detection of microchimerism in renal transplant recipients.

Pediatr Transplant 2011 Dec 4;15(8):809-18. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Department of Pediatrics II, Children's Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

The presence of microchimerism in peripheral blood of solid organ transplant recipients has been postulated to be beneficial for allograft acceptance. Kinetics of donor cell trafficking and accumulation in pediatric allograft recipients are largely unknown. In this study, we implemented SNPs of the HVRs I and II of mitochondrial DNA to serve as molecular genetic markers to detect donor-specific cell chimerism after pediatric renal transplantation. Serial dilution of artificial chimeric DNA samples showed a linear correlation coefficient of R > 0.98 and a detection sensitivity of 0.01% with high reproducibility. Longitudinal semiquantitative analysis of donor-specific SNPs was then performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells samples up to two yr post-transplant. Quantity of donor-specific cell chimerism in peripheral blood was highest in the early post-transplant period reaching values of ~10% after liver-kidney and 2.8% after renal transplantation. From one wk after transplantation, renal transplant patients exhibited an amount of donor-specific mtDNA ranging from 0.01% to 0.1%. We developed a highly accurate, sensitive, and rapid real-time quantitative PCR method using sequence-specific primers and fluorescent hydrolysis probes for the detection of at least 0.01% donor-specific cells in the recipient's peripheral blood after renal transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01581.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Cardiac geometry in children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis: findings from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) registry.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011 Aug 7;6(8):1926-33. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

Gazi University Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Besevler, Ankara, 06500 Turkey.

Background And Objectives: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor and an intermediate end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular comorbidity. We utilized a global pediatric registry to assess the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of LVH as well as its evolution in the longitudinal follow-up in dialyzed children.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Cross-sectional echocardiographic, clinical, and biochemical data were evaluated in 507 children on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and longitudinal data were evaluated in 128 patients. The 95(th) percentile of LV mass index relative to height age was used to define LVH.

Results: The overall LVH prevalence was 48.1%. In the prospective analysis, the incidence of LVH developing de novo in patients with normal baseline LV mass was 29%, and the incidence of regression from LVH to normal LV mass 40% per year on PD. Transformation to and regression from concentric LV geometry occurred in 36% and 28% of the patients, respectively. Hypertension, high body mass index, use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, renal disease other than hypo/dysplasia, and hyperparathyroidism were identified as independent predictors of LVH. The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists and high total fluid output (sum of urine and ultrafiltration) were protective from concentric geometry. The risk of LVH at 1 year was increased by higher systolic BP standard deviation score and reduced in children with renal hypo/dysplasia.

Conclusions: Using height-adjusted left ventricular mass index reference data, LVH is highly prevalent but less common than previously diagnosed in children on PD. Renal hypo/dysplasia is protective from LVH, likely because of lower BP and polyuria. Hypertension, fluid overload, and hyperparathyroidism are modifiable determinants of LVH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.05990710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3359542PMC
August 2011

Donor and recipient ACE I/D genotype are associated with loss of renal function in children following renal transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2011 Mar;15(2):214-20

University of Duisburg-Essen, Children's Hospital, Pediatrics II, Essen, Germany.

Genetic polymorphisms of the RAS correlate with allograft function. We therefore analyzed common RAS polymorphisms in kidney donors and in children following RTx to determine the relationship between genotype and decline in GFR, blood pressure, and LVM. A total of 107 children who underwent RTx were included: 70 male, 37 female, mean age 8.8±4.9 yr, mean follow up 5.4 yr. The following RAS polymorphisms were studied in all 107 recipients, 48 donors, and 120 healthy controls: Renin (Renin Mbol 18G/A), ACE I/D; angiotensinogen (AGT M235T), and angiotensin II receptor type-1 (AT1R A1166C). Only patients homozygous for the ACE D allele had a significantly steeper decline in GFR compared with homozygous carriers of the ACE I allele (slope DD: -4.3±0.8 vs. II: -1.3±1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 per yr; p=0.035). In four cases, a DD recipient received a kidney from a DD donor, and these patients showed a more pronounced decline in GFR (-5.2±0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 per yr; p=0.002). MABP was not different before vs. after RTx and was independent of ACE I/D genotype. LVMI increased significantly in the majority of patients (36.6±13.9 g/m2.7 six months before RTx vs. 46.4±15.3 g/m2.7 12 months after RTx, p=0.015). However, this difference disappeared after stratification by ACE I/D genotype. The ACE DD genotype is a potential marker for identifying patients at high risk of poor allograft outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3046.2010.01449.xDOI Listing
March 2011

Immunosuppression and renal outcome in congenital and pediatric steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010 Nov 26;5(11):2075-84. Epub 2010 Aug 26.

Pediatric Nephrology, Pediatrics II, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Mutations in podocyte genes are associated with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), mostly affecting younger age groups. To date, it is unclear whether these patients benefit from intensified immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (CsA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of podocyte gene defects in congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) and pediatric SRNS on the efficacy of CsA therapy and preservation of renal function.

Design, Settings, Participants, & Measurements: Genotyping was performed in 91 CNS/SRNS patients, irrespective of age at manifestation or response to CsA.

Results: Mutations were identified in 52% of families (11 NPHS1, 17 NPHS2, 11 WT1, 1 LAMB2, 3 TRPC6). Sixty-eight percent of patients with nongenetic SRNS responded to CsA, most of them achieved complete remission. In contrast, none of the patients with genetic CNS/SRNS experienced a complete remission and only two (17%) achieved a partial response, both affected by a WT1 mutation. Preservation of renal function was significantly better in children with nongenetic disease after a mean follow-up time of 8.6 years (ESRD in 29% versus 71%).

Conclusions: The mutation detection rate in our population was high (52%). Most patients with genetic CNS/SRNS did not benefit from CsA with significantly lower response rates compared with nongenetic patients and showed rapid progression to end-stage renal failure. These data strongly support the idea not to expose CNS/SRNS patients with inherited defects related to podocyte function to intensified immunosuppression with CsA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01190210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001773PMC
November 2010